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CHAPTER XLV.

ENTITLED SURAT AL JASIYAH (KNEELING).

Revealed at Makkah.

INTRODUCTION.


THE title of this chapter is derived from verse 27, where it is said that in the judgment every nation shall be seen kneeling before God. The general outline of the teaching of this chapter differs little from that of other chapters enunciated at Makkah. God is declared to have revealed himself to Muhammad in the Quran. Before this he had revealed himself to men in his works of creation and providence, and to the children of Israel in the Law and the Prophets. Infidels may reject this new revelation, but they shall realise, only too late for repentance to avail, that they have committed a fatal error.

The main point of interest to the Christian is the plain recognition of the Jