Lit. "The Reptile of the Earth." A monster who shall arise in the last day, and shall cry unto the people of the earth that mankind have not believed in the revelations of God (vide Qur'an, Surah xxvii. 84): "And when sentence falls upon them we will bring forth a beast out of the earth, that shall speak to them and say, 'Men of our signs would not be sure.'" According to the Traditions he will be the third sign of the coming resurrection, and will come forth from the mountain of Sufah. (Mishkat, xxiii. c. iv.) Both Sale and Rodwell have confounded the Dabbatu 'l-Arz with the Al-Jassasah, the spy, mentioned in a tradition by Fatimah (Mishkat, xxiii. c. iv.), and which is held to be a demon now in existence. [AL-JASSASAH.] For a description of the Dabbah, see the article on the RESURRECTION.
DABUR "The West wind." A term used by the Sufis to express the lust of the flesh, and its overwhelming power in the heart of man. (Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Suf I Terms.)
DAHHA Plural of the Persian ten. The ten days of the Muharram during which public mourning for 'Ali and his sons is observed by Shi'ah Muhammadans (Wilson's Glossary of Indian Terms.)
AD-DAHR "A long space of time." A title given to the LXXVIth Chapter of the Qur'an; called also Silratu 'Insan, "The chapter of Man." The title is taken from the first verse of the chapter: "Did not there pass over man a long space of time?"
One who believes in the eternity of matter, and asserts that the duration of this world is from eternity, and denies the Day of Resurrection and Judgement; an Atheist (Ghiyasu 'l-I-ghat, in loco.)
DAIN A debt contracted with some definite term fixed for repayments, as distinguished from qarz, which is used for a loan given without any fixed term for repayment. [DEBT.]
DAJJAL Lit. "false, lying." The name given in the Hadis to certain religious imposters who shall appear in the world; a term equivalent to our use of the word Antichrist. Muhammad is related to have said there would be about thirty.
The Masihu 'd-Dajjal, or "the lying Christ," it is said, will be the last of the Dajjals, for an account of whom refer to the article on MASIHU 'D-DAJJAL.
DALIL "An argument; a proof." Dalil burhani, "a convincing argument." Dalil qat'i, "a decisive proof."
DAMASCUS. Arabic Dimashq According to Jalilu 'd-din Suyuti, Damascus is the second sacred city in Syria, Jerusalem being the first; and some have thought it must be the "Iram of the columns" mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah lxxxix. 6, although this is not the view of most Muslim writers. [IRAM] Damascus is not mentioned in the Qur'an. With regard to the date of the erection of the city, Muhammadan historians differ. Some say it was built by a slave named Dimashq, who belonged to Abraham, having been given to the patriarch by Nimrod; others say Dimashq was a slave belonging to Alexander the Great, and that the city was built in his day.
Damascus was taken by Khalid in the reign of the Khalifah 'Umar, A.H. 13. and it became the capital of the Umaiyade Khalifahs under Mu'awiyah, A.H. 41, and remained the chief city of Islam until the fall of that
dynasty, A.H 132, when the Abbassides moved their capital first to al-Kufah, and the to Bagdad.
The great mosque at Damascus was erected by 'Abdu 'l Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Khalifah of the Umaiyades. It was commenced A.H. 86 and finished in ten years, being erected on the ruins of an ancients Greek temple and of a Christian church.
The great mosque at Damascus was erected by 'Abdu 'l Malik ibn Marwan, the fifth Khalifah of the Umaiyades. It was commenced A.H. 86 and finished in ten years, being erected on the ruins of an ancient Greek temple and of a Christian church.,
The account, as given by Jalain d-din Suyuti, in his History of the Temple of Jerusalem is curious and interesting, showing that for a time the Muslims and Christians worshiped in the same building together.
Here (in Damascus) all the servants of God joined and built a church to worship God in. Some say, however, that this church was built by the Greeks; for Abdu'llah Ibn Abbas, having marched against Damascus and besieged it, demolished the walls, after he had entered the city by storm. Then there fell down a stone, having certain letters inscribed thereon in the Greek language. They therefore sent to bring a certain monk who could read Greek; but he said, 'Bring me in pitch the impression of the letters on the stone, which he found to be as follows: 'Woe unto thee, mother of shame! Pious is he who inflicts upon thee with usury the ill which God designs for thee in retribution. Woe unto thee from five eyes, who shall destroy thy wall after four thousand years.' Now, 'Abdu'llah's entire name was 'Abdu'llah Ibn 'Abdi 'Ilah Ibn 'Abbas Ibn 'Abdu 'l-Muqallib.
Again, the historian Ibn Isahir says: When God had granted unto the Muslims the possession, as conquerors of the whole of Syria. He granted them among other cities that of Damascus with its dependencies. Thus God sent down His mercy upon them, and the commander in chief of the army (besieging Damascus), who was either Abu Ubaidah or, as some say, Khalid Ibn al-Walid, wrote a treaty of capitulation and articles of surrender. By these he settled and appointed fourteen churches to remain in the hands of the Muslims. The church of which we have spoken above was left open and free for future consideration. This was on the plea that Khalid had entered the city at the sword's point by the eastern gate; but that the Christians at the same time were allowed to surrender by Abu Ubaidah, who entered at the western gate, opened under articles. This caused dissension; but at length it was agreed that half the place should be regarded as having capitulated and half as stormed.
"The Muslims therefore took this church and Abu 'Ubaidah made it into a mosque. He was afterwards appointed the Emir of Syria, and was the first who prayed here, all the company of the Companions praying after him in the open area now called the Companion's Tower; but the wall must then have been cut through, hard by the leaning tower, if the Companions really prayed in the 'blessed precinct'. At first, the Christians and Muslims entered by the same gate, which was 'the gate of Adoration and Prayer', over against the Qiblah, where the great tower now stands. Afterwards the Christians changed and went into their church by the gate facing the west; the Muslims taking the right-hand mosque. But the Christians were not suffered to chant aloud, or recite their books or strike their bells (or clappers), in order to hounour the Companions with reverence and fear. Also, Mu'awiyah built in his days a house for the Amir, right opposite the mosque. Here he built a green chapel. This palace was noted for its perfection. Here Mu'awiyah dwelt forty years: nor did this state of things change from A.H. 14 to A.H. 88. But Al-Walid Ibn 'Abdu 'l-Malik began to think of destroying the churches, and of adding some to those already in the hands of the Muslims, so as to construct one great mosque; and this because some of the Muslims were sore troubled by hearing the recitations of the Christians from the Gospel and their uplifted voices in prayer. He designed, therefore, to remove them from the Muslims and to annex this spot to the other, so as to make one great mosque. Therefore he called for the Christians, and asked them whether they would depart from those places which were in their hands, receiving in exchange greater portions in lieu thereof; and also retaining four churches not mentioned in the treaty - the Church of Maria, the Church of the Crucified, just within the eastern gate, the Church Talla 'l-Habu, and the Church of the Glorious Mother, occupied previously by the burnishers. This, however, they vehemently refused to do. Thereupon the Khalifah said, 'Bring me then the treaty which you possess since the time of the Companions.' They brought it, therefore, and it was read in al-Walid's presence; when lo! The Church of Thomas, outside the gate of Thomas, hard by the river, did not enter into the treaty, and was one of those called 'the greater of churches left open' (for future disposal). 'There,' he said, 'this will I destroy and convert it into a mosque.' They said, 'Nay, let it alone, O commander of the Faithful, even although not mentioned among the churches, for we are content that you take the chapel of the church.' To this agreement, then he held them, and received from them the Qubbah (or chapel vault, dome) of the church. Then he summoned workmen able to pull down, and assembled all the amirs, chiefs, and great men. But the Christian bishops and priests coming said, 'O commander of the Faithful, we find in our books that whosoever shall demolish this church will go mad.' Then said the Khalifah, 'And I am very willing to be mad with God's inspiration: therefore no one shall demolish it before me.' Then he ascended the western tower, which had two spires, and contained a monastic cell. Here he found a monk, whom he ordered to descend. The monk making difficulties, and lingering, al-Walid took him by the back of his neck, and ceased not pushing him until he had thrown him down stairs. Then he ascended to the most lofty spot in the church above the great altar called 'the Altar of
The Martyrs.' Here he seized the ends of his sash, which was of a bright yellow colour and fixed them into his belt. Taking, then, an axe into his hand, he struck against the very topmost stone, and brought it down. Then he called the amirs, and desired them to pull down the building as quickly as possible. Hereupon all the Muslims shouted, 'God is great!' three times; also the Christians cried out with their wailing and woe upon the steps of Jairun, where they had assembled. Al-Walid therefore desired the commander of his guard to inflict blows upon them until they should depart which he did. The Muslims then demolished all that the Christians had built on the great square here - altars and buildings and cloisters - until the whole square was one flat surface. He then resolved to build a splendid pile, unrivaled for beauty of architecture, which none could hereafter surpass. Al-Walid therefore commissioned the most eminent architects and mathematicians to build the mosque, according to the model they most preferred. His brother chiefly moved and stirred him up to this undertaking and next to him presided Sulaman 'Abdu 'l-Malik. It is said that al-Walid sent to the king of Greece to demand stonemasons and other workmen for the purpose of building this mosque in the way he desired, sending word that if the king refused, he would overrun his territory with his army, and reduce to utter ruin every church in his dominion, even the Church of Holy City and the Church of Edessa, And utterly destroy every vestige of the Greeks still remaining. The king of Greece sent, therefore, numerous workmen, with a letter, expressing himself thus: 'If thy father knoweth what thou doest, and permits it, then truly I accuse him of disgraceful conduct and blame him more than thee. If he understandeth it not, but thou only art conscious, then I believe thee above him.' When the letter came to al-Walid, he wished to reply unto it and assembled several persons for consultation. One of these was a well known poet who said 'I will answer him, O Commander of the Faithful and of the Book of God.' So said al-Walid 'Where then is that answer?' He replied this verse, 'David and Solomon lo! They a right to the cornfield, a right to the place where the people are shearing their sheep. Also, we are witnesses of their decree for Solomon hath given us to understand it and both (David and Solomon) have come to us as judges and learned men. Al-Walid with this reply, caused great surpirse to the king of Greece. Al-Firsuk alludes to this in these verses: -
"I have made a separation between the Christians and their churches, and between the people who shine and those who are in darkness."
I neglected for a season thus to apportion their happiness, I being a procrastinating vindicator of their grievances."
Thy Lord hath made thee to resolve upon removing their churches from those mosques wherein good words are recited."
The is no god but God. He has no partner. We will never adore any but our Lord, the one God. Our faith is Islam, and our Prophet is Muhammad. This mosque was built, and the churches which stood on the site of the chapel were demolished by order of the servant of God, the Commander of the Faithful, al-Walid Ibn 'Abdu 'l-Malik Ibn Marwan, in the month Zu 'l-Qa'dah, A.H. 86.' Upon another tablet was inscribed the whole of the first chapter of the Qur'an. Here also were depicted the stars, then the morning twilight, then the spiral course of the sun, then the way of living which obtained after the arrival of the Faithful of Damascus. Also, it is said, that all the floor of this mosque was divided into small slabs, and that the stone (carving) of the walls extended to the upmost pinnacle. Above was a great golden vine, and above this were splendid enameled knobs of green, red, blue, and white, whereby were figured and expressed all countries and regions, especially the Ka'bah, above the lower; also all the countries to the right and left (of Makkah), and all the most beautiful shrubs and trees of every region, famous either for their fruits or flowers. The roof had cornices of gold and silver, which branched off into seven separate lights. In the tower of the Companions were two stones - beryls (some say they were the jewels called pearls); they were called 'The Little Ones'. When the candles were put out, they inflamed the eyes by their brilliant light. In the time of al-Amin Ibn ar-Rashid, Sulaiman, captain of the guard, was sent by the Khalifah to Damascus to steal those stones and bring them to him; which he did. When al-Ma'mun discovered this, he sent them to Damascus, as a proof of his brother's misconduct. They afterwards again vanished, and in their place is a glass vessel. In this mosque all the gates from the dome ( gallery) unto the entrance, are open, and have no bars or locks. Over each is a loose curtain. In like manner there is a curtain upon all the walls as far as the bases of the golden vino, above which are the enameled knobs. The capitals of the pillars were thickly covered with dead gilding. Here were also small galleries, to look down from, enclosed on the four sides of the skirting wall. Al-Walid also built the northern minaret, now called the 'Bridegroom's Tower.' As to the western gallery, that existed many ages before, in each corner of this was a cell, raised upon very lofty walls, and used by the Greeks as an observatory. The two northern of these fell, and the two opposite remained. In the year 740, part of the eastern had been burnt. It then fell down, but was built up anew out of the Christian's money, because they had meditated the destruction (of it) by fire. It then was restored after a most beautiful plan. This is the tower (but God knows) upon which Jesus the son of Maria will alight, for Muhammad is reported to have said, 'I saw Jesus son of Maria come forth from near the
white minaret, east of the mosque, placing his hands upon the wings of two angels, firmly bound to him. Upon him was the Divine glory (the Schechinah). He was marked by the red tinge of baptism. This is the mark of original sin. Jesus, (it is also said) shall come forth from the White Tower by the eastern gate, and shall enter the mosque. Then shall the word come forth for Jesus to fight with Antichrist at the corner of the city, as long as it shall please God. Now, when this mosque (the slave's mosque) was completed there was not to be found upon the face of the earth a building more beautiful, more splendid, more graceful, than this. On whatever side, or area, or place, the spectator looked, he still thought that side or spot the most preferable for beauty. In this mosque were certain talismans, placed therein since the time of the Greeks; so that no venomous or stinging creature could by any means obtain entrance into the enclosure, neither serpent, scorpion, beetle, nor spider. They say also, that neither sparrows nor pigeons built their nests there, nor was anything to be found there which could annoy people. Most, or all, of those talismans were burnt by the fire that consumed the mosque, which fire took place in the night of Sha'ban, A.H. 461. Al-Walid frequently prayed in the mosque. One night (it is related) he siad to his people, 'I wish to pray to-night in the mosque; let no one remain there whilst I pray therein.' So when he came unto the gate of the Two Moments he desired the gate to be opened, and entering in, he saw a man standing between the gate of the Two Moments and the gate of St. George, praying. He was nearer to the gate of St. George than to the other. So the Khalifah said unto his people, 'Did I not charge you that no one should remain whilst I was praying in the mosque?' The one of them said. O Commander of the faithful! This is St. George who prays every night in the mosque. Again, one prayer in this mosque equals thirty thousand prayers.
"Again, A certain man, going out of the gate of the mosque which is near the Jairun met K'ab the scribe, who said 'Whither bound?' He replied 'To the Baitu 'l-Muqadda, therein to pray.' The said K'ab, 'I will show you a spot wherein whosoever prayeth shall receive the same blessings as if he prayed in the Bait 'l-Muqaddas.' The man, therefore, went with him. Then K'ab showed him the space between the little gate from whence you go to Abyssinia, that is the space covered by the arch of the gate, containing about one hundred yards to the west and said, 'Whosos prayeth within these two points shall be regarded as praying within the Baitu 'l-Muaqaddas.' Now, this spot is said to be a spot fit to be sought by pilgrims. Here, it is asserted, is the head of John, son of Zacharias (Peace be with him!). For al-Walid Ibn Muslim being desired to show where John's head was to be found, pointed with his hand to the plastered pillr - the fourth from the east corner. Zaid Ibn Wakad says, ' At the time it was proposed to build the mosque of Damascus I saw the head of John, so of Zacharias, brought forth from underneath one of the corners of the chapel. The hair of the head was unchanged.' He says in another place. Being nominated by al-Walid superintendent of the building, we found a caye, of which we informed al-Walid. He came, therefore, unto us at night, with a wax taper in his hand. Upon descending we found an elaborately carved little shrine, three withing three (i.e. within the first a second, within the second a third). Withing this last was a sarcophagus, and within this a casket; withing which was the head of John son of Zacharias. Over the casket was written "Here is the head of John son of Zacharias. Peace be with him!" By al-Walid's command we restored the head to the spot whence it had been taken. The pillars which are above this spot are inclined obliquely to the others to distinguish the place. There is also over it a pillar with a head in plaster. He asserts again, that when the happy event occurred of the conquest of Damascus, a certain person went up the stairs which led to the church, then standing where the mosque now stands. Here the blood of John, son of Zacharias was seen to flow in torrents and to boil up, nor did the blood sink down and become still until that seventy thousand had been slain over him. The spot where the head was found is now called al-Sakasak (perhaps, the Nail of the Narrow Cave).
"In the days of 'Umar, the Christian requested that he would confirm their claim to the right of meeting in those places which al-Walid had taken from them and converted into mosques. They, therefore, claimed the whole inner area as their own from 'Umar. The latter thought it right to restore them what al-Walid had taken from them, but examination he found that the churches without the suburbs were not comprehended in the articles of surrender by the Companions, such, for example as the great Church of the Monastery of Observants or Carmelites, the Church of the Convent behind the Church of St. Thomas, and all the churches of the neighboring villages. 'Umar therefore gave them the choice, either to restore them the churches they demanded, demolishing in that case all the other churches, or to leave those churches unmolested, and to receive from them a full consent to the free use of the open space by the Muslims. To this latter proposal they, after three days deliberation, agreed; and proper writings were drawn up on both sides. They gave the Muslims a deed of grant, and 'Umar gave them full security and assurance of protection. Nothing was to be compared to this mosque. It is said to be compared to this mosque. It is said to be one of the strongholds of Paradise, and that no inhabitant of Damascus would long for Paradise when he looks upon his beautiful mosque. Al-Ma'mun came to Damascus in company with his brother al-Mu'tasim, and the Qazi Yahya Ibn Aksm. Whilst viewing the mosque he said, "What is
the most wondrous sight here?' His brother said, 'These offerings and pledges.' The Qazi said, 'The marble and the columns.' Then said al-Ma'mun, 'The most wondrous thing to me is whether any other could be built at all like this." (Hist. Temple of Jerusalem, by Jalalu 'd-din, translated by Reynolds, p. 407.)
DANCING. Arabic Raqs. Dancing is generally held to be unlawful, although it does not appear to be forbidden in either the Qur'an or the Traditions, but according to al Bukhari (Arabic ed., p. 135), the Prophet expressly permitted it on the day of the great festival. Those who hold it to be unlawful quote the following verse from the Qur'an Surah xvii 39 "Walk not proudly on the earth," as a prohibition, although it does not seen to refer to the subject.
The Sufis make dancing a religious exercise, but the Sunni Muslims consider it unlawful. (Hidayatu 's-Sa'il, p. 107.)
DANIEL. Arabic Daniyal. A prophet celebrated amongst Muhammedans as an interpreter of dreams. He is not mentioned in either the Qur'an or the Traditions, but in the Qasusu 'l-Anbiya, p. 231, it is stated that the reign of Bukhtu Nassar (Nebuchandnezzer) he was imprisoned; and when he was in prison, the king had a dream which he had forgotten, and hearing that Daniel was an interpreter of dreams, he sent for him. When Daniel was in the presence of the King, he refused to prostrate saying it is lawful to prostrate alone to the Lord Almighty. For this he nearly lost his life but was spared to interpret the king's dream which was as follows: "He saw a great idol the head of which was gold, above the navel of silver, below the navel of copper, the legs of iron, and the feet of clay. And suddenly a stone fell from heaven upon the idol, and ground it to powder, and mixed all the substances, so that the wind blew them in all directions; but the stone grew gradually, and to such an extent that it covered the whole earth." The interpretation of it, as given by Daniel is said to be this: The idol represented different nations; the gold was the kingdom of Nebuchadnezzar, the silver the kingdom of his son, the copper the Romans, the iron the Persians, and the clay the tribe Zauzan, from which the kings of Persia and Rome should be desconded; the great stone being a religion which should spread itself over the whole earth in the last day.
DAR. . "A house, dwelling, habitation, land, country." A word which is used in various combinations, e.g.:
|ad-Dar||The abode - the city of al-Madinah.|
|ad-Darain||The two abodes - this world and the next.|
|Daru 'l-adab||A seat of learning; a university.|
|Daru 'l-baqa'||The abode which remaineth - heaven.|
|Daru 'l-fana||The abode which passeth away - earth.|
|Daru 'l-ghurur||The abode of delusion - the world.|
|Daru 'l-huzn||The vale of tears -the earth.|
|Daru 'l-ibtila||The abode of temptation - the world.|
|Daru 'l-khilafah||The seat of the Imam or Khalifah - capital.|
|Daru 'l kutub||A library.|
|Daru 'l-khuld||The home of eternity - Paradise.|
|ad Daru 'n-na'im||The blessed abode - Paradise.|
|Daru 'l-qaza'||The Qazi's court.|
|Daru 'sh-shifa'||A hospital.|
|Daru 's-surur||The abode of joy - Paradise.|
|Daru 'z-zarb||A mint.|
|Daru 'z-ziyafah||A banqueting-room.|
[DARU 'L-BAWAR, DARU 'L-HARB, DARU 'L ISLAM, DARU 'L-QARAR, DARU S' SALAM, DARU 'S-SALTANAH, DARU 'S-SAWAR]
DARGAH. . A royal court (Persian). In India it is a term used for a Muhammedan shrine or tomb of some reputed holy person, and which is the object of pilgrimage and adoration. (Wilson's Glossary of Indian Terms.)
DARU 'L-BAWAR. Lit. "The abode of perdition." A term used for hell in the Qur'an, Surah xic 33, "And have made their people to alight at the abode of perdition."
DARU 'L-HARB. "The land of warfare." According to the Dictionary Ghiyasu 'l-Lughat Daru 'l-harb is "a country belonging to the infidels which has not been subdued by Islam." According to the Qamus, it is "a country in which peace has not been proclaimed between Muslims and unbelievers.
In the Fatawa Alamgiri, vol. ii. p. 854, it is written that a Daru 'l-harb becomes a Daru 'l-Islam on one condition, namely the promulgation of the edicts of Islam. The Imam Muhammad, in his book called the Ziyadah, says a Daru 'l-Islam again becomes a Daru 'l-harb, according to Abu Hanifah, on three conditions, namely (1) That the edicts of the unbelievers be promulgated, and the edicts of Islam be suppressed; (2) That country in question be adjoining a Daru 'l-harb and no other Muslim country lie between them (that is, when the duty of Jihad or religious war becomes incumbent upon them, and they have not the power to carry it on). (3) That no protection (aman) remains for either a Muslim or a zimmi; viz. that amanu 'l-awwal, or that first protection which was given them when the country was first conquered by Islam. The Imams Yusuf and Muhammad both say that when the edicts of unbelievers are promulgated in a country, it is sufficient to constitute it a Daru 'l-harb.
In the Raddu 'l-Mukhtur, vol. iii. p. 391, it is stated, "If the edicts of Islam remain in force, together when the edicts of the believers, then the country cannot be said to be
a Daru 'l-harb. The important question as to whether a country in the position of Hindustan may be considered a Daru 'l-Islam or a Daru 'l-harb has been fully discussed by Dr. W. W. Hunter of the Bengal Civil Service, in his work entitles Indian Musulmans which is the result of careful inquiry as to the necessary conditions of Jihad, or a Crescentade instituted at the time of the excitment which existed in India in 1870-71, in consequence of a Wahhabi conspiracy for the overthrow of Christian rule in that country. The whole matter, according to the Sunni Mussalmans, hinges upon the question of whether India is Daru 'l-harb, "a land of warfare," or a Daru 'l-Islam, "a land of Islam".
The Muftis belonging to the Hanifi and Shafi'i sects at Makkah decided that, "as long as even some of the peculiar observances of Islam prevails in a country, it is Daru 'l-Islam."
The decision of the Mufti of the Maliki sect was very similar, being to the following effect. "A country does not become Daru 'l-harb as soon as it passes into the hands of the infidels, but when all or most of the injunctions of Islam disappear therefrom."
The law doctors of North India decided that, "the absence of protection and liberty to Musulmans is essential in a Jihad, or religious war, and also that there should be a probability of victory to the armies of Islam."
The Shiah decision on the subject was as follows: "A Jihad is lawful only when the armies of Islam are led by the rightful Imam, when arms and ammunitions of war and experienced warriors are ready, when it is against the enemies of God, when he who makes war is in possession of his reason, and when he has secured the permission of his parents, and has sufficient money to meet the expenses of his journey."
The Sunnis and Shi'ahs alike believe in the eventual triumph of Islam, when the whole world shall become followers of the Prophet of Arabia; but whilst the Sunnis are, of course, ready to undertake the accomplishment of this great end, "whenever there is a probability of victory of the Musulmans." The Shi'ahs, true to the one great principle of their sect, must wait unitl the appearance of the rightful Imam. [JIHAD.]
DARU 'L-ISLAM "Land of Islam." According to the Raddu 'l Mukhtar, vol. iii. p. 391, it is a country in which the edicts of Islam are fully promulgated.
In a state brought under Muslims, all those who do not embrace the faith are placed under certain disabilities. They can worship God according to their own customs provided they are not idolaters; but it must be done without any ostentation and whilst churches and synagogues may be repaired, no new place of worship can be erected. "The construction of churches and synagogues in Muslim territory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the Traditions; but if the places of worship belonging to Jews, or Christians, be destroyed, or fall into decay, they are at liberty to repair them because buildings cannot endure forever."
Idol temples must be destroyed, and idolatry suppressed by force in all countries ruled according to strict Muslim law. (Hidiyah, vol. ii. p. 219)
For further particulars, see article DARU 'L-HARB
DARU 'L-QARAR "The abode that abideth." An expression which occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xl 42: "O my people! This present life is only a passing joy, but the life to come is the mansion that abideth.
DARU 'S-SALAM "The abode of peace." An expression which occurs in the Qur'an, Surah vi 127: "For them is a dwelling of peace with their Lodr! And in recompense for their works shall He be their protector."
DARU 'S-SALTANAH "The seat of government." A terms given to the capital of a province or Muslim state.
DARU 'S-SAWAB "The house of recompense." A name given to the Jannatu 'Adu or Garden of Eden by the commentator al-Baizawi.
DARVESH, DARWISH A Persian word for a religious mendicant. A dervish. It is derived from the word dar "a door" , Lit one who goes from door to door. Amongst religious Muhammadans, the darvesh is called a faqir, which is the word generally used for religious mendicant orders in Arabic books. The subject is, therefore, considered in the article on FAQIR.
DAUGHTERS Arabic Bint, pl. Banat; Heb. Bath In the law of inheritance, the position of a daughter is secured by a verse in the Qur'an. Surah iv 12: "With regard to your children, God has commanded you to give the sons the portion of two daughters, more than two, then they shall have two-thirds of that which their father hath left, but if she be an only daughter she shall have the half.
The Sirajiyah explains the above as follows:
"Daughters begotten by the deceased take in three cases; half goes to one only, and two-thirds to two or more; and, if there be a son, the male has the share of two females, and he makes them residuaries. The son's daughters are like the daughters begotten by the deceased; and they may be in six cases: half goes to one only, and two-thirds to two or more, on failure of daughters begotten by the deceased; with a single daughter of the deceased, they have sixth completing (with the daughter's half) two-thirds: but, with two daughters of the deceased they have no share of the inheritance unless there be in an equal degree with, or in a lower page 71
degree than them, a boy, who makes them residuaries. As to the remainder between them, the male has the portion of two females; and all of the son's daughters are excluded by the son himself.
If the nab leaves three son's daughters, some of them in lower degrees than others, and three daughters of the son of another son, some of them in lower degrees than others, and three daughters of the son's son of another son, some of them in lower degrees that others, as in the following table, this is called the case of tashbih.
First set Second set Third set
Son Son Son
Son, daughter Son Son
Son, daughter Son, daughter Son
Son, daughter Son, daughter Son, daughter
Son, daughter Son, daughter Son daughter
"Here the eldest of the first line has none equal in degree with her; the middle one of the first line is equalled in degree by the eldest of the second, and the youngest of the first line is equalled by the middle one of the second, and by the eldest of the third line; the youngest of the second line is equalled by the middle one of the third line, and the youngest of the third son has no equal in degree. When thou hast comprehended this, then we say: the eldest of the first line has a moiety; the middle one of the first line has a sixth, together with her equal in degree, to make up two-thirds; and those in lower degrees never take anything unless there be a son with them, who makes them residuaries, both her who is equal to him in degree, and her who is above him, but who is not entitled to a share; those below him are excluded." (Ramsay's ed. As-Sirajiyah.)
The age of puberty, or majority, of a daughter is established by the usual signs of womanhood; but in the absence of these signs, according to Abu Hanifah, she is not of age until she is eighteen. But the two Imams, Muhammad and Yusuf fix the age at fifteen and with this opinion the Imam ash-Shafi'i agrees.
With regard to a daughter's freedom in a marriage contract, Shaikh Abdu 'l-Haqq in his commentary on the Traditions (vol iii p105) says, "All the learned doctors are agreed that a virgin daughter until she has arrived at the age of puberty, is entirely at the disposal of her father or lawful guardian, but that in the event of a woman having been left a widow after she has attained the age of puberty, she is entirely at liberty to marry whom she likes." There is, however, he says some difference of opinion as to the freedom of a girl who have not been married and has arrived at the age of puberty. Abu Hanifah rules that she is entirely free from the control of her guardian with regard to her marriage but ash-Shafi'i rules otherwise. Again, as regards a widow who is not of age. Abu Hanifah says she cannot marry without her guardian's permission but ash-Shafi'i says she is free.
According to the teaching of the Prophet "a virgin daughter gives her consent to marriage by silence." He also taught that a woman ripe in years shall have her consent asked, and if she remain silent her silence is consent, but if she do not consent, she shall not be forced." But this tradition is also to be compared with another, in which he said "There is no marriage without the permission of the guardians." (Mishkat, xiii c iv pt. 2) Hence the difference between the learned doctors on this subject.
The author of the Akhlaq-I-Jalali says it is not advisable to teach girls to read and write, and this is the general feeling amongst Muhammadans in all parts of the world, although it is considered right to enable prayers.
The father or guardian is to be blamed who does not marry his daughter at an early age, for Muhammad is related to have said, "It is written in the Book of Moses, that whosoever does not marry his daughter when she hath reached the age of twelve years is responsible for any sin she may commit."
The ancient Arabs used to call the angels the "daughters of God", and objected strongly as the Badawis do in the present day, to female offspring and they used to bury their infant daughters alive. These practices Muhammad reprobates in the Qur'an Surah xvi 59: "And they ascribe daughters unto God! Glory be to Him! But they desire them not for themselves. For when the birth of a daughter is announced, to any one of them dark shadows settle on his face, and he is sad; he hideth him from the people because of the ill tidings. Shall he keep it with disgrace, or bury it in the dust? Are not their judgements wrong?
Mr. Rodwell remarks on this verse: "Thus Rabbinism teaches that to be a woman is a great degradation. The modern Jew says in his Daily Prayers, fol. 5,6, "Blessed art thou, O Lord our God! Kings of the Universe! Who hath not made me a women."
DUMAH A fortified town held by the Christian chief Ukaidar, who was defeated by the Muslim general Khalid and by him converted to Muhammadanism, A.H. 9. But the mercenary character of Ukaidar's conversion led him to revolt after Muhammad's death. (Muir's Life of Mohamet, vol iv, p 191)
DAVID Arabic Dawud or Douud. A king of Israel and a Prophet to whom God revealed the Zabur, or Book of Psalms [ZABUR.] He has no special title or kalimah, as all Muslims are agreed that he was not a law-giver or the founder of a dispensation. The account of him in the Qur'an is exceedingly meagre. It is given as follows with the commentator's remarks in italics by Mr. Lane:-
"And God gave him (David) the kingship over the children of Israel, and wisdom, after the death of Samuel and Sauld, and they
[namely these two gifts] had not been given together to any one before him; and He taught his what He pleased, as the art of making coats of mail, and the language of birds. And were it not for God's repelling men, one by another, surely the earth had become corrupt by the predominance of the polytheists and the slaughter of the Muslims and the ruin of places of worship; but God is beneficent to the people, and hath repelled some by others." (Surah 11 227.)
Hath the story of the two opposing parties come unto thee, when they ascended over the walls of the oratory of David, having been presented going in unto him by the door, because of his being engaged in devotion? When they went in unto David, and he was frightened at them, they said, Fear not: we are two opposing parties. It is said that they were two parties of more than one each; and it is said that they were two individuals, angels, who came as two litigants, to admonish David, who had ninety-nine wives, and had desired the wife of a person who had none but her, and married her and taken her as his wife. [One of them said.] One of us hath wronged the other; therefore judge between us with truth and be not unjust, but direct us into the right way. Verily this my brother in religion had nine-and-ninety ewes, and I had one ewe; and he said, Make me her keeper. And he overcame me in the dispute. - And the other confessed him to have spoken truth. - [David.] said, Verily he hath wronged thee in demanding thy ewe to add her to his ewes; and verily many associates wrong one another except those who believe and do righteous deeds; and few indeed are they. - And the two angels said, ascending in their [proper or assumed] forms to heaven. The man hath passed sentence against himself. So David was admonished. And David perceived that We had tried him by his love of that woman; wherefore he asked pardon of his Lord, and fell down bowing himself (or prostrating himself), and repented. So We forgave him that; and verily for him [was ordained] a high rank with Us (that is an increase of good fortune in this world), and [there shall be for him] an excellent retreat in the world to come." (Surah xxxviii 20-24.)
"We compelled the mountains to glorify Us, with David, and the birds also, on his commanding them to do so, when he experienced languor; and We did this. And We taught him the art of making coats of mail (for before his time plates of metal were used) for among mankind in general, that they might defend you form your suffering in warring with your enemies in general. - Will ye then, O people of Mecca, be thankful for My favors, believing the apostles? (Surah xxi, 79, 80)
Sale observes that Yahya the commentator most rationally understands hereby the divine revelations which David received from God, and not the art of making coats of mail. - The cause of his applying himself to this art is thus related in the Mirau 'z-Zamin: - He used to go forth in disguise; and when he found any people who knew him not, he approached them and asked them respecting the conduct of David, and they praised him and prayed for him; but one day, as he was asking questions respecting himself as usual, God sent to him an angel in the form of a human being, who said, "An excellent man were David if he did not take from the public treasury." Whereupon the heart of David was contracted, and he begged of God to render him independent; so He made iron soft to him and it became in his hands as thread; and he used to sell a coat of mail for four thousand [pieces of money - whether gold or silver is not said], and with part of this he obtained food for himself, and part of this he obtained food for himself, and part he gave in alms, and with part he fed his family. Hence an excellent coat of mail is often called by the Arabs "Dawudi," i.e. "Davidean (See Lane's translation of The Thousand and One Nights, chap viii, note 5.)
David, it is said, divided his time regularly, setting apart one day for the series of God, another day for rendering justice to his people, another day for his own affairs.
DA'WA A claim in a lawsuit. A claim or demand. (See Hamilton's Hidayah, vol iii p 63.)
DA'WAH Lit. "A call, invocation (ie of God's help)." A term used to express a system of incantation which is held to be lawful by orthodox Muhammadans; whilst sibr, "magic", and kahanah, "fortune-telling", are said to be unlawful, the Prophet having forbidden both.
From the Muslim books it appears that Muhammad is believed to have sanctioned the use of spells and incantations, so long as the words used were only those of the names of God, or of the good angels, and of the good genii; although the more strict amongst them (the Wahhabis, for example) would say that only an invocation of God Himself was lawful - teaching which appears to be more in accordance with that of Muhammad, who is related to have said "There is nothing wrong in using spells so long as you do not associated anything with God." (Mishkat, xxi c I) It is therefore clearly lawful to use charms and amulets on which the name of God only inscribed, and to invoke the help of God by any ceremony, provided no one is associated with Him.
The science of da'wah has, however, been very much elaborated; and in many respects its teachers seem to have departed from the original teachings of their Prophet on the subject.
In India, the most popular work of da'wah is the Jawahiru 'l-Khamsah, by Shaikh Abu 'l-Muwayyid of Gujarat, A.H. 956, in which he says the science is used for the following purposes. (1) To establish friendship of enmity between two persons. (2) To cause the cure, or the sickness and death, of a person, (3) To secure the accomplishment of one's wishes, both temporal and spiritual. (4) To obtain defeat or victory in battle.
This book is largely made up of Hindu customs which, in India, have become part of Muhammadanism; but we shall endeavor to confine ourselves to a consideration of those sections which exhibit the so-called science as it exists in its relation to Islam.
In order to explain this occult science, we shall consider it under the following divisions:
1. The qualifications necessary for the 'amil or the person who practices it.
2. The tables required by the teacher, and their uses.
3. An explanation of the terms nisab, zakat, ushr, qufl, dawr, bazl, khat, and sari'u 'l-ijaoah, and their uses.
4. The methods employed for commanding the presence of the genii.
I. When anyone enters upon the study of the science, he must begin by paying the utmost attention to cleanliness. No dog, or cat, or any stranger, is allowed to enter his dwelling-place, and he must purify his house by burning wood-aloes, pastiles, and other sweet-scented perfumes. He must take the utmost care that his body is in no way defiled, and he must bathe and perform the legal ablutions constantly. A most important preparation for the exercise of the art is a forty-days fast (chulu), when he must sleep on a mat spread on the ground, sleep as little as possible, and not enter into general conversation. Exorcists not unfrequently repair to some cave or retired spot in order to undergo complete abstinence.
The diet of the exorcist must depend upon the kind of asma, or names of the God he intend to recite. If they are the asma u'l-jalaliyah, or "terrible attributes" of the Almighty, then he must refrain from the use of meat, fish, eggs, honey, and musk. If they are the asma'u 'l-jawaliyah, or "amiable attributes he must abstain from butter, curds, vinegar, salt, and ambergris. If he intends to recite both attributes, he must then abstain from such things as garlic, onions, and assafoetida.
It is also of the utmost importance that the exorcist should eat things which are lawful, always speak the truth, and not cherish a proud or haughty spirit. He should be careful not to make a display of his powers before the world, but treasure up in his bosom the knowledge of his acquirements. It is considered very dangerous to his own life for a novice to practice the science of exorcism.
II. Previous to reciting any of the names or attributes of God for the establishment of friendship or enmity in behalf of any person, it is necessary to ascertain the initials of his or her name in the Arabic alphabet, which letters are considered by exorcists to be connected with the twelve signs of the zodiac, the seven planets, and the four elements. The following tables, which are taken from the Jawahiru 'l-Khamsah, occur in a similar form, in all books on exorcism, give the above combinations together with the nature of the perfume to be burnt, and the names of the presiding genius and guardian angel. These tables may be considered the key to the whole science of exorcism.
Astrologers have determined the relative dispositions of the planets (kawakib) to be as follows: -
The four element (arba'ah 'anasir) stand in relation to each other as follows: -
As an illustration of the use of these tables, two persons, Akram and Rahimah contemplate a matrimonial alliance, and wish to know if it will be a happy union or otherwise.
The exorcist must first ascertain if the elements (arba'ah 'anasir), the signs of the zodiac (buruq), and the planets (kawakib), are amicable or inimicably disposed to each other in the cases of these two individuals, and also if there is a combination expressed in the ism or name of God connected with their initial letters.
In the present instance the initial letter of Akram is alif, and that of Rahimah, ra, and a reference to the foregoing tables will produce the following results: -
In considering this case, the exorcist will observed that there is a combination in the attributes of God, both belonging to the asma u 'l-jalaliyah, or terrible attributes. There is also a combination in the quality of the letters, both implying friendship. Their respective planets, Saturn and Mercury, show a combination of either mixed friendship and enmity, or, perhaps, indifference. The sign of the zodiac, the ram being a male, and that of the virgin of a hermaphrodite, show a possible alternation of friendship and enmity between the parties. The elements, fire and earth, being opposed, imply enmity. It therefore appears that there will be nothing against these two persons. Akram and Rahimah forming a matrimonial alliance, and that they may reasonably expect as much happiness from their union as usually falls to the lot of the human race. Should the good offices of the exorcist be requested, he will, by incantation, according to the table given, appeal to the aid of the genii Qayupush abd Rahush, and of the guardian angels, Israfil and Amwakil. The perfumes he will burn in his numerous recitals will be black shoes and rose-water, and so bring about a speedy increase in the happiness of the persons of Arkam and Rahimah!
III. As we have already explained, the incantations used by exorcists consist in the recital of either the names or the attributes of God, or of certain formulae which are given in books on the subject. In the Jawahiru 'l-Khamsah, there were many forms of incantation, but we select the following one to illustrate the subject: -
Subbanaka! La ilama illa anta! Rabba-kulli-shai'in! Wa warisahy! Was raziqahu! Wa ruhimaku!
Glory be to Thee! There is no deity but Thee! The Lord of All! And the Inheritor thereof! And the Provider thereof! And the Merciful thereon!
This incantation consists of forty-four letters, exclusive of vowel points, as is shown by the following table: -
After the exorcist has recited the formula the above number of times, he should, in order to make a reply more certain treble the nisab, making it 135,000, and then add 2,613, the value of the combined number of letters, making a total 137,613 recitals. The number of these recitals should be divided as nearly as possible in equal parts for each day's reading, provided it be completed withing forty days. By a rehearsal of these, says our author, the mind of the exorcist becomes completely transported, and whether asleep or awake, he finds himself accompanied by spirits and genii jinn to the highest heavens and the lowest depths of earth. These spirits then reveal to him hidden mysteries, and render souls and spirits obedient to the will of the exorcist.
IV. If the exorcist wish to command the presence of genii in behalf of a certain person, it is generally supposed to be effected in the following manner. He must, first of all, shut himself up in a room and fast for forty days. He should besmear the chamber with red ochre, and, having purified himself, should sit on a small carpet, and proceed to call the genius of demon. He must, however, first find out that special genii are required to effect his purpose. If, for example, he is about to call in the aid of these spirits, in behalf of a person named Bahram he will find out, first, the special genii presiding over the name, the letters of which are, omitting the vowel points B H R A M. Upon reference to the table it will be seen that they are Danush, Hush, Rahush, Qayupush, and Majbush. He must then find out what are the special names of God, indicated by these letters, which we find in the table are al-Baqi "the Eternal", al-Hadi, "the Guide", ar-Rabb, "the Lord", Allah, "God", al-Malik, "the King". He must then ascertain the power of the letters, indicating the number of times for the recital, which will be thus: -
The exorcist should then, in order to call in the help of the genii, recite the following formula, not fewer than 24,8000 times: -
Ya Dannshu! For the sake of the Eternal One!
Ya Hushu! For the sake of the Guide!
Ya Rahushu! For the sake of the Lord!
Ya Qayupushu! For the sake of Allah!
Ya Majbushu! For the sake of the King!
The exorcist will perform this recital with his face turned towards the house of the object he wishes to affect, and burn the perfumes indicated according to the table for the letters of Bahram's name.
There are very many other methods of performing this exorcism, but the foregoing will suffice as a specimen of the kind of service.
DAY. The Muhammadan day commences at sun-set; our Thursday evening, for example being the beginning of the Muslim Friday. The Arabic Yaum denotes day in contradiction to the night (lail). The days of the week are as follows: -
Yaumu 'l-ahad, first day. Sunday.
Yaumu 'l-isnain, second day. Monday.
Yaumu 's-salsa, third day. Tuesday.
Yaumu 'l-arba, fourth day, Wednesday.
Yaumu 'l-khamis, Thursday.
Yaumu '-jam'ah, Day of Assembly, Friday.
Yaumu 's-sabt, Sabbath Day, Saturday.
Of the days of the week, Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, are esteemed good and auspicious; the others evil (Qanun-I-Islam), p. 043). Friday is the special day appointed by Muhammad for meeting in the chief mosque for public worship. [FRIDAY.]
DAY OF JUDGEMENT. [RESURRECTION.]
DEATH. Arabic Maut; Wafat. It is distinctly taught in the Qur'an that the hour of death is fixed for every living creature.
Surah xvi 63: "If God were to punish men for their wrong-doing. He would not leave on the earth a single living creature; but He respites them until a stated time; and when their time comes they cannot delay it an hour, nor can they hasten it."
Surah iii 182: "Every soul must taste death and ye shall only be paid your hire on the day of resurrection.
Surah l 17: "The agony of death shall come in truth, that is what thou didst shun."
In the Traditions, Muhammad has taught that it is sinful to wish for death: "Wish not for death, not even if thou art a doer of good works, for the peradventure thou mayest increase them with an increase of life. Nor even if thou art a sinner, for with increase of life thou mayest obtain God's pardon."
One day the Prophet said: "Whosoever loves to meet God, God will live to meet him, and whoever dislike to meet God. God will dislike to meet him." The 'Ayishah said "Truly we all dislike death and consider it a great affliction." The Prophet replied, "Thou dost not understand me. When death comes near a believer, then God gives him a spirit of resignation, and so it is that there is nothing which a believer like so much as death."
Al-Bara' ibn 'Azib, one of the Companions, says:-
"I came out with the Prophet at the funeral of one of the assistants, and we arrived just at the grave, before they had interred the body, and the Prophet sat down, and we sat around him with our heads down, and were so silent, that you might say that birds were sitting upon our heads. And there was a stick in the Prophet's hand with which he kept striking the ground. Then he raised his head and said twice or thrice to his companions 'Seek the protection of God from the punishments of the grave.' After that he said: 'Verily, when a Muslim separateth from the world and bringeth his soul to futurity, angels descend to him from the celestial regions, whose faces are white. You might say their faces are the sun and they have a shroud of the shrouds of paradise, and perfumes therefrom. So they sit apart from the deceased, as far as the eyes can see. After which the Angel of Death (Malaku 'l-Maut) comes to the deceased and sits at his head, and says, "O pure soul, come forth to God's pardon and pleasure." Then the soul comes out, issuing like water from a bag, and the Angel of Death takes it; and when he takes it, the angels do not allow it to remain in his hands for the twinkling of an eye. But when the Angel of Death has taken the soul of a servant of God, he resigns it to his assistants, in whose hands is a shroud, and they put it into the shroud and with the perfumes, when a fragrance issues from the soul like the smell of the best musk that is to be found on the face of the earth. Then the angels carry it upwards, and they do not pass by any concourse of angels who do not say, "What is this pure soul, and who is owner of it?" And they say, "Such a one, the son of such a one," calling him by the best names by which he was known in the world, till they reach the lowest region of heaven with him. And the angels ask the door to be opened for him, which is done. Then angels follow it through each heaven, the angel of one region to those of the next, and so on till it reaches the seventh heaven, where God says, "Write the name of My servant in 'Illiyun, and return him towards the earth, that is, to his body which is buried in the earth, because I have created man from earth and return him to it, and will bring him out from it again as I brought him out first." Then the souls are returned into their bodies, when two angels [MUNKAR and NAKIR] come to the dead man and cause him to sit up, and say to him "Who is thy Lord?" He replies, "My Lord is God." Then they say, "What is thy religion?" He says, "Islam." Then they say, "What is the man who is sent to you?" (ie the Prophet). He says, "He is the Prophet of God." Then they say, "What is your proof of his mission?" He says, "I read the book of God and believed in it, and I proved it to be true." Then a voice calls out from the celestial regions, "My servant hath spoken true, therefore throw for him a bed from Paradise, and dress him in clothes from Paradise, and open a door for him towards Paradise." Then peace and perfumes come for him from Paradise, and his grave is enlarged for him as far as the eye can see. Then a man with a beautiful face comes to him, elegantly dressed, and perfumed, and he says, "Be joyful in that which hath made thee so, this is the day which was promised thee." Then the dead person says to him, "Who art thou, for thy face is perfectly beautiful? And the man replies, "I am thy good deeds." Then the dead person cries out, "O Lord hasten the resurrection for my sake!"
"'But, continued the Prophet, 'when an infidel dies, and is about to pass from the world and bring his soul to futurity, black-faced angels come down to him and with the sackcloth. Then they sit from the dead as far as the eye can see, after which the Angel of Death comes in order to sit at his head and says, "O impure soul! Come forth to the wrath of God." Then the soul is disturbed in the infidel's body. Then the Angel of Death draws it out as a hot spit is drawn out of wet wool."
"'Then the Angel of Death takes the soul of the infidel, and having taken it, the angels do not allow it to remain with him the twinkling of an eye, but they take it in the sackcloth, and a disagreeable smell issues from the soul, like that of the most fetid carcass that can be met with upon the face of the earth. Then the angels carry it upwards and do not pass by any assembly of angels who do not ask whose filthy soul is this. They answer such an one, the son of such an one, and they mention him by the worst names that he bore in the world, till they arrive with it at the lowest heaven, and call the door to be opened, but it cannot be done.' Then the Prophet repeated this verse: - The doors of the celestial region shall not be opened for them, nor shall they enter into paradise till a camel passes through the eye of a needle.' Then God says, 'Write his history in Sijjin,' which is the lowest earth; then his soul is thrown down with violence. Afterwards the Prophet repeated this verse: - 'Unite no partner God, for whoever uniteth gods with God is like that which falleth from high, and the birds snatch it away, or the wind waiteth it to a distant place.' Then his soul is replaced in his body, and two angel [MUNKAR and NAKIR] come to him and set him up, and say, 'Who is thy Lord?' He says, 'Alas! Alas! I do not know.' Then they say, 'What is thy religion?' He says, 'Alas! Alas! I do not know.' And they say to him, 'What is the condition of the man who is sent down to you?' He says, 'Alas! Alas! I do not know.' Then a voice comes from above, saying, 'He lieth; therefore spread a bed of fire fro him and open a door for him towards hell.' Then the heat and hot winds of hell come to him, and his grave is made tight upon him, so as to squeeze his ribs. And a man with a hideous countenance comes to him shockingly dressed, of a vile smell, and he says, 'Be joyful in that which maketh thee miserable; this is the day that was promised thee.' Then the dead man says, 'Who art thou? Thy face is hideous, and brings wickedness.' He says, 'I am thy impure actions.' Then the dead person says, 'O Lord, delay the resurrection on my account!'"
The ceremonies attending the death of a Muslim are described as follows by Jafir Sharif in Herklot's Qanun-I-Islam, as follows: -
Four or five days previous to a sick man's approaching his dissolution, he makes his will in favor of his son or any other person, in the presence of two or more witnesses, and either delivers it to others or retains it by him. In it he likewise appoints his executor. When about to expire, any learned reader of the Qur'an is sent for, and requested to repeat with a loud voice the Surah Ya Sin (or chap xxxvi), in order that the spirit of the man, by the hearing of its sound, may experience an easy concentration. It is said that when the spirit was commanded to enter the body of Adam, the soul having looked into it once, observed that it was a bad and dark place, and unworthy of it presence! Then the Just and Most Holy God illuminated the body of Adam with "lams of light," and commanded the spirit to re-enter. It went in a second time, beheld the light, and saw the whole dwelling, and said "There is no pleasing sound here for me o listen to." It is generally understood from the best works of the mystics of the East, that it was owing to this circumstance that the Almighty created music. The holy spirit, on hearing the sound of this music became so delighted that it entered Adam's body. Commentators on the Qur'an, expositors of the Traditions and divines have written, that that sound resembled that produced by repeating of the Suratu Ya Sin; it is therefore advisable ro read at the hour of death this chapter for tranquillising the soul.
The Kalimatu 'sh-shahadah [CREED] is also read with an audible voice by those present. They do not require the patient to read it himself, as at such a time he is in a distressing situation, and not in a fit state of mind to repeat the Kalimah.
Most people lie insensible, and cannot even speak, but the pious retain their mental faculties and converse till the very last. The following is a most serious religious rule amongst us viz that if a person desire the patient to repeat the Kalimah, and the sick man expire without being able to do so, his faith is considered dubious; whilst the man who directed him so to do thereby incurs guilt. It is therefore best that the sitters by read it, in anticipation of the hope that the sick man, by hearing the sound of it, may brings it to his recollection and repeat it either aloud or in his own mind. In general, when a person is on the point of death, they pour sharbat, made of sugar and water, down his throat to facilitate the exit of the vital spark, and some procure the holy water of the Zamzam well at Makkah. The moment the spirit has fled, the mouth is closed; because, if left open, it would present a disagreeable spectacle. The two great toes are brought in contact and fastened together with a thin slip of cloth, to prevent the legs remaining apart. They burn perfumes near the corpse. Should the individual have died in the evening, the shrouding and burial take place before midnight; if he die at a later hour, or should the articles required not be procurable at that late hour, he is buried early on the following morning. The sooner the sepulchral rites are performed the better, for it is not proper to keep a corpse long in the house, and for this reason the Prophet said that
if he was a good man, the sooner he is buried the more quickly he will reach heaven; if a bad man, he should be speedily buried, in order that his unhappy lot may not all upon others in the house; as also that the relatives of the deceased may not, by holding the corpse, weep too much or go without food. There are male and female washers, whose province it is to wash and shroud the corpse for payment. Sometimes, however, the relatives do it themselves. In undertaking the operation of washing, they dig a hole in the earth to receive the water used in the process, and prevent its spreading over a large surface, as some men and women consider it bad to tread on such water. Then they place the corpse on a bed, country-cot, plank or straw. Some women, who are particular in these matters, are afraid even to venture near the place where the body has been washed. Having stripped the corpse and laid it on its back, with its head to the east and feet to the west, they cover it with a cloth - reaching, if it be a man, from the navel to the calves of the legs, if a woman, extending from the chest to the feet - and wash it with warm or with cold water. They raise the body and gently and rub the abdomen four or five times, then pour plenty of water, and wash off all the dirt and filth with soap &c, by means of flocks of cotton or cloth; after which, laying the body on the sides, they wash them; then the back, and the rest of the body; but gently, because, life having but just departed, the body is still warm and not insensible to pain. After this they wash and clean it well, so that no offensive smell may remain. They never throw water into the nostrils or mouth, but clean them with wicks of cloth or cotton. After that they perform wuzu for him ie they wash his mouth, the two upper extremities up to the elbows, make masah [MABAH.] on his head, and throw water on his feet; these latter constituting the four parts of the wuzu ceremony [ABLUTIONS.] They then put some camphor with water into a new large earthen pot, and with a new earthen pot they take out water and pour it three times, first from the head to the feet, then from the right shoulder to the feet, lastly from the left shoulder to the feet. Every time that a pot of water is poured the Kalimatu 'sh-shahadah is repeated either by the person washing or another. Having bathed the body and wiped it dry with a new piece of cloth, they put on the shroud. The shroud consists of three pieces of cloth, if for a man, and five if for a woman.
Those for men comprise, 1st, a lunig, or izar, reaching from the navel down to the knees, or ankle joints; 2nd, a qamis, or kurta, or alfa; its length is from the neck to the knees or ankles; 3rd, a lifafah, or sheet, from above the head to below the feet. Women have two additional pieces of cloth; one a siah-band, or breast-band, extending from the arm-pits to above the ankle-joints; the other a damni, which encircle the head once and has its two ends dangling on each side. The manner of shrouding is as follows: - having places the shouds on a new mat and fumigated them with the smoke of perfumes, the lifafah is spread first on the mat, over it the lungi, or izar, and above that the qamis and on the latter the sinah-band, if it be a woman; the damsi is kept separate and tied on afterwards. The corpse must be carefully brought by itself from the place where it was bathed, and laid in the shrouds. Surmah is to be applied to the eyes with a tent made of paper rolled up, with a ring, or with a pice, and camphor to seven places, viz on the forehead, including the nose, on the palms of the hands, on the knees and great toes, after which the different shrouds are to be properly put on one after another as the lay. The color of the shroud is to be white; no other is admissible. It is of no consequence, however, if a colored cloth is spread over the bier; which, after the funeral, or after the fortieth day, is given away to the faqir who resides in the burying-ground, or to any other person, in charity. Previous to shrouding the body, they tear shreds from the cloths for the purpose of tying them on; and after shrouding the body, they tie one band above the head, a second below the feet, and a third about the chest, leaving about six or seven fingers' breadth of cloth above the ends being fastened. Should the relict of the deceased be present, they undo the cloth of the head and show her face, and get her, in the presence of two witnesses, to remit the dowry which he had settled upon her; but it is preferable that she remit it while he is still alive. Should the wife, owing to journeying, be at a distance from him, she is to remit it on receiving the intelligence of his demise.
Should his mother be present, she likewise say, "The mild with which I suckled thee I freely bestow on thee"; but this is merely a custom in India; it is neither enjoined in books of theology nor by the law of Islam. Then they place on the corpse a flower-sheet or merely wreaths of flowers. [GRAVE, BURIAL.]
DEATH, EVIDENCE OF. The Muhammadan law admits of the evidence of death given in a court of justice being merely by report or hearsay. The reason of this is that death is an event of such a nature as to admit the privacy only of a few. But some have advanced that, in cases of death, the information of one man or woman is sufficient, "because death is not seen by many, since as it occasions horror, the sight of it is avoided."
If a person say he was present at the burial of another, this amounts to the same as an actual sight of his death. (Hidayah, vol iv p 678.)
DEBT. In Muhammadan law there are two words used for debt. Dain , or money borrowed with some fixed term of payment, and qarz , or money lent without any definite understanding as to
is repayment. Imprisonment for debt is allowed. (Hidayah, vol. ii, p. 624.)
Upon the decease of a debtor, the law demands that after the payment of the funeral expenses, his just debts must be paid before payment of legacies.
To engage in a Jihad or religious war, is said by Muhammad to remit every sin except that of being in debt. [JIHAD, DAIN, QARZ.]
DECORUM, or modesty of demeanor between the sexes, is strictly enjoined in Muslim law, and a special chapter is devoted to it in the Darru 'l-Mukhtar and other works on Muhammadan law.
A man is not allowed to look at a woman except at her hands and face, nor is he allowed to touch her. But a physician is permitted to exercise the duties of his profession without restriction.
A judge in the exercise of his office may look in the face of a woman, and witnesses are under the same necessity.
DECREES OF GOD, The. Arabic Qadar or Taqdir. [PREDESTINATION.]
DEEDS. Written deeds are, according to Muhammadan law, of three kinds: I. Mustabia-I-marum, or regular documents, such as are executed on paper, and have a regular title, superscription, &c, which are equivalent to oral declaration, whether the person is present or absent. II. Mustabin-I-ghair-I-marum, or irregular documents such as are not written on paper, but upon a wall or leaf of a tree, or upon paper without any title or superscription or signature. III. Ghair-I-mustabir, writings which are not documents in any sense, such as are delineated in the air or in the water by the notions of a dumb person.
DEFENDANT. Arabic mudda'a alaihi lit. "A claim upon him."
The author of the Hidayah (vol iii p 63) says a defendant is a person who, if he should wish to avoid the litigation, is compellable to sustain it. Some have defined a plaintiff, with respect to any article of property, to be a person who, from his being disseized of the said article, has not right to it but by the establishment of proof; and a defendant to be a person who has a plea of right to that article from his seizing or possession of it.
The Imam Muhammad has said that a defendant is a person who denies. This is correct; but it requires a skill and knowledge of jurisprudence to distinguish the denier in a suit, as the reality and not the appearance is efficient, and it frequently happen that a person is in appearance the plaintiff, whilst in reality he is the defendant. Thus, a trustee when he says to the owner of the deposit, "I have restored to you your deposit,' appears to be plaintiff, inasmuch as pleads the return of the deposit; yet in reality he is the defendant, since he denies the obligation of responsibility, and hence his assertion, corroborated by an oath, must be credited.
DELIBERATION (Arabic ta'anni ) is enjoined by Muhammad in the Traditions. He is related to have said, "Deliberations in your undertakings is pleasing to God, and hurry ('ajalah) is pleasing to the devil. "Deliberation is best in everything except in the things concerning eternity." (Halis-I-Tirmizi)
DELUGE The. Arabic Tufan . The story of the deluge is given by Muhammad in his Qur'an; to the Arabians as a "secret history, revealed to them (Surah xi 51). The following are the allusions to it in the Qur'an:-
Surah lxix 11: -
"When the Flood rose high, we have you in the Ark,"
"That we might make that event a warning to you, and that the retaining ear might retain it."
Surah liv 9: -
"Before them the people of Noah treated the truth as a lie, Our servant did they charge with falsehood, and said, 'Demoniac!' and he was rejected.
"Then cried he to his Lord, 'Verily, they prevail against me, come thou therefore to my succor."
"So we opened the gates of Heaven with water which fell in torrents."
"And we caused the earth to break forth with springs, and their waters met be settled decree."
"And we bare him on a vessel made with planks and nails."
"Under our eyes it floated on; a recompense to him who had been rejected with unbelief."
"And we left it a sign; but is there any one who receives the warning?"
"And how great was my vengeance and my menace!"
Surah xi 38: -
"And it was revealed unto Noah: 'Verily, none of they people shall believe, save they who have believed already; therefore be not thou grieved at their doings."
"But build the Ark under our eye and after our revelation; and plead not with me for the evil-doers, for they are to be drowned."
"So he built the Ark; and whenever the chiefs of his people passed by they laughed him to scorn; said he 'Though ye laugh at us, we truly shall laugh at you, ever as ye laugh at us; and in the end ye shall know."
"On whom a punishment shall come that shall shame him; and on whom shall light a lasting punishment."
Thus was it until our sentence came to pass, and the earth's surface boiled up. We said 'Carry into it one pair of every kind, and thy family, except him on whom sentence hath before been passed, and those who have believed.' But there believed nor with him except a few."
"And he said, Embark ye therein. In the name of God be its course and it riding
at anchor! Truly my Lord is right Gracious, Merciful.'
"And the Ark moved on with them amid wave like mountains; and Noah called to his son - for he was apart - 'Embark with us, O my child! And be not with the unbelievers.'"
"He said, 'I will betake me to a mountain that shall secure me from the water.' He said, 'None shall be secure this day from the decree of God, save him on whom He shall have mercy.' And a wave passed between them, and he was among the drowned."
"And it was said 'O Earth! Swallow up thy water'; and 'cease O Heaven!' And the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the Ark rested upon al-Judi; and it was said 'Avaunt! Ye tribe of the wicked!'
"And Noah called on his Lord and said, 'O Lord! Verily my son is of my family; and thy promise is true, and thou art the most just of judges."
"He said, 'O Noah! Verily, he is not of thy family; in this thou actest not aright. Ask not of me that whereof thou knowest nought; I warn thee that thou become not of the ignorant."
"He said 'To three verily, O my Lord, do I repair lest I ask that of thee wherein I have no knowledge; unless thou forgive me and be merciful to me I shall be one of the lost."
"It was said to him, 'O Noah! Debark with peace from Us, and with blessings on thee and on peoples from those who are with thee; but as for part, we will suffer them to enjoy themselves, but afterwards they shall suffer a grievous punishment from us to be inflicted."
"This is a secret history which we reveal to thee. Thou didst not know them, thou nor thy people before this."
DEMONS. [DEVILS, GENII.]
DEPORTMENT. Arabic 'ilmu 'l-mu'asharah Persian nishast u burkhasi. The Traditionists take some pains to explain the precise manner in which their Prophet walked, sat, slept, and rose, but their accounts are not always uniform and consistent. For example, whilst 'Abbad relates that he saw the Prophet sleeping on his back with one leg over the other, Jabir says the Prophet distinctly forbade it.
Modesty of deportment is enjoined in the Qur'an, Surah xvli 39: "Walk not proudlyon the earth," which the commentators say means that the believer is not to toss his head of his arms as he walks. Surah xxv 64:
The servants of the Merciful One are those who walk upon the earth lowly, and when the ignorant address them say 'Peace'!"
Faqii dani Muhammad As'ad, the author of the celebrated ethical work, the Akhlaq-I-Jalali, gives the following advice as regards general deportment: -
He should not hurry as he walks, for that is a sign of levity; neither should he be unreasonably tardy, for that is a token of dulness. Let him neither stalk like the overbearing nor agitate himself in the way of women and eunuchs; but constantly observe the middle course. Let him avoid going often backwards and forwards, for that betokens bewilderment; and holding his head downwards, for that indicated a mind overcome by sorrow and anxiety. In riding, no less, the same medium is to be observed. When hi sits, let him not extend his feet, nor put one upon another. He must never kneel except in deference to his king, his preceptor and his father, or other such person. Let him not rest his head on his knee or his hand, for that is a mark of dejection and indolence. Neither let him hold his neck awry, nor indulge in foolish tricks, such as playing with his fingers or other joints. Let him avoid twisting round or stretching himself. In spitting and blowing his nose, let him be careful that no one sees or hears him; that he blow it not towards the Qiblah, nor upon his hand, his skirt, or sleeve-lappet.
"When he enters an assembly, let his sit neither lower nor higher that his proper station. If he himself is the head of the party, he can sit as he likes, for his place must be the highest whereover it may be. If he has inadvertently taken a wrong place, let him exchange it for his own as soon as he discovers his mistake; should his own be occupied, he must return without disturbing others or annoying himself."
"In the presence of his male or female domestics, let him never bare anything but his hands and his face; the parts from his knee to his navel let him never expose at all; neither in public nor private, except on occasions of necessity for ablution and the like. (Vide Gen ix 20; Lev xvii,6 xx 11; Deut xxii 30.)
"He must not sleep in the presence of other persons, or lie on his back, particularly as the habit of snoring is thereby encouraged."
"Should sleep overpower him in the midst of a party, let him get up, if possible, or else dispel the drowsiness by relating some story, entering on some debate, and the like. But is he is with a set of persons who sleep themselves, let him either bear them company or leave them."
"The upshot of the whole is this: Let him so behave as not to incommode or disgust others; and should any of these observances appear troublesome, let him reflect, that to be formed to their contraries would be still more odious and still more unpleasant than any pains which their acquirement may cost him." Akhlaq-I-Jalali, Thompson's Translation, p 292)
DEPOSIT (Arabic wadi'ah pl. wadai'), in the language of the law, signifies a thing entrusted to the care of another. The proprietor of the thing is called mudi', or depositor; the person entrusted with it is muda', or trustee, and the property deposited is wadi'ah, which literally means the leaving of a thing with another.
According to the Hidayah, the following are the rules of Islam regarding deposits.
A trustee is not responsible for deposit unless he transgress with respect to it. If, therefore, it be lost whilst it is in his care, and the loss has not been occasioned by any fault of his, the trustee has not to make good the loss, because the Prophet said, "an honest trustee is not responsible."
A trustee may also keep the deposit himself or he may entrust it to another, provided the person is a member of his own family, but if he gives it to a stranger he renders himself responsible.
If the deposit is demanded by the depositor, and the trustee neglects to give it up, this is a transgression, and the trustee becomes responsible.
If the trustee mix the deposit (as of grain, &c) with his own property, in such a manner that the property cannot be separated, the depositor can claim to share equally in the whole property. But if the mixture be the result of accident, the proprietor becomes a proportionate share in the whole. If the trustee deny the deposit upon demand, he is responsible in case of the loss of it. But not if the denial be made to a stranger, because (says Abu Yusuf) the denial may be made for the sake of preserving it. In the case of a deposit by two persons, the trustee cannot deliver to either his share, except it be in the presence of the other. And when two persons receive a divisible article in trust, each must keep one half, although these restrictions are not regarded when they are held to be inconvenient, or contrary to custom.
DEVIL, The. The devil is believed to be descended from Jann, the progenitor of the evil genii. He is said to have been named Azail and to have possessed authority over the animal and spirit kingdom. But when God created Adam, the devil refused to prostrate and adore him, and he was therefore expelled from Eden. The sentence of death was the pronounced against Satan; but upon seeking a respite, he obtained it until the Day of Judgment, when he will be destroyed. (Vide Qur'an, Surah vii 13.) According to the Qur'an, the Devil was created of fire whilst Adam was created of clay. There are two words used in the Qur'an to denote this great spirit of evil (1) Shaitan , the Arabic word derived from shatu, "opposition", ie "one who opposes"; (2) Iblis , "devil", from balas, "a wicked or profligate person, ie "the wicked one." The former expression occurs in the Qur'an fifty-two times, and the latter only nine, whilst in some verses (eg Surah ii 32-34) the two words Shaitan and Iblis occur for the same personality. According to the Majma' l'-Bihar, denotes one who is far from the truth, and Iblis one who is without hope.
The following is the teaching of Muhammad and the Traditions concerning the machinations of the devil (Mishkat, book I c iii) : -
"'Verily, the devil enters into man as the blood into this body."
"'There is not one amongst you but has an angel and a devil appointed over him.' The Companions said, 'Yes for me also; but God has given me victory over the devil, and he does not direct me except in what is good."
"There is not one the children of Adam, except Mary and her son (Jesus), but is touched by the devil at the time of its birth, hence the child makes a loud noise from the touch."
"Devil rests his throne upon the waters, and send his armies to excite contention and strife amongst mankind; and those in his armies who are nearest to him in power and rank, are those who do the most mischief. One of them returns to the devil and says, 'I have done so and so' and he says, 'You have done nothing'; after that another comes and says, I did not quit him till I made a division between him and his wife'; then the devil appoints him a place near himself, and says, 'You are a good assistant."
"The devil sticks close to the sons of Adam, and an angel also; the business of the devil is to do evil, and that of the angel to teach him the truth; and he who meets with truth and goodness in his mind, let him know it proceeds from God, and let him praise God; and he who finds the other, let him seek for an asylum from the devil in God."
"Then the Prophet read this verse of the Qur'an; 'The devil threatens you with poverty if ye bestow in charity; and orders you to pursue avarice; but God promises you grace and abundance from charity."
"Usman said, "O Prophet of God! Indeed the devil intrudes himself between me and my prayers, and my reading perplexes me'. Then the Prophet said, 'This is a demon called Khanzab, who casts doubt into prayer; when you are aware of it, take protection with God, and spit over your left arm three times.' Usman said, 'Be it so'; and all doubt and perplexity was dispelled."
