THE CALIPHATE

ITS RISE, DECLINE, AND FALL

FROM ORIGINAL SOURCES

BY
WILLIAM MUIR, K.C.S.I.
LL.D., D.C.L., PH.D (BOLOGNA)

A NEW AND REVISED EDITION BY
T. H. WEIR, M.A., D.D. (ABERDEEN)
Lecturer in Arabic in the University of Glasgow.
Author of "Arabic Prose Composition"
"Variants in the Gospel Reports"

EDINBURGH: JOHN GRANT
31 GEORGE IV BRIDGE

1924


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

CHAPTER I
11 A.H.—Death of Mohammad—Election of Abu Bekr—'Omar, 'Ali, Abu 'Obeida

CHAPTER II
Expedition of Usama to Syrian border

CHAPTER III
Attack of Bedawin on Medina; repelled by Abu Bekr

CHAPTER IV
Return of Usama—Bedawin chastised—Expeditions organized against apostate tribes

CHAPTER V
Khalid's Arabian campaign—Toleiha—Battle of Al-Buzakha—'Oyeina—Malik ibn Nuweira—Al-Yemama—Museilima—Garden of Death

CHAPTER VI
Apostasy crushed—Al-Bahrein, 'Oman, The Hijaz, Ibn Ma'dikerib, Al-Ash'ath—Freebooter burned to death

CHAPTER VII
Review—Reclaimed tribes at first sullen—Enthusiasm kindled by Syrian and Chaldaean campaigns—Arabs become aristocracy of the world—Arab slaves set free

CHAPTER VIII
12 A.H.—Al-Muthannaís campaign in Al-'Irak—Joined by Khalid—Battle of Chains—River of Blood—Al-Hira capitulates—'Ain at-Tamr—Duma stormed—Al-Firad—Khalidís incognito pilgrimage

CHAPTER IX
12-13 A.H.—Syrian campaign—Battle of Ajnadain— Capitulation of Fihl

CHAPTER X
Al-'Irak—Battle of Babylon—Al-Muthannaís appeal for reinforcements

CHAPTER XI
13 A.H.—Abu Bekr's death—'Omar nominated by him Caliph

CHAPTER XII
13-14 A.H.—'Omar's accession—Reinforcements for Al-'Irak—Rustem—Battle of the Bridge—Abu 'Obeid's defeat—Battle of Al-Buweib—Death of Al-Muthanna

CHAPTER XIII
14 A.H.—Syria—Fall of Damascus

CHAPTER XIV
Al-'Irak—Fresh levies—Sa'd—Yezdejird—Rustemís advance—Battle of Al-Kadisiya—Discomfiture of Persian army

CHAPTER XV
15-16 A.H.—Al-Hira reoccupied—Fall of Al-Medain

CHAPTER XVI
16 A.H.—Battle of Jalula—'Omar forbids advance—Al-Kufa and Al-Basra—Land settlement of Al-'Irak

CHAPTER XVII
15 A.H.—Northern Syria, Hims, Antioch—Heraclius retires—Battle of the Yarmuk

CHAPTER XVIII
Jerusalem submits to 'Omar—His visit—Ordinance of 'Omar

CHAPTER XIX
17 A.H.—Northern Syria and Mesopotamia—Attack by Greeks and Bedawin—Beni 'Iyad and Taghub—Fall of Caesarea—Khalid's trial and deposition

CHAPTER XX
14-15 A.H.—Jews and Christians expelled from Arabia—Register of Arab tribes—Civil and military administration—Kor'an "collected"

CHAPTER XXI
18 A.H.—Famine—Plague—'Omar visits Syria—Mu'awiya—Bilal

CHAPTER XXII
19-20 A.H.—Conquest of Egypt—Alexandria

CHAPTER XXIII
16-20 A.H.—Southern Persia—Sus—Tomb of Daniel—Al-Hormuzan

CHAPTER XXIV
21-22 A.H.—Conquest of Persia—Battle of Nihavend—Flight of Yezdejird

CHAPTER XXV
17-23 A.H.—Domestic events—Court of Ka'ba enlarged—Al-Moghira's trial—Al-Kufa—Al-Basra—Era of Hijra—Laxity of morals—'Omar's simple life

CHAPTER XXVI
23 A.H.—Death of 'Omar—Appointment of Electors

CHAPTER XXVII
23-24 A.H.—'Othman—Murder of Al-Hormuzan

CHAPTER XXVIII
24-35 A.H.—Arabs and Koreish—Hashimites and Umeiyads—Campaigns in East and West—Naval victory