DEVIL, The Machinations of the. [WASWASAH.]
DIBAGHAH . "Tanning." According to the Traditions, the skins of animals are unclean until they are tanned. Muhammad said, "Take nothing for any animals that shall have died until you tan their skins." And again, "Tanning purifies." (Mishkat, book iii c xi 2.)
DIN The Arabic word for "religion." It is used especially for the religion of the Prophets and their inspired books, but it is also used for idolatrous religion [RELIGION.]
DINAR Greek A gold coin of one misqal weight, or ninety-six barley grains, worth about ten shillings
According to Mr. Hussey (Ancient Weights, p. 142), the average weight of the Roman denarii, at the end of the Commonwealth was sixty grains, whilst the English shilling contains eighty grains. Mr. Lane, in his arabic dictionary, says, "its weight is seventy-one barley-corns and a half, nearly, reckoning the daniq as eight grains of wheat and two-fifths; but if it be said that the daniq is eight grains of wheat, then the dinar is sixty-eight grains of wheat and four sevenths. It is the same as the misqual." The dinar is only mentioned once in the Qur'an, Surah ii 66: "And some of them if thou entrust them with a dinar, he will not give it back." It frequently occurs in books of law.
A GOLD DINAR OF HERACLIUS, A.D. 621.
WEIGHT SIXTY GRAINS. ACTUAL SIZE
A GOLD DINAR OF THE CITY OF GHAZNI, A.H. 616.
DIRHAM . Greek . A silver coin, the shape of which resembled that of a date stone. During the caliphate of 'Umar, it was changed into a circular form; and in the time of Zubair, it was impressed with the words Allah, "God," barakah "blessing." Hajjaj stamped upon it the chapter of the Qur'an called Ikhlas (cxii), and others say he imprinted it with his own name. Various accounts are given of their weights; some saying that they were of ten, or nine, or six, or five misqals; whilst others give the weights of twenty, twelve, and ten qirats asserting at the same time that 'Umar had taken a dirham of each kind, and formed a coin of fourteen qirats, being the third part of the aggregate sum. (Blochmann's Ain-I-Akbari, p 36.)
The dirham, although it is frequently mentioned in books of law, only occurs once in the Qur'an, Surah xii 20, "All they sold him (Joseph) for a mean price dirhams counted out, and they parted with him cheaply."
DIRRAH Vulg. durrah. A scourge made either of a flat piece of leather or of twisted thongs, and used by the public censor of morals and religion, called the muhtasib. This scourge is inflicted wither for the omission of the daily prayer, or for the committal of sins, which are punishable by the law with the infliction of stripes, such as fornication, scandal, and drunkenness. It is related that the Khalifah 'Umar punished his son with the durrah for drunkenness, and that he died from its effects. (Tarikh-I-Khamis, vol ii, p 252.)
The word used in the Qur'an and Hadis for this scourge is jaldah, and in theological works, saut; but dirrah is now the word generally used amongst modern Muslims.
A DIRRAH USED BY A MUHTASIB IN THE PESHAWAR VALLEY.
DITCH, Battle of the. Arabic Ghazwatu 'l-Khandaq . The defence of al-Madinah against the Banu Quraizah, A.H. 5, when a trench was dug by the advice of Salman, and the army of al-Madinah was posted within it. After a month's seige, the enemy retired, and the almost bloodless victory is ascribed by Muhammad in the Qur'an to the interposition of Providence. Surah xxxiii 9: "Remember God's favors to you when hosts came to you
and we sent against them a wind and hosts (of angels), that ye could not see, but God know what ye were doing." (Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol iii p 258.)
DIVINATION. Kahanah, or for-telling future events, is unlawful in Islam. Mu'awiyah ibn Hakim relates: "I said to the Prophet, 'O Messenger of God, we used to do some things in the time of ignorance of which we are not sure now. For example, we sued to consult diviners about future events?' The Prophet said, 'Now that you have embraced Islam you must not consult them.' Then I said, 'And we used to take bad omens?' The Prophet said, 'If from a bad omen you are thrown into perplexity, let it not hinder you from doing the work you had intended to do.' Then I said, 'And we used to draw lines on the ground?' And the Prophet said, 'There was one of the Prophets who used to draw lines on the ground, therefore if you can draw a line like him it is good, otherwise it is vain.'"
'Ayishah says "the people asked the Prophet about diviners, whether they spoke true or not. And he said, 'You must not believe anything they say.' The people then said, 'But O Prophet! They sometimes tell what is true?' The Prophet replied, 'Because one of the genii steals away the truth and carries it into the diviner's ear; and the diviners mix a hundred lies with one truth.'" [MAGIC.]
DIVORCE. Arabic talaq In its primitive sense the word talaq means dismission, but in law it signifies a release from the marriage tie.
The Muhammadan law of divorce is founded upon express injunctions contained in the Qur'an, as well as the Traditions, and its rules occupy a very large section in all Muhammadan works on jurisprudence.
I. The teaching of the Qur'an on the subject is as follows: -
Surah ii 226: -
"They who intend to abstain from their wives shall wait four months; but if they go back from their purpose, then verily God is Gracious, Merciful."
"And if they resolve on a divorce, then verily God is He who Heareth, Knoweth."
"The divorced shall wait the result, until they have had their courses thrice, nor ought they conceal what God hath created in their wombs, if they believe in God and the last day; and it will be more just in their husbands to bring them back when in this state, if they desire what is right. And it is for the women to act as they (the husbands) act by them, in all fairness; but the men are a step above them. God is Mighty, Wise."
"Ye may give sentence of divorce to your wives twice: Keep them honorably, or put them away with kindness. But it is not allowed you to appropriate to yourselves aught of what ye have given to them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the bounds set up by God. And if ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of God, no blame shall attach to either of you for what the wife shall herself give for her redemption. These are the bounds of God; therefore overstep them not; for whoever overstepeth the bounds of God, they are evil doers."
"But if the husband give sentence of divorce to her a third time, it is not lawful for him to take her again, until she shall have married another husband; and if he also divorce her then shall no blame attach to them if they return to each other, thinking that they can keep within the bounds fixed by God. And these are the bounds of God: He maketh them clear to those who have knowledge."
But when ye divorce women, and the time for sending them away is come, either retain them with generosity, or put them away with generosity; but retain them not by constraint so as to be unjust towards them. He who doth so, doth in fact injure himself. And make not the signs of God a jest; but remember God's favor towards you, and the Book and the Wisdom which He hath sent down to you for your warning, and fear God, and know that God's knowledge embraceth everything."
"And when ye divorce your wives, and they have waited the prescribed time, hinder them not from marrying the husbands when they have agreed among themselves in an honorable way. This warning is for him among you who believeth in God and in the last day. This is most pure for you, and most decent. God knoweth, but ye do not."
"Mothers, when divorced, shall give suck to their children two full years, if the father desire that the suckling be completed; and such maintenance and clothing as is fair for them, shall devolve the father. No person shall be charged beyond his means. A mother shall not be pressed unfairly for her child, nor a father for his child; And the same with the father's heir. But if they choose to wean the child by consent and by bargain, it shall be not fault in them. And if ye choose to have a nurse for your children, it shall be no fault in you, in case ye pay what ye promised her according to that which is fair. Fear God, and know that God seeth what ye do."
"It shall be no crime in you if ye divorce your wives so long as ye have not consummated the marriage, nor settled any dowry on them. And provide what is needful for them - he who is in ample circumstances according to his means, and he who is straitened, according to his means - with fairness; This is binding on those who do what is right."
"But if ye divorce them before consummation, and have already settled a dowry on them, ye shall give them half of what ye have settled, unless they make a release, or he make a release in whose hand is the marriage tie. But if ye make a release, it will be nearer to piety."
Surah lxv 1:-
"O Prophet! When ye divorce women,
divorce them at their special times. And reckon those times exactly, and fear God your God. Put them not forth from their houses, nor allow them to depart, unless they have committed a proven adultery. This is the precept of God, assuredly imperilleth his own self. Thou knowest not whether, after this, God may not cause something new to occur which may bring you together again.
"And when they have reached their set time, then either keep them with kindness, or in kindness part form them. And take up-right witnesses from among you, and bear witness as unto God. This is a caution for him who believeth in God and in the latter day. And whoso feareth God, ti him will He grant a prosperous issue, and will provide for him whence he reckoned not upon it."
"And for him who putteth his trust in Him will God be all-sufficient. God truly will attain his purpose. For everything hath God assigned a period."
"As to such of your wives as have no hope of the recurrence of their times, if ye have doubts in regard to them, then reckon three months, and let the same be the term of those who have not yet had them. And as to those who are with child, their period shall be until they are delivered of their burden. God will make His command easy to Him who heareth Him.
"Lodge the divorced wherever ye lodge, according to your means; and distress them not by putting them to straits. And if they are pregnant, then be at charges for hem till they are delivered of their burden; and if they suckle your children, then pay them their hire and consult among yourselves, and act generously. And herein ye meet with obstacles, then let another female suckle for him."
II. The teaching of Muhammad on the general subject of Divorce is expressed in the Tradtions as follows: -
"The thing which is lawful but disliked by God is divorce."
"The woman who asks her husband to divorce her without a cause, the smell of Paradise is forbidden her."
"There are three things which, whether done in joke or in earnest, shall be considered serious and effectual, namely, marriage, divorce, and taking a wife back."
"Every divorce is lawful except a madman's."
"Cursed be the second husband who makes the wife (divorce) lawful for her first husband, and cursed be the first husband for whom she is made lawful." - (Mishkat, xiii, c xv.)
III. Sunni Muhammadan Doctors are not agreed as to the Moral Status of Divorce.
The Imam ash-Shafi'i, referring to the three kinds of divorce (which will be afterwards explained), says: "they are unexceptionable and legal because diverse is in itself a lawful act, whence it is the certain laws have been instituted respecting it; and this legality prevents any idea of danger being annexed to it. But, on the other hand, the Imam Abu Hanifah and his disciples say that divorce is in itself a dangerous and disapproved procedure as it dissolves and marriage, an institution which involves many circumstances both of a spiritual as well as of a temporal nature. Nor is its propriety at all admitted, but on the ground of urgency of release from an unsuitable wife. And in reply to ash-Shafi'i, they say that the illegality of divorce does not prevent its being considered dangerous, because it involves matters of both a spiritual and temporal character.
The author of the Sharhu'l - Wiqayah p 108, says: - "Divorce is an abominable transaction in the sight of God, therefore such an act should only take place from necessity, and it is best to only make the one sentence of divorce (ie talaqu 'l-ahsan).
IV. The Sunni Law of Divorce: - Divorce may be given either in the present time of may be referred to some future period. It may be pronounced by the husband either before or after the consummation of the marriage. It may be either given in writing or verbally.
The words by which divorce can be given are of two kinds:- Sarih, or "express", as when the husband says, "Thou art divorced", and kinayah, or "metaphorical", as when he says, "Thou art free; thou art cut off; veil yourself! Arise! Seek for a mate," &c &c.
Divorce is divided into talau's-sunnah, or that which is according to the Qur'an and the Traditions, and tulaqu 'l-badh, of a novel or heterodox divorce, which, although it is considered lawful, is not considered religious.
Talaqu's - sunnah is either ahsan, or "the most laudible," or hasan, the "laudible" method. Talaqu 'l-ahsan, of the "most laudable" method of divorce, is when the husband once expressly pronounces to his enjoyed but un-pregnant wife the sentence, "Thou art divorced!" when she is in tuhr or a state of purity, during which he has had no cranl connection with her, and then leaves her to complete the prescribed iddah, or "period of three months." Until the expiration of the 'iddah, the divorce is revocable, but after the period is complete, it is irreversible, and if the husband wishes to take his wife back, they must go through the ceremony of marriage. But it must be observed that after the talaqu 'l-ahsan, the woman is not, as in the other kinds of divorce, compelled to marry another man, and be divorced, before she can return to her former husband. All that is required is a re-marriage. The author of the Hidayah says this mode of divorce is called ahsan, or "most laudable," because it was usually adopted by the Companions of the Prophet, and also because it leaves it in the power of the husband to take his wife back, and she thus remains a lawful subject for re-marriage to him. Some European writers on Muhammadanism have overlooked this fact in condemning the Muslim system of divorce.
The talaqu 'l-hasan, or "laudable divorce,"
is when the husband repudiates an enjoyed wife by three sentences of divorce, either express or metaphorical, giving one sentence in each tuhr, of "period or purity." Imam Malik condemns this kind of divorce, and says it is irregular. But Abu Hanifah holds it to be hasan, or "good."
The talaqu 'l-badi, or "irregular form of divorce," is when the husband repudiates his wife by three sentences, either express or metaphorical, given them one at a time; "Thou art divorced! Thou art divorced! Thou art divorced!" Or, "Thou art free! Thou art free! Thou art free!" Even holding up three fingers, or dropping three stones, is held to be a sufficiently implied divorce to take legal effect. The Muslim who thus divorces his wife is held, in the Hidayah, to be an offender against the law, but the divorce, however irregular, takes legal effect.
In both these kinds of divorce badi' and hasan, the divorce is revocable (raji') after the first and second sentences, but it is irrevocable (ba in) after the third sentence. After both hasan and badi' divorces, the divorced wife cannot, under any circumstances, return to her husband until she has been married, and enjoyed, and divorced by another husband. Muhammedan doctors say the law has instituted this (somewhat disgraceful) arrangement in order to prevent divorces other than talaqu 'l-ahsan.
A husband my divorce his wife without any misbehaviour on her part, or without assigning any cause. The divorce of every husband is effective if he be of a sound understanding and of mature age; but that of a boy, or a lunatic, or one talking in his sleep, is not effective.
If a man pronounce a divorce whilst in a state of inebriety from drinking fermented liquor, such as wine, the divorce takes place. Repudiation by any husband who is sane and adult, is effective, whether he be free or a slave, willing, or setting under compulsion; and even though it were uttered in sport or jest, or by a mere slip of the tongue, instead of some other word. (Fatawa-i-'Alamgiri, vol I p 497.)
A sick man may divorce his wife, even though he be on his death-bed.
An agent or agents may be appointed by a husband to divorce his wife.
In addition to the will and caprice of the husband, there are also certain conditions which require a divorce.
The following are causes for divorce, but generally require to be ratified by a decree from the Qazi or "judge": -
(1) Jubb. That is, when the husband has been by any cause deprived of his organ of generation. This condition is called majbub. In this case the wife can obtain instant divorce if the defect occurred before marriage. Cases of evident madness and leprosy are treated in the same way. Divorce can be obtained at once.
(2) Unnah, or "impotence." (This includes ratq, "vulva impervia coeunti"; and qarn, "vulva anteriore parte enascens.") In cases of impotency in either husband or wife, a year of probation can be granted by the judge.
(3) Inequality of race or tribe. A woman cannot be compelled to marry a man who belongs to an inferior tribe, and, in case of such a marriage, the elders of the superior tribe can demand a divorce; but if the divorce is not demanded, the marriage contract remains.
(4) Insufficient dower. If the stipulated dowry is not given when demanded, divorce takes place.
(5) Refusal of Islam. If one of the parties embrace Islam, the judge must offer it to the other three distinct times, and if he or she refuse to embrace the faith, divorce takes place.
(6) La'n, or "imprecation." That is, when a husband charges his wife with adultery, the charge is investigated, but if there is no proof, and the man swear his wife is guilty, and the wife swears she is innocent, a divorce must be decreed.
(7) Ila', or "vow". When a husband make a vow not to have carnal intercourse with his wife for no less than four months, and keeps the vow inviolate, an irreversible divorce takes place.
(8) Reason of property. If a husband become the proprietor of his wife (a slave) or the wife the proprietor of her husband (a slave), divorce takes place.
(9) An invalid marriage of any kind, arising from the incomplete nikah, or "marriage ceremony", or from affinity, or from consanguinity.
(10) Difference of country For example, if a husband flee from a daru 'l-harb, or "land of enmity," ie "a non-Moslem country," to a daru 'l-Islam, or "country of Islam", and his wife refuse to perform hijrah (flight) and to accompany him, she is divorced.
(11) Apostasy from Islam The author of the Raddu 'l-Mukhtar (vol ii p 643) says: "When a man or woman apostatizes from Islam, then an immediate dissolution (faskh) of the marriage takes place, whether the apostasy be of the man or of the woman without a decree from the Qazi." And again, (p. 645), "If both husband and wife apostatize at the same time, their marriage bond remains; and if at any future time the parties again return to Islam, no re-marriage is necessary to constitute them man and wife; but if one of the parties should apostatize before the other, a dissolution of the marriage takes place ipso facto."
Mr. J.B.S. Boyle, of Lahore, says: "As relevant to this subject, I give a quotation from Mr. Currie's excellent work on the Indian Criminal Codes, p. 445. The question is as to the effect of apostasy from Islam upon the marriage relation, and whether sexual intercourse with the apostate renders a person liable to be convicted for adultery under Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code. A and B, Mahommedans, married under the Mahommedan law, are converted to Christianity. The wife B, is first converted, but continues to live with her husband; subsequently the
husband A is converted. Subsequent to the conversion of B, A and B, still living together as husband and wife, both professing Christianity, B has sexual intercourse with C. Will a conviction hold against C under Section 497? Both Macnaghten and Baillie say the marriage becomes dissolved by apostasy of either party, and Grady, in his version of Hamilton's Hidayah p 66 says: "If either husband or wife apostatize from the faith, a separation takes place, without divorce; according to Abu Haneefa and Abu Yossuf. Imam Mahommed alleges if the apostasy is on the part of the husband.
"Apostasy annuls marriage in Haneefa's opinion and in apostasy separation takes place without any decree of the magistrate. Cases which might decide this point have been lately tried both at Lucknow and Allahbad; at the former place in re Afzul Hosein v. Hadice Begum, and the latter Zuburdust Khan v. Wife. But form certain remarks to be found in the judgement of the High Court, N.W.P., the Courts of Oudh and N.W.P. appear to differ on the most essential point. The point before the Oudh Court was (Hadee Begum's plea) that her marriage contract was dissolved by reason of her own apostasy, a sufficient answer to a suit brought by her Mohammedan husband for restitution of conjugal rights, ie Does the apostasy of a Mohammedan wife dissolve a marriage contract against the express wish of a Mohammedan husband in dar-ool-harb (land of war)? For India, it is contended, is not under its present administration, dar-ool-Islam (land of safety). The Oudh Court (admitting that apostasy by the husband dissolved the marriage and freed the wife) that apostasy by the wife did not free her if her husband sued for restitution of conjugal rights. They argued that apostasy by the wife, without the wish of the husband, could not be entertained; in fact, that as regards her husband's volition, the apostasy could not exist, and would not be recognized. That a suit for restitution of conjugal rights before the competent court of the time, seemed to them to be equivalent of the suit before the Cazee (Judge). The Oudh judges, in the absence of distinct precedent, say they fell back on the customs of the people amongst whom they lived. The Oudh Court evidently considered there was an essential difference between apostasy of a man and apostasy of a woman, of the husband or the wife; also between apostasy to a faith in a book and apostasy to the idol worship Mahommed and his followers renounce. Does such an essential difference exist? The point before the High Court N.W.P. was: Can a Mohammedean professing Christianity subsequent to his marriage with a Mussulmai, according to the Mohammedan law, obtain a decree for dissolution of that marriage under Act IV of 1869, his wife having subsequently to him professed Christianity, and they under their new faith having lived together as man and wife? Or whether the wife's contention is sound, that her marriage was cancelled by her husband's apostasy?
They held the apostasy of the husband dissolved the marriage tie. This the Oudh Court admits, but the point before the Oudh Court was not before the High Court, N.W.P.; nevertheless from comments made by the High Court, N.W.P., on the Oudh decision, they evidently did not agree with the finding come to by the latter Court, on the point before it.
"Now, Mr. Currie asks in the above extract, does such an essential difference exist between apostasy to a book - that is, to a kitabee faith - and apostasy to idol worship? Answering this question necessitates a few remarks upon the judgements above mentioned. According to Mahommedan law, a man mat lawfully marry a kitabeeah, but marriage with a Pagan or polytheist is unlawful. But the principle in Mahommedan law is, that when one of the parties turns to a state of religion that would render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into, what was legal before is made void. A Mahommedan woman, becoming a kitabeah, does not render the marriage void, for there is nothing to render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into; but if the Mahommedan woman becomes an idolatress, the marriage is void, for the woman has turned to a state of religion that would render the marriage contract illegal if it were still to be entered into; a Mahommedan woman, becoming a Christian, consequently, would not be separated from her husband, because she belongs to the religion of the book, that is a kitabee faith. If a kitabeeah becomes an idolatress, the marriage is dissolved, but if she change from one religion to another, and still remain a kitabeeah, the marriage is not vitiated. So far the Oudh Court is correct in its decision, that the Mahommedan wife's conversion to Christianity did not render the marriage null and void, but that a suit for restitution of conjugal rights would lie; and taking the case of C having sexual intercourse with B the wife of A converted to Christianity, a conviction under Section 497 Indian Penal Code, would hold good. But with all deference, I do not think that the Oudh Court is correct when it states that apostasy by the wife without the wish of the husband could not be entertained; in fact, that as regards her husband's volition, the apostasy could not exist, and would not be recognized.
"So far as regards a woman's apostatizing to a kitabee faith, this holds good; but if a woman turns to Paganism ipso facto the marriage is void, and does not depend upon the volition of the husband (having regard to the principle we have adverted to above), so that the husband under such circumstances could not maintain a suit for conjugal rights, nor would a conviction hold good against C, under Section 497, Indian Penal Code for sexual intercourse with B the wife of A, who has apostatized to Paganism. The decisions of the two Courts, however, seem correct, on the principles of Mahommedan law, as to the effect of a husband apostatizing from Islam.
By Mahommedan law, a marriage by a female Moslem with a man not of the Mahommedan faith is unlawful; applying the principle quoted before, the man having turned to a state of religion that would render the contract illegal if it were still to be entered into, the marriage is void. The apostasy of the husband dissolves the marriage tie; consequently there does exist an essential difference between apostasy of a man and of a woman, of the apostasy of the husband or the wife; also between apostasy to a faith in a book, that is, a revealed religion having a book of faith, and apostasy to the idol worship Mahommed and his followers renounce. The law allows a person the right to cease to be a Mahommedan in the fullest sense of the word, and to become a Christian, and to claim for himself and his descendants all the rights and obligations of a British subject." (Hogg v. Greenway &c., 2, Hyde's Reports, Manual of Laws relating to Muhammadans and their Relations of Life.)
V. In addition to the forms of divorce already explained, there are three others of a peculiar nature, called khula', mubara'ah, and zihar.
The form of divorce known as khula', is when a husband and wife disagreeing, or for any other cause, the wife, on payment of a compensation or ransom to her husband, is permitted by the law to obtain from him a release from the marriage tie. The khula' is generally effected by the husband giving back the dower or part thereof. When the aversion is on the part of the husband, it is generally held that he should grant his wife's request without compensation; but this is purely a matter of conscience, and not of law.
Mubara'ah is a divorce which is effected by a mutual release.
Zihar, from zahr, "back", is a kind of divorce which is effected by a husband likening his wife to any part or member of the body of any of his kinswomen within the prohibited degree. As for example, if he were to say to his wife, "Thou art to me like the back of my mother." The motive of the husband in saying so must be examined, and if it appear that he meant divorce, his wife is not lawful to him until he have made expiation by freeing a slave, or by fasting two months, or by feeding sixty poor men. (See Qur'an, Surah lviii 4.)
(For the Sunni Law of Divorce, see the Hidayah and its Commentary, the Kifayah; Darru 'l-Mukhtar and its Commentary, the Raddu l'-Mukhtar; the Fatawa-I-Alamgiri; Hamilton's English Edition, Hidayah; Tagore Law Lectures 1873.)
VI. The Shi'ah law of Divorce differs only in a few particulars from that of the Sunnis. According to Shi'ah law, a man must be an adult of understanding, of free choice and will, and of design and intention, when he divorces his wife. A marked contrast to the licence and liberty allowed by the Sunni law. Nor can the Shi'ah divorce be effected in any language of a metaphorical kind. It must be express and be pronounced in Arabic (if the husband understand that language), and it must be spoken and not written. A divorce amongst the Shi'ahs does not take effect if given implicatively or ambiguously, whether intended or not. It is also absolutely necessary that the sentence should be pronounced by the husband in the presence of two just persons as witnesses, who shall hear and testify to the wording of the divorce.
(For the Shia'ah law of divorce, see Shir'atu 'l-Islam; Tanirur 'l-Ahkam; Mafatih; Mr. Neil Baillies's Digest of Muhammadan Law; Imimiah Code; Tagore Law Lectures, 1847.)
VII. Compared with the Mosaic Law. When compared with the Mosaic law, it will be seen that by the latter, divorce was only sanctioned when there was "some uncleaness" in the wife, and that whilst in Islam a husband can take back his divorced wife, in the law of God it was not permitted. See Deut. xxiv 1-4.
"When a man hath taken a wife, and married her, and it come to pass that she find no favor in his eyes, because he hath found some uncleaness in her; then let him write her a bill of divorcement, and gives it in her hand, and send her out of his house.
"And when she is departed out of his house, she may go and be another man's wife.
"And it the latter husband hate her, and write her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house; or if the latter husband die, which took her to be his wife;
"Her former husband, which sent her away, may not take her again to be his wife, after that she is defiled; for that is abomination before the Lord; and thou shalt not cause the land to sin, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance.
The ground of divorce in the Mosaic law was "some uncleaness in her." There were two interpretations of this by the Jewish doctors of the period of the New Testament. The school of Shammai seemed to limit in to a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst that of Hillel extended it to trifling causes. Out Lord appears to have regarded all the lesser causes than formication as standing on too weak a ground.
Matt. v. 32: "But I say unto you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery; and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery."
It will be seen that Muhammad adopted the teaching of the School of Hillel, omitting the bill of divorcement, which was enjoined in Deut xxiv 3, thereby placing the woman entirely at the will and caprice of her husband.
Burckhardt tells us of an Arab, forty-five years old, who had had fifty wives, so that he must have divorce two wives and married two fresh ones on the average every year. We have cases of Muhammad's own "Companions" not much better. This is the natural and legitimate effect of the law.
Sir William Muir (Life of Mahomet, vol iii. p. 305) says: "The idea of conjugal unity is utterly unknown to Mahometans, excepting when the Christian example is by chance
followed; and even there, the continuance of the bond is purely dependent on the will of the husband...I believe the morale of Hindu society, where polygamy is less encouraged, to be sounder, in a very marked degree, than that of Mahometan society.
DIWAN (1) In Muhammadan law, the word signifies an account or record book, and also the bags in which the Qazi's records are kept. (2) It is also a court of justice, a royal court. (3) Also a minister of state; the chief officer in a Muhammadan state; a finance minister. (4) In British courts a law-suit is called a diwani, when it refers to a civil suit, in contradistinction to aujdari, or "criminal suit." (5) A collection of odes is called a diwn, e.g. Diwan-I-Hafiz, "the Poems of Hafiz."
DIYAH A pecuniary compensation for any offence upon the person [FINES.]
DOGS (Arabic kalb, pl. kilab; Heb. ) are unclean animals according to a tradition by Abu Hurairah, Muhammad said that when a dog drinks in a vessel, it must be washed seven times, and that the first cleansing should be with earth. (Mishkat, book iii c I pt. 1)
"Most people believe that when a dog howls near a house it forebodes death, for it is said a dog can distinguish the awful form of Azra'il, the Angel of Death." (Burton's Arabia, vol I p 290)
Ibn 'Umr says that dogs used to come into the Masjid at Makkah in the time of the Prophet, but the Companions never purified the mosque when the dog was dry.
The Imam Abu Yusuf holds that the sale of a dog that bites is unlawful, whilst the Imam ash-Shafi'i has siad that the sale of a dog is absolutely illegal, because the Prophet said that the wages of whoredom and the price of a dog are forbidden. Abu Hanifah holds that dogs which are trained to hunt or watch may be lawfully sold. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol ii p 543.)
It is lawful to hunt with a trained dog and the sign of a dog being trained is that he catches game three times without killing it. The dog must be let slip with the ejaculation Bismillahi 'llahi Akbar! "In the name of God, the great God!" When all game seized by him becomes lawful food. This custom is founded upon a verse in the Qur'an, Surah v. 6: "Lawful for you are all good things and what ye have taught the beasts of prey to catch, training them like dogs; ye teach them as God taught you. And mention the name of God over it."
Rules for hunting with dogs will be found in Hamilton's Hidayah, vol iv p 170.
DOG STAR. Sirius, or the dog star was an object of worship amongst the ancient Arabs, and is mentioned in the Qur'an, under the name of ash-Shi'ra Surah liii. 50: "He (God) is the Lord of the Dog Star."
DOWER Arabic mahr , Heb. . Dower is considered by some lawyers to be an effect of the marriage contract, imposed on the husband by the law as a mark of respect for the subject of the contract - the wife; while others consider that it is in exchange for the usufruct of the wife, and its payment is necessary, as upon the provision of a support to the wife depends the permanency of the matrimonial connection. Thus, it is indispensable a fortiori, so much so, that is it were not mentioned in the marriage contract, it would be still incumbent on the husband, as the law will presume it by virtue of the contract itself, and award it upon demand being made by the wife. In such case, the amount of dower will be to the extent of the dowers of the women of her rank and of the ladies of her father's family. Special beauty or accomplishments many however, be pleaded for recovering a larger award than the customary dower, where the amount of dower is not mentioned in the contract. There is no limit to the amount of dower; it may be to a very large amount, considering the position and circumstances of the bridegroom, but its minimum is never less than ten dirhams; so where it is fixed at a lesser amount, the law will augment it up to ten dirhams. The dower need not invariably be in currency, or even in metal; everything, except carrion, blood, wine, and hog. Also the bridegroom's own labor, if he is a freeman, being held by the law to be a good dower.
Dower is generally divided into two parts, termed mu'ajjal, "prompt" and mu'ajjat "differed." The mu'ajjal portion is exigible on entering into the contract, while the mu'ajjal part of the dower is payable upon dissolution of the contract. Although the first part is payable, and is sometimes paid, at the time the contract is entered into, yet it has been the general practice (at least in India) to leave it unpaid, and so like an on-demand obligation it remains due at all times - the wife's right to the same not being extinguished by the lapse of time. The wife's (or her guardian's) object in leaving the exigible part of the dower unrealized seems to be that there may always exist a valid guarantee for the good treatment of her by her husband. The women of the respectable classes reserve their right and power to demand their exigible dowers till such time as occasion should require the exercise thereof. The custom of fixing heavy dowers, generally beyond the husband's means, especially in India, seems to be based upon the intention of checking the husband from ill-treating his wife, and, above all, from his marrying another woman, as also from wrongfully or causelessly divorcing the former. For in the case of divorce the woman can demand the full payment of the dower. In the event of the death of the husband, the payment of the dower has the fist claim on the estate after funeral expenses; the law regarding it as a just debt. (Tagore Law Lectures, 1873, p. 341; Hidayah, vol I p 122.)
DREAMS Arabic hulm ; nanam ; ruya . The term used for a bad dream is hulm, and for an ordinary dream mauam, ruya being used to express a heavenly vision. [RUYA.]
According to the traditions, the Prophet is related to have said "A good dream is of God's favor and a bad dream is of the devil; therefore, when any of you dreams a dream which is such as he is leased with, then he must not tell it to any but a beloved friend; and when he dreams a bad dream, then let him seek protection from God both from its evil and from the wickedness of Satan; and let him spit three times over his left shoulder, and not mention the dream to anyone; then, verily, no evil shall come nigh him." "The truest dream is the one which you have about day-break." "Good dreams are one of the parts of prophecy." (Mishket, xxi c iv.)
DRESS Arabic libas Decent apparel at the time of public worship is enjoined in the Qur'an Surah vii 29: "O children of Adam! Wear your goodly apparel when ye repair to any mosque." Excess in apparel and extravagance in dress are reproved, Surah vii 25: "We (God) have sent down raiment to hide your nakedness, and splendid garments; but the raiment of piety is the best."
According to the Hidayah (vol iv p 92), a dress of silk is not lawful for men, but women are permitted to wear it. Men are prohibited from wearing gold ornaments, and also ornaments of silver, otherwise than a silver signet ring. The custom of keeping handkerchiefs in the hand, except for necessary use, is also forbidden.
The following are some of the sayings of the Prophet with regard to dress, as recorded in the Traditions. Mishkat, xx c I : "God will not look at him of the Day of Resurrection who shall wear long garments from pride." "Whoever wears a silken garment in this world shall not wear it in the next." "God will not have compassion upon him who wears long trousers (i.e. below the ankle) from pride." "It is lawful for the women of my people to wear silks and gold ornaments, but it is unlawful for the men." "Wear white clothes, because they are the cleanest, and the most agreeable; and bury your dead in white clothes."
According to the Traditions, the dress of Muhammad was exceedingly simple. It is said he sued to wear only two garments, the izar, or "under garment" which hung down three or four inches below his knees, and a mantle thrown over his shoulders. These two robes, with the turban, and white cotton drawers completed the Prophet's wardrobe. His dress was generally of white, but he also wore green, red, and yellow, and sometimes a black woolen dress. It is said by some traditionists that in the taking of Makkah he wore a black turban. The end of his turban used to hang between his shoulders. And he used to wrap it many times round the head. It is said, "the edge of it appeared below like the soiled clothes of an oil dealer."
He was especially fond of white-striped yamani cloth. He once prayed ina silken dress, but he cast it aside afterwards, saving, "it doth not become the faithful to wear silk." He once prayed in a spotted mantle, but the spots diverted his attention, and the garment was never again worn.
His sleeves, unlike those of the Eastern choga or khaftan, ended at the wrist, and he never wore long robes reaching to the ankles.
A first, he wore a gold ring with the stone inwards on his right hand, but it distracted his attention when preaching, and he changed it for a silver one. His shoes, which were often old and cobbled, were of the Hazramaut pattern with two thongs. And he was in the habit of praying with his shoes on. [SHOES.]
The example of Muhammad has doubtless influenced the customs of his followers in the matter of dress, the fashion of which has remained almost the same in eastern Muhammadan countries centuries past; for although there are varieties of dress in Eastern as well as in European countries, still there are one or two characteristics of dress which are common to all oriental nations which have embraced Islam, namely, the turban folded round the head, the white cotton drawers, or full trousers, tied round the waist by a running string; the qamis, or "shirt", the khaftan, or "coat" and the lungi, or "scarf." The qamis is the same as the ketoneth of the Hebrews, and the of the Greeks, a kind of long shirt with short sleeves the ends of which extend over the trousers or drawers reaching below the knees. The khaftan answers to the Hebrew meil (1 Sam xviii 4), a tunic worn as an outer garment. The Jewish beged, or simlah, must have been similar to the quadrangular piece of cloth still worn as a scarf in Central Asia, and called a lungi, and similar to the 'aba of the Egyptians. It is worn in various ways, either wrapped round the body, or worn over the shoulders, and sometimes folded as a covering for the head.