CHAPTER XXIX
30-34 A.H.—Unpopularity of 'Othman—Discontent at Al-Kufa and Al-Basra—Recension of Kor'an—Abu Dharr—Other causes—Naila

CHAPTER XXX
33-34 A.H.—Growing disaffection—Outbreak at Al-Kufa—'Ali warns 'Othman

CHAPTER XXXI
34-35 A.H.—Outlook darkens—Conference of Governors—Mu'awiya's help declined

CHAPTER XXXII
35 A.H.—Conspirators attack Medina—Palace besieged—'Othman slain

CHAPTER XXXIII
35-36 A.H.—Election of 'Ali—Excitement at Damascus—War proclaimed against Mu'awiya

CHAPTER XXXIV
36 A.H.—'Aisha at Mecca—Joined by Talha and Az-Zubeir—They seize Al-Basra

CHAPTER XXXV
'Ali's advance on Al-Basra—Battle of the Camel—Talha and Az-Zubeir killed—'Aisha retires to Medina

CHAPTER XXXVI
Al-Kufa seat of Government—Egypt—Mu'awiya at Damascus threatens regicides

CHAPTER XXXVII
36-37 A.H.—Hostilities between 'Ali and Mu'awiya—Battle of Siffin—Arbitration—Abu Musa and 'Amr, Umpires

CHAPTER XXXVIII
37 A.H.—Khawarij rebel against 'Ali—Yield to him

CHAPTER XXXIX
Decision of Umpires—Mu'awiya Caliph at Damascus

CHAPTER XL
'Ali marches against Mu'awiya—Recalled by Khariji outbreak—Battle of Nahrawan—Khawarij

CHAPTER XLI
38 A.H.—'Amr takes Egypt for Mu'awiya

CHAPTER XLII
38-40 A.H.—Khariji risings—Ziyad—Treaty between 'Ali and Mu'awiya

CHAPTER XLIII
40 A.H.—Khariji conspiracy—'Ali assassinated—Mu'awiya escapes

CHAPTER XLIV
40-41 A.H.—Al-Hasan—Abdicated in favour of Mu'awiya—Death of Al-Hasan

CHAPTER XLV
40-60 A.H.—Mu'awiya sole Caliph—Death of 'Amr and Al-Moghira—Ziyad—Africa; Kairawan—Attack on Constantinople—Mohammad's pulpit

CHAPTER XLVI
56 A.H.—Yezid declared Heir-apparent—Forms a precedent—Yezid's Bedawi mother

CHAPTER XLVII
60-61 A.H.—Yezid—Ibn az-Zubeir at Mecca—Al-Hosein marches on Al-Kufa—Tragedy of Kerbala—Death of Al-Hosein—The Moharram

CHAPTER XLIII
61-64 A.H.—'Alid reaction—Ibn az-Zubeir affects Caliphate—Mecca besieged—Death of Yezid

CHAPTER XLIX
64-73 A.H.—Mu'awiya II.—Merwan—'Abd al-Melik—Tribal hostilities—Al-Mukhtar seizes Al-Kufa—Slays "Murderers" of Al-Hosein—Mus'ab beaten—Al-Kufa gained—Al-Hajjaj storms Mecca—Ibn az-Zubeir's death

CHAPTER L
73-86 A.H.—'Abd al-Melik (continued)—Al-Hajjaj—Azarika—Al-Muhallab—Ibn al-Ash'ath—Wasit—Mint—Ibn Khazim

CHAPTER LI
86-96 A.H.—Al-Welid—'Omar at Medina—Death of Al-Hajjaj—Koteiba—Khorasan—Al-Multan—India—Africa—Spain—Fall of Musa—Glory of Al-Welid

CHAPTER LII
96-99 A.H.—Suleiman—Khorasan—Koteiba's rebellion—Yezid, son of Al-Muhallab—Attack on Constantinople

CHAPTER LIII
99-101 A.H.—'Omar II.—Fall of Yezid—Efforts at conversion

CHAPTER LIV
101-105 A.H.—Yezid II.—Rebellion of Yezid, son of Al-Muhallab—Narbonne—Hashimite canvass—Collectors of tradition

CHAPTER LV
105-125 A.H.—Hisham—Hashimites; 'Alids and 'Abbasids—Al-Kufa—Yusuf—Zeid—Central Asia—India—Armenia—Africa—France—Charles Martel—Just reign

CHAPTER LVI
125-126 A.H.—Al-Welid II.—Yezid III.—Khorasan—Nasr—'Abbasid canvass—Merwan's advance—Compromise—Death of Yezid III.