The dress of Muhammadans in Egypt is very minutely described by Mr. Lane in his Modern Egyptians, vol I p 36.
The dress of the men of the middle and higher classes of Egypt consists of the following articles. First a pair of full drawers of linen or cotton tied round the body by a running string or band, the ends of which are embroidered with colored silks, though concealed by the other dress. The drawers descend a little below the knees or to the ankles; but many of the Arabs will not wear long drawers, because prohibited by the Prophet. Next is worn the qamis or "shirt", with very full sleeves, reaching to the wrist; it is made of linen of a loose open texture, or of cotton stuff, or of muslin, or silk, or of a mixture of silk and cotton in strips, but all white. Over this, in winter, or in cool weather, most persons wear a sudeyree, which
is a short vest of cloth, or of a striped colored silk, or cotton, without sleeves. Over the shirt and the sudeyree, or the former alone, is worn a long vest of striped silk or cotton (called kaftan) descending to the ankles, with long sleeves extending a few inches beyond the finger's ends, but divided from a point a little above the wrist, or about the middle of the fore-arm, so that the band is generally exposed, though it may be concealed by the sleeve when necessary, for it is customary to cover the hands in the presence of a person of high rank. Round this vest is wound the girdle, which is a colored shawl, or a long piece of white-figured muslin.
The ordinary outer robe is a long cloth coat of any color, called by the Turks jubbah, but by the Egyptians gibbeh, the sleeves of which reach not quite to the wrist. Some persons also wear a beneesh, which is a robe of cloth with long sleeves, like those of the kaftan, but more ample. It is properly a robe of ceremony, and should be worn over the other cloth coat, but many persons wear it instead of the gibbeh
Another robe called farageeyeh, nearly resembles the beneesh; it has very long sleeves, but these are not slit, and it is chiefly worn by men of the learned professions. In cold or cool weather, a kind of black woolen cloak, called the abayeh, is commonly worn. Sometimes this is drawn over the head.
In winter, also many persons warp a muslin or other shawl (such as they use for a turban) about the head and shoulders. The head-dress consists first of a small close-fitting cotton cap, which is often changed; nest a tarboosh, which is a red cloth cap, also fitting close to the head with a tassel of dark-blue silk at the crown; lastly, a long piece of white muslin, generally figured, or a kashmere shawl, which is wound round the tarboosh. Thus is formed the turban. The
AN EGYPTIAN MAULAWI (LANE)
kashmere shawl is seldom worn except in cool weather. Some persons wear two or three tarbooshes one over another. A shereef (or descendent of the Prophet) wears a green turban, or is privileged to do so, but no other person; and it is not common for any but a shereef to wear a bright green dress. Stockings are not in use, but some few persons in cold weather wear woolen or cotton socks. The above are of thick red morocco, pointed, and turning up at the toes. Some persons also wear inner shoes of soft yellow morocco, and with soles of the same; the outer shoes are taken off on stepping upon a carpet or mat, but not the inner; for this reason the former are often worn turned down at the heel.
The costume of the men of the lower orders is very simple. Theses, if not of the very poorest class, wear a pair of drawers, and a long and full shirt or gown of blue linen or cotton, or of brown woolen stuff, open from the neck nearly to the waist, and having wide sleeves. Over this some wear a white or red woolen girdle; for which servants often substitute a broad red belt of woolen stuff or of leather, generally containing a receptacle for money. Their turban is generally composed of a white, red, or yellow
AN EGYPTIAN PEASANT (LANE).
woolen shawl, or of a piece of coarse cotton or muslin wound round a tarboosh, under which is a white or brown felt cap; but many are so poor, as to have no other cap than the latter, no turban, nor even drawers nor shoes, but only the blue or brown shirt, or merely a few rags, while many, on the other hand, wear a sudeyree under the blue shirt, and some particularly servants in the houses of great men, wear a white shirt, a sudeyree, and a kaftan, or gibbeh, or both, and the blue shirt over all. The full sleeves of this shirt are sometime drawn up by means of a cord, which
passes round each shoulder and crosses behind, where it is tied in a knot. This custom is adopted by servants (particularly grooms), who have cords of crimson or dark blue silk for this purpose.
In cold weather, many persons of the lower classes wear an abayeh, like that before described, but coarser and sometimes (instead of being black) having broad stripes, brown and white, or blue and white, but the latter rarely. Another kind of cloak, more full than the abayeh, of black or deep blue woollen stuff, is also very commonly worn, it is called diffeeyeh. The shoes are of red or yellow morocco, or of sheep-skin. Those of the door-keeper and the water carrier of a private house, generally yellow.
The Muslims are distinguished by the colors of their turbans from the Copts and the Jews. Who (as well as other subjects of the Turkish Sultan who are not Muslims) wear black, blue, gray, or light-brown turbans and generally dull-colored dresses.
The distinction of sects, families, dynasties, &c., among the Muslim Arabs by the color of the turbans and other articles of dress, is of very early origin. There are not many different forms of turbans now worn in Egypt; that worn by most of the servants is peculiarly formal, consisting of several spiral twists one above another like the threads of a screw. The kind common among the middle and higher classes of the tradesmen and other citizens of the metropolis and large towns is also very formal, but less so than that just before alluded to.
The Turkish turban worn in Egypt is of a more elegant fashion. The Syrian is distinguished by its width. The Ulama and men of religion and letters in general used to wear, as some do still, one particularly wide and formal called a mukleh. The turban is much respected. In the houses of the more wealthy classes, there is usually a chair on which it is placed at night. This is often sent with the furniture of a bride as it is common for a lady to have one upon which to place her head-dress. It is never used for any other purpose.
The dress of women of the middle and higher orders is handsome and elegant. Their shirt is very full, like that of the men, but shorter, not reaching to the knees; it is also generally. Of the same kind of material as the men's shirt, or of colored crape, sometimes black. A pair of very wide trousers (called shintiyan) of a colored striped stuff, of silk and cotton, or of printed or plain white muslin, is ties round the hips under the shirt, with a dikkeh; its lower extremities are drawn up and tied just below the knee with running strings, but it is sufficiently long to hand down to the feet, or almost to the ground, when attached in this manner. Over the shirt and the shintiyan is worn a long vest (called yelek), of the same material as the latter; it nearly resembles the kaftan of the men, but is more tight to the body and arms; the sleeves also are longer, and it is made to button down the front from the bosom to a little below the girdle, instead of lapping over; it is open likewise on each side from the height of the hip downwards.
In general, the yelek is cut in such a manner as to leave half of the bosom uncovered, except by the shirt, but many ladies have it made more ample at that part, and according to the most approved fashion it should be of sufficient length to reach to the ground, or should exceed that length by two or three inches or more. A short vest (called anteree) reaching only a little below the waist, and exactly resembling a yelek of which the lower part has been cut off, is sometimes worn instead of the latter. A square shawl, or an embroidered kerchief, doubled diagonally, is put loosely round the waist as a girdle, the two corners that are folded together hanging down behind; or sometimes the lady's girdle is folded after the ordinary Turkish fashion, like that of the men, but more loosely.
Over the yelek is worn a gibbeh of cloth or velvet or silk, usually embroidered with gold or with colored silk; it differs in form from the gibbeh of the men, chiefly in being not so wide, particularly in the fore part, and is of the same length as the yelek. Instead of this, a jacket (called saltah), generally of cloth or velvet, and embroidered in the same manner as the gibbeh, is often worn.
The head-dress consists of a takeeyeh and tarboosh, with a square kerchief (called faroodeeyeh) of printed or painted muslin or one of crape, wound tightly round, composing what is called a rabtah. Two or more such kerchiefs were commonly used a short time since, and still are sometime to form the ladies'
AN EGYPTIAN LADY (LANE)
turban, but always wound in a high flat shape, very different from that of the turban of the men. A kind of crown, called kurs, and other ornaments, are attached to the ladies' head-dress. A long piece of white muslin, embroidered at each end with colored silks
and gold, or of colored crepe ornamented with gold thread, &c, and spangles rests upon the head, and hangs down behind, nearly or quite to the ground; this is called tarhah, it is the head-veil; the face-veil I shall presently describe. The hair, except over the forehead and temples is divided into numerous braids or plaits, generally from eleven to twenty five in number, but always of an uneven number; these hang down the back. To each braid of hair are usually added three black silk cords with little ornaments of gold &c attached to them. Over the forehead the hair is cut rather short, but two full locks hang down on each side of the face; these are often curled in ringlets and sometimes plaited.
Few of the ladies of Egypt wear stockings or socks, but many of them wear mess (or inner shoes) of yellow or red morocco, sometimes embroidered with gold. Over these, whenever they step off the matted or carpeted part of the floor, they put on haboog (or slippers) of yellow morocco, with high pointed toes, or use high wooden clogs or patterns, generally from four to nine inches in height and usually ornamented with mother of pearl or silver.
The riding or walking attire is called tezyeereh. Whenever a lady leaves the house, she wears, in addition to what has been above
AN INDIAN BURKA (A.F. Hole)
described, first, a large loose gown (called tob or sebleh), the sleeves of which are nearly equal in width to the whole length of the gown; it is of silk, generally of a pink or rose or violet color. Next is put on the burka, or face veil, which is a long strip of white muslin, concealing the whole of the face except the eyes, and reaching nearly to the feet. It is suspended at the top by a narrow hand, which passes up the forehead, and which is sewed, as are, also the two upper corners of the veil, to a band that is tied round the head. The lady then covers herself with a habarah, which for a married lady, is composed of two breaths of glossy, black silk, each all-wide, and three yards long; these are sewed together, at or near the selvages (according to the height of the person) the seam running horizontally, with respect to the manner in which it is worn; a piece of narrow black ribbon is sewed inside the upper part about six inches from the edge, to tie round
THE EGYPTIAN HABARAH.
the head. But some of them imitate the Turkish ladies of Egypt in holding the front part so as to conceal all but that portion of the veil that is above the hands. The unmarried ladies wear a habarab of white silk or a shawl. Some females of the middle classes, who cannot afford to purchase a habarah, wear instead of it an eezar (izar), which is a piece of white calico, of the same form and size as the former, and is worn in the same manner. On the feet are worn short boots or socks (called khuff), of yellow morocco, and over these women of the lower orders who are not of the poorest class, consists of a pair of trousers or drawers
(similar in form to the shintiyan of the ladies, but generally of plain white cotton or linen), a blue linen or cotton shirt (not quite so full as that of the men), reaching to the feet, a burka of a kind of coarse black crepe, and a dark blue tarhah of muslin or linen. Some wear, over the olng shirt, or instead of the latter, a linen tob, of the same form as that of the ladies; and withing the long shirt, some wear a short white shirt; and some, a sudeyree also, or an anteree. The sleeves of the tob are often turned up over the head; either to prevent their being incommodious, or to supply the place of a tarhah. In addition to these articles of dress, many women who are not of the very poor classes wear, as a covering, a kind of plaid, similar in form to the habarah composed of two pieces of cotton woven in small chequers of blue and white, or cross stripes, with a mixture of red at each end. It is called milaych in general it is
AN INDIAN ZANANA LADY
worn in the same manner as the habarah, but sometimes like the tarbah. The upper part of the black burka is often ornamented with false pearls, small gold coins, and other little flat ornaments of the same metal (called bark); sometimes with a coral bead, and a gold coin beneath; also with some coins of base silver and more commonly with a pair of chain tassels of brass or silver (called ayoon) attached to the corners. A square black silk kerchief (called asbeh), with a border of red and yellow, is bound round the head, doubled diagonally, and tied with a single knot behind; or, instead of this, the tarboosh and faroodeeyeh are worn, though by very few women of the lower classes.
The best kind of shoes worn by the females of the lower orders are of red morocco, turned up, but generally round, at the toes. The burka and shoes are most common in Cairo, and are also worn by many of the women throughout lower Egypt; but in Upper Egypt, the burka is very seldom seen, and shoes are scarcely less uncommon. To supply the place of the former, when necessary, a portion of the tarhah is drawn before the face, so as to conceal nearly all the countenance except one eye.
Many of the women of the lower orders, even in the metropolis, never conceal their faces.
Throughout the greater part of Egypt, the most common dress of the women merely consists of the blue shirt or tob and tarhah. In the southern parts of Upper Egypt chiefly above Akhmeem, most of the women envelop themselves in a large piece of dark brown woolen stuff (called a hulaleeyeh), wrapping it round the body and attaching the upper parts together over each shoulder, and a piece of the same they use as a tarhah. This dull dress, though picturesque, is almost as distinguishing as the blue tinge which women in these parts of Egypt impart to their lips. Most of the women of the lower orders wear a variety of trumpery ornaments, such as ear-rings, necklaces, bracelets, &c., and sometimes a nose-ring.
The women of Egypt deem it more incumbent upon them to cover the upper and back part of the head than the face, and more requisite to conceal the face than most other parts of the person. I have often seen women but half covered with miserable rags, and several times female in the prime of womanhood, and others in more advanced age, with nothing on the body but a narrow strip of rag bound round the hips.
Mr. Burckhart, in his Notes on the Bedoiuns and Wahays (p. 47), thus describes the dress of the Badawis of the desert:-
In summer the men wear a coarse cotton shirt, over which the wealthy put a kambar, or "long gown," as it is worn in Turkish towns, of silk or cotton stuff. Most of them, however, do not wear the kambar, but simply wear over their shirt a woolen mantle. There are different sorts of mantles, one very thin, light, and white woolen, manufactured at Baghdad, and called mesoumy. A coarser and heavier kind, striped white and brown (worn over the mesoumy), is called abba. The Baghdad abbas are most esteemed, those called boush. (In the northern parts of Syria, every kind of woolen mantle, whether white, black, or striped white and brown, or white and blue, are called meshlakh.) I have not seen any black abbas among the Aenezes, but frequently among the sheikhs of Ahl el Shemal, sometimes interwoven with gold, and worth as much as ten pounds sterling. The Aenezes do not wear drawers; they walk and ride usually barefooted, even the richest of
them, although they generally esteem yellow boots and red shoes. All the Bedouins wear on the head, instead of the red Turkish cap, a turban, or square kerchief, of cotton or cotton and silk mixed; the turban is called keffie; this they fold about the head so that one corner falls backward, and tow other corners hang over the fore part of the shoulders; with these two corners they cover their faces to protect them from the sun's rays, or hot wind, or rain, or to conceal their features if they wish to be unknown. The keffie is yellow or yellow mixed with green. Over the keffie the Aenezes tie, instead of a turban, a cord round the head; this cord is of camel's hair, and called akal. Some tie a handkerchief about the head, and it is then called shutfa. A few rich sheikhs wear shawls on their heads of Damascus or Baghdad manufacture, striped red and white; they sometimes also use red caps or takle (called in Syria tarboush), and under those they wear a smaller cap or camel's hair called maaraka (in Syria arkye, where it is generally made of fine cotton stuff).
A BEDOUIN (BADAWI) OF THE DESERT.
The Azenezes are distinguished at first sight from all Syrian Bedouins by the long tresses of their hair. They never shave their black hair, but cherish it from infancy, till they can twist it in tresses, that hang over the cheeks down to the breast; these trousers are called keroun. Some few Aenezes wear girdles of leather, others tie a cord or a piece of rag over the shirt. Men and women wear from infancy a leather girdle around the naked waist, it consists of four or five thongs twisted together into a cord as thick as one's finger. I heard that the women tie their thongs separated from each other, round the waist. Both men and women adorn the girdles with pieces of ribands or amulets. The Aenezes called it hhakou; the Ahl el Shemal call it bereim. In summer the boys, until the are of seven or eight years, go stark naked; but I never saw any young girl in that state, although it was mentioned that in the interior of the desert the girls, at that early age, were not more encumbered by clothing than their little brothers. In winter, the Bedouins wear over the shirt a piece of pelisse, made of several sheep-skins stitched together; many wear these skins even in summer, because experience has taught them that the more warmly a person is clothed, the less he suffers from the sun. The Arabs endure the inclemency of the rainy season in a wonderful manner. While everything around them suffers from the cold, they sleep barefooted in an open tent, where the fire is not kept up beyond midnight. Yet in the middle of summer an Arab sleeps wrapped in his mantle upon the burning sand, and exposed to the rays of an intensely hot sun. The ladies dress is a wide cotton gown of dark color, blue, brown, or black; on their heads they wear a kerchief called shauber or mekroune, the young females having it of a red color, the old of black. All the Ranalla ladies wear black silk kerchiefs, two yards square, called shale kas; these are made at Damascus. Silver rings are much worn by the Aeneze ladies, both in the ears and noses; the ear-rings they call terkie (pl. teraky), the small nose-rings shedre, the larger some of which are three inches and a half in diameter), khezain. All the women puncture their cheeks, breasts, and arms, and the Ammour women their ankles. Several men also adorn their arms in the same manner. The Bedouin ladies half cover their faces with a dark-colored veil, called nekye, which is so tied as to conceal the chin and mouth. The Egyptian women's veil (berkoa is used by the Kebly Arabs. Round their waists the Aeneze ladies wear glass bracelets of various colors; the rich also have silver bracelets and some wear silver chains about the neck. Both in summer and winter the men and women go barefooted.