CHAPTER LVII
126-130 A.H.—Ibrahim—Merwan II.—Ibn Mu'awiya—Suleiman Ad-Dahhak—Khawarij—Spain slips from Caliphate

CHAPTER LVIII
64-130 A.H.—The Arab tribal feuds in Khorasan

CHAPTER LIX
130-132 A.H.—Merwan II. (continued)—'Abbasids in Khorasan—Abu Muslim—Nasr's flight—Al-Kufa taken by 'Abbasids—Battle of Zab—Merwan's death

CHAPTER LX
132-656 A.H.—'Abbasid Dynasty—General features

CHAPTER LXI
132-136 A.H.—Abu'l-'Abbas—Hashimiya—Persecution of Umeiyads—Ibn Hubeira—Abu Muslimís pilgrimage

CHAPTER LXII
136-158 A.H.—Abu Ja'far al-Mansur—Abu Muslim put to death—Rawendiya—Khorasan, Al-Mehdi—Ibrahimís rebellion—Bagdad—Umeiyads in Spain—Barmekis—Pilgrimage—Literature

CHAPTER LXIII
158-169 A.H.—Al-Mehdi—Growing laxity—Manichaeans—War with Greece

CHAPTER LXIV
169-193 A.H.—Al-Hadi—Harun ar-Rashid—Nicephorus—Fall of Barmekis—Harun dies at Tus—Glory of his reign

CHAPTER LXV
193-198 A.H.—Al-Amin—Al-Ma'mun—Bagdad besieged—Tahir and Harthama—Death of Al-Amin

CHAPTER LXVI
198-218 A.H.—Al-Ma'mun (continued)—'Alid predilections—Bagdad revolts—'Ali ar-Rida—Ibrahim rival Caliph—Al-Ma'mun at Bagdad—Tahirids—Babek—Heterodoxy—Brilliant reign

CHAPTER LXVII
218-232 A.H.—Al-Mo'tasim—Turkish soldiery—Samarra—Bebek—Amorion—Al-Wathik Heterodoxy—Ahmed the Martyr

CHAPTER LXVIII
232-247 A.H.—Al-Mutawakkil—Return to Orthodoxy—Ordinance against Jews and Christians—Saffarids—Assassination

CHAPTER LXIX
247-256 A.H.—Al-Muntasir—Al-Musta'in—Rebellion—Siege of Bagdad—Al-Mo'tazz—Wasif and Bogha—Ahmed ibn Tulun—Al-Mohtadi—Riot at Bagdad

CHAPTER LXX
256-279 A.H.—Al-Mo'tamid and Al-Muwaffak—Zenj rebellion—Saffarids—Tulunid Dynasty

CHAPTER LXXI
279-295 A.H.—Al-Mo'tadid—Al-Muktafi—Egypt—War with Greeks

CHAPTER LXXII
Ismailians and Carmathians—Fatimid Dynasty—Druses—Assassins

CHAPTER LXXIII
295-329 A.H.—Al-Muktadir—Al-Kahir—Ar-Radi

CHAPTER LXXIV
329-344 A.H.—Al-Muttaki—Hamdan Chiefs—Ikshidids—Al-Mustakfi—Buweihids

CHAPTER LXXV
334-447 A.H.—Buweihid Dynasty—Al-Muti', At-Tai', Al-Kadir, and Al-Kaim, Caliphs

CHAPTER LXXVI
447-575 A.H.—Bagdad under Seljuks—Toghril Beg—Al-Muktadi and four following Caliphs—Crusades—Capture of Jerusalem—End of Fatimids

CHAPTER LXXVII
575-640 A.H.—An-Nasir, his Son and Grandson—Khwarizm Shah—Jenghiz Khan

CHAPTER LXXVIII
640-656 A.H.—Al-Musta'sim, last of the Caliphs—Hulagu takes Bagdad—Caliph put to death—End of 'Abbasid Dynasty

CHAPTER LXXIX
659-926 A.H.—Spurious Caliphate under Memluk Kings of Egypt—Osmanli Conquest

REVIEW

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 


Citation template for bibliographies:— Muir, Sir William. The Caliphate: Its Rise, Decline, and Fall. Revised edition by T. H. Weir. John Grant, Edinburgh, 1924 (www.answering-islam.org/Books/Muir/Caliphate/).
The complete book can also be downloaded as a zip file.

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