Captain Burton, in his account of Zanzibar, (vol I p 382), says:-
The Arab's head-dress is a kummeh or kofiyyah (red fez), a Surat calotte (afiyyah), or a white skull-cap, worn under a turban (kilemba) of Oman silk and cotton religiously mixed. Usually it is of fine blue and white cotton check, embroidered and fringed with broad red border, with the ends hanging in
unequal lengths over one shoulder. The couture is highly picturesque. The ruling family and grandees, however, have modified its vulgar folds, wearing it peaked in the front, and somewhat resembling a tiara. The essential body clothing, and the succedaneum for trousers is an izor (nguo yaku Chini), or loin-cloth, tucked in at the waist, six to seven feet long by three broad. The colors are brickdust and white, or blue and white, with a silk bordered striped red, black, and yellow. The very poor wear a dirty bit of cotton girdled by a hakab or kundavi, a rope of plaited thongs; the rich prefer a fine embroidered stuff from Oman, supported at the waist by a silver chain. None but the western Arabs admit the innovation of the drawers (suru-wali). The jama or upper garment is a collarless coat, of the best broad-cloth, leek green or some tender colour being preferred. It is secured over the left breast by a silken loop, and the straight wide sleeves are gaily lined. The kizbao, a kind of waistcoat, covering only the bust; some wear it with sleeves, others without. The dishdashes (in Kisawa-hili Khanzu), a narrow sleeved shirt buttoned at the throat, and extending to midshin, is made of calico baftah). American drill and other stuffs called doriyah, tatabuzum, and jamdani. Sailors are known by khuzerangi a course cotton, stained dingy red-yellow, with henna or pomegranate rind, and rank with wars (bastard saffron) and shark's oil.
Respectable men guard the stomach with a hizam, generally a Cashmere or Bombay shawl; others wear sashes of the dust-colored raw silk, manufactured in Oman. The outer garment for chilly weather is the long tight-sleeved Persian jubbeh, jokhah, or caftan, of European broad-cloth. Most men shave their heads, and the Shafeis trim or entirely remove the moustaches.
The palms are reddened with henna, which is either brought from El Hejaz, or gathered in the plantations. The only ring is a plain cornelian seal and the sole other ornament is a talisman (hirz in Kisawahili Hirizi). The eyes are blackened with kohl, or anitmony of El Sham - here not Syria, but the region about Meccah - and the mouth crimsoned by betel, looks as if a tooth had just been knocked out.
Dr. Eugene Schuyler, in his work on Turkestan (vol I, p 22) says:-
The dress of the central Asiatic is very simple. He wears loose baggy trousers, usually made of coarse white cotton stuff fastened tightly around the waist, with a cord and tassel; this is a necessary article of dress, and is never or rarely taken off, at all events not in the presence of another. Frequently, when men are at work, this is the only garment, and in that case it is gradually turned up under the cord, or rolled up to the legs, so that the person is almost naked. Over this is worn a long shirt, either white or of some light-colored print, reaching almost to the feet, and with a very narrow aperture for the neck, which renders in somewhat difficult to put the head through. The sleeves are long and loose. Beyond this there is nothing more but what is called the chapan, varying in number according to the weather, or the whim of the person. The chapan is a loose gown, cut very sloping in the neck, with strings to tie it together in the front; and inordinately large sleeves, made with an immense gore, and about twice as long as is necessary; exceedingly inconvenient, but useful to conceal the hands, as Asiatic politeness dictates. In summer, these are usually made of Russian prints, or of the native alatcha, a striped or cotton material, or of silk, either striped or with most gorgeous eastern patterns, in bright colors, especially red, yellow, and green. I have sometimes seen men with as many as four or five of these gowns, even in summer they say that it keeps out the heat. In winter, one gown will frequently be made of cloth, and lined with fine lamb skin or fur. The usual girdle is a large handkerchief, or a
AN AFGHAN CHIEF (A.F. Hole.)
Small shawl; at times, a long scarf wound several times tightly around the waist. The Jews in places under native rule are allowed no girdle, but a bit of rope or cord, as a mark of ignominy. From the girdle hand the accessory knives and several small bags and pouches, often prettily embroidered for combs, money &c. On the head there is a skull-cap; these in Tashkent are always embroidered with silk; in Bukhara they are usually worked with silk, or worsted in cross-stitched in gay patterns. The turban, called tchilpetch, or "Forty turns," is very long; and if the wearer has any pretence to elegance, it should be of fine thin material, which is chiefly imported from England. It requires considerable experience to wind one properly round the head, so that the folds will be well made and the appearance fashionable. One extremity is left to fall over the left shoulder, but is usually, except at prayer time, tucked in over the top. Should this end be on the right shoulder, it is said to be in the Afghan style. The majority of turbans are white, particularly so in Tashkent, though white is
especially the colour of the mullahs and religious people, whose learning is judged by the size of their turbans. In general, merchants prefer blue, stripped, or chequered material.
At home the men usually go barefooted, but on going out wear either a sort of slippers with pointed tow and very small high heels, or long soft boots the sole and upper being made of the same material. In the street, one must in addition put on either a slipper of golosh, or wear riding-boots made of bright green horse hide, with turned-up pointed toes and very small high heels.
The dress of the women, in the shape and fashion, differs but little from that of the men, as they wear similar trousers and shirts, though, in addition, they have long gowns, usually of bright-colored silk, which extend from the next to the ground. They wear an innumerable quantity of the necklaces, and little amulets, pendents in their hair, and ear-rings, and occasionally even a nose-ring. This is by no means so ugly as is supposed; a pretty girl with a turquoise ring in one nostril is not at all unsightly. On the contrary, there is something piquant in it. Usually, when outside of the houses, all respectable women wear a heavy black veil, reaching to their waists, made of woven horse hair, and over that is thrown a dark blue, or green, khalut, the sleeves of which tied together at the ends, dangle behind. The theory of this dull dress is, that the women desire to escape observation, and certainly for that purpose they have devise the most ugly and unseemly costume that could be imagined. They are, however, very inquisitive, and occasionally in bye-streets, one is able to get a good glance at them before they pull down their veils.
The dress of the citizens of Persia has been often described both by ancient and modern travelers. That of the men has changed very materially within the last century. The turban, as a head dress, is now worn by none but the Arabian inhabitants of that country. The Persians wear a long cap covered with lamb's wool, the appearance of which is sometimes improved by being encircled with a cashmere shawl. The inhabitants of the principal towns are fond of dressing richly. Their upper garments are either made of chintz, silk, or cloth and are often trimmed with gold or silver lace; they also wear brocade, and in winter their clothes are lined with furs, of which they import a great variety. It is not customary for any person, except the king to wear jewels; but nothing can exceed the profusion which he displays of these ornaments; and his subjects seem peculiarly proud of this part of royal magnificence. They assert that when the monarch is dressed in his most splendid robes, and is seared in the sun, that the eye cannot gaze on the dazzling brilliancy of his attire.
DRINKABLES Arabic ashribah There is a chapter in the Traditions devoted to this subject, and entitled Babu 'l-Ashribah. The example of Muhammad in his habit of drinking, having influenced the Eastern world in its habits, the following traditions are noticeable. Anas says "the Prophet has forbidden drinking water standing", and that he used to take breath three times in drinking; and would say drinking in this way cools the stomach, quenches the thirst and gives health and vigor to the body.
Ibn 'Abbas says that the Prophet forbade drinking water from the mouth of a leather bag.
Umm Salimah says "the Prophet said, He who drinks out of a silver cup drinks of hell fire." (Mishkat book xix c iii.)
DRINKING VESSELS There are four drinking vessels which Muslims were forbidden by their Prophet to drink out of (Mishkat, bk i c I) hantam a "green vessel"; dubba, a large gourd hollowed out; naqir, a cup made of the hollowed root of a tree; muzaffat, a vessel covered with pitch or with a glutinous substance. These four kinds of vessels seem to have been used for drinking wine, hence the prohibition.
When a dog drinks from a vessel used by man, it should be washed seven times (Mishkat, book iii c ix pt I)
DROWNING Arabic gharuq It is a strange anomaly in Muhammadan law, according to the teaching of Abu Hanifah, that if a person cause the death of another by immersing him under water until he die, the offence does not
amount to murder, and retaliation (visas) is not incurred. The arguments of the learned divine are as follows: First, water is analogous to a small stick or rod as is seldom or ever used in murder. Now, it is said in the Traditions that death produced by a rod is only manslaughter, and as in that a fine is merely incurred, so here likewise. Secondly, retaliation requires the observance of a perfect equality; but between drowning and wounding there is no equality, the former being short of the latter with regard to damaging the body. [MURDER.]
DRUNKENNESS Shurb denotes the state of a person who has taken intoxicating liquor, whilst sukr implies a state of drunkenness. Wine of any kind being strictly forbidden by the Muslim law, no distinction is made in the punishment of a wine-drinker and a drunkard. If a Muslim drinks wine, and two witnesses testify to his having done so, or if his breath smell of wine, or if he shall himself confess to having taken wine, or if he be found in a state of intoxication, he shall be beaten with eighty stripes, or in the case of a slave, forty stripes (Hidayah, vol. ii, p. 57; Mishkat, bk. xv c iv.) [KAMB.]
DRUZES. A heretical mystic sect of Muhammadans, which arose about the beginning of the eleventh century in the mountains of Syria. They are now chiefly found in the districts of Lebanon, and in the neighborhood of Damascus. They were founded by al-Hakim, the fanatical Khalifah of the Fatimite race, who reigned at Cairo, assisted by two Persians named Hamzah and al-Darazi, from the latter of whom the sect derives its name.
DeSacy, in his Exposť de la Religion des Druzes, gives the following summary of their belief:-
"To acknowledge only one God, without seeking to penetrate the nature of His being and of His attributes; to confess that He can neither be comprehended by the senses nor defined by words; to believe that the Divinity has shown itself to men at different epochs, under a human form, without participating in any of the weaknesses and imperfections of humanity; that it has shown itself at last, at the commencement of the fifth age of the Hejira, under the figure of Hakim Amr Allah; that that was the last of His manifestations, after which there is none other to be expected; that Hakim disappeared in the year 411 of the Hejira, to try the faith of His servants, to give room for the apostasy of hypocrites, and of those who had only embrace the true religion from the hope of worldly rewards; that in a short time he would appear again, full of glory and of majesty, to triumph over all his enemies, to extend his empire over all the earth, and to make His faithful worshipers happy forever; to believe that Universal Intelligence is the first of God's creatures, the only direct production of His omnipotence; that it has appeared upon the earth at the epoch of each of the manifestations of the Divinity, and has finally appeared since the time of Hakim under the figure of Hamza, son of Ahmad; that it is by His ministry that all the other creatures have been produced; that Hamza only possesses the knowledge of all truth, that he is the prime minister of the true religion, and that he communicates, directly or indirectly, with the other minister and with the faithful, but in different proportions, the knowledge and grace which he receives directly from the Divinity, and of which he is the sole channel; that he only has immediate access to God, and acts as a mediator to the other worshippers of the Supreme Being; acknowledges that Hamza is he to whom Hakim will confide his sword, to make his religion triumph, to conquer all his rivals, and to distribute rewards and punishments according to the merits of each one; to know the other ministers of religion and the rank which belongs to each of them; to give to each the obedience and submission which is their due; to confess that every soul has been created by the Universal Intelligence; that the number of men is always the same; and that souls pass successively into different bodies; that they are raised by their attachment to the truth to a superior degree of excellence, or are degraded by neglecting or giving up religious meditation; to practice the seven commandments which the religion of Hamza imposes on its followers, and which principally exacts from them the observance of truth, charity towards their brethren, the renunciation of their former religion, the most entire resignation and submission to the will of God; to confess that all preceding religions have only been types more or less perfect of the true religion, that all their ceremonial observances are only allegories, and that the manifestation of true religion requires the abrogation of every other creed. Such is the abridgement of the religious system taught in the books of the Druzes, of which Hamza is the author, and whose followers are called Unitarians."
There is a very full and correct account of the religious belief of the Druzes in the Researches into the Religions of Syria, by the Rev. J. Wortabet, M.D.. In this work, Dr. Wortabet gives the following Catechism of the Druzes, which express their belief with regard to Christianity:-
Q. "What do ye say concerning the gospel which the Christians hold?"
A. "That it is true; for it is the sayings of the Lord Christ, who was Salman el Pharisy during the life of Muhammad, and who is Hamzeh the son of Ali - not the false Christ who was born of Mary, for he was the son of Joseph."
Q. "Where was the true Christ when the false Christ was with the disciples?"
A. "He was among the disciples. He uttered the truths of the gospel and taught Christ, the son of Joseph, the institutes of the Christian religion; but when Jesus disobeyed the true Christ, he put hatred into the hearts of the Jews, so that they crucified him."
"What became of him after the crucifixion?"
A. "They put him into a grave, and the true Christ came and stole him, and gave out the report among men that Christ had risen out of the dead."
Q. "Why did he act in this manner?"
A. "That he might establish the Christian religion, and confirm its followers in what he had taught them."
Q. "Why did he act in such a manner as to establish error?"
A. "So that the Unitarians should be concealed in the religion of Jesus and none of them might be known."
Q. "Who was it that came from the grave and entered among the disciples when the doors were shut?"
A. "The living Christ, who is immortal, even Hamzeh, the son and slave of our Lord."
Q. "Who brought the gospel to light and preached it?"
A. "Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John."
Q. "Why did not the Christians acknowledge the unity of God?"
A. "Because God had not so decreed.
Q. "Why does God permit the introduction of evil and infidelity?"
A. "Because He chooses to mislead some from and to guide others, to the truth.
Q. "If infidelity and error proceed from Him, why does he punish those who follow them?"
A. "Because when He deceived them, they did not obey Him."
Q. "How can a deluded man obey, when he is ignorant of the true state of the case?"
A. "We are not bound to answer this question, for God is not accountable to his creatures for his dealings with them."
DU'A' "Prayer." The word du'a is generally used for supplication, as distinguished from salat, or the liturgical form of prayer e.g. Qur'an, Surah xiv 42: "O my Lord! Make me and my posterity to be constant in prayer (salat). O our Lord! And accept my supplication (du'a). [PRAYERS.]
DU'A'-I-MA'SUR Lit. "Recorded prayer." A term used for prayers which were offered up by the Prophet, and have handed down in the Tradaitions.
DU'A'U 'L-QUNUT , called also the Qunutu 'l-Witr, "The prayer said standing.: A form of prayer recited after the qara'ah in the night prayer. Recited by some sects in the early morning. It is found in the Traditions. It is al follows: -
"O God, we seek help from Thee, and forgiveness of sins.
"We believe in Thee and trust in Thee.
"We praise Thee. We thank Thee. We are not unthankful.
"We expel, and we depart from him who does not obey Thee.
"We serve Thee only, and to Thee do we pray.
"We seek Thee, we prostrate ourselves and we serve Thee.
"We hope for Thy mercy. We fear Thy punishments.
"Surely Thy judgements are upon the infidels."
DUALISM Professor Palmer, following the remarks of al-Baizawi the commentator, says there is a protest against the dualistic doctrine that Light and Darkness were two co-eternal principles, in the Qur'an, Surah vi 1: "Praised be God who created the heavens and the earth, and brought into being the Darkness and the Light." (Palmer's Qur'an, vol.i. p. 115; al-Baizawi in loco.)
AD-DUKHAN "The Smoke." The title of the XLIVth chapter of the Qur'an, in which the words occur (9th verse): "Expect thou the day when the heaven shall bring a palpable smoke."
DULDUL The name of the Prophet's mule which he gave to 'Ali.
DUMB, The. Arabic abkam pl. bukm.
The intelligible signs of a dumb person suffice to verify his bequests and render them valid; he may also execute a marriage contract, or give a divorce, or execute a sale or purchase, or sue or incur punishment by signs, but he cannot sue in a case of qisas, or retaliation for murder. This rule does not apply to a person who has been deprived of speech, but merely to one who has neem bron dumb. (Hidayah, vol. iv. P. 568.) A dumb person can also acknowledge or deny the faith by a sign.
AD-DURRATU 'L-BAIZA' Lit. "The pearl of light." A term used by Sufi mystics to express the 'aqlu 'l-awwal, the first intelligence which God is said to have created at the beginning of the animate world. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Suf'i Terms.)
DURUD ( a Persian word. Arabic as-Salat . A benediction; imploring mercy. A part of the stated prayer, recited immediately after the Tashahhud, whilst in the same posture. It is as follows: "O God, have mercy on Muhammad and on his descendants, as Thou didst have mercy on Abraham and on his descendants! Thou art to be praised, and Thou art great! O God, bless Muhammad and his descendants as Thou didst bless Abraham and his descendants. Thou art to be praised and Thou art great." The merits of this form of prayer are said to be very great; for, according to Anas, the Prophet said, "He who recites it will have blessings on his head ten times, ten sins will be forgiven, and he will be exalted ten step." (Mishkat, book iv. c. xvii.) [PRAYER.]
DUZAKH The Persian word for hell [HELL.]
DYER. According to the Imam Abu Hanifah, a dyer of cloth is at liberty to
detain it until he receives his hire for dyeing it; and if the cloth perish in the hands whilst it is detained, he is not responsible. (Hidayah, vol iii, 320.)
DYING, The. Very special instructions are given in Muslim books as to the treatment of the dying. In the Durru 'l-Muktar (p. 88) the friends of the dying are recommended, if possible, to turn the head of the dying towards Makkah, but if this be not convenient, his feet should be place in that direction and his head slightly raised. The Kalimatu 'sh-Shahadah should then be recited and the Surah Ya-Sin (xxxvi) and Suratu 'r-Rad (xiii) should be read from the Qur'an. When the spirit has departed from the body, the mouth should be tied up and the eyes closed and the arms straightened, and the body should be perfumed, and no unclean person should be suffered to approach the corpse. Immediate steps should then be taken for the washing of the corpse. [DEATH]
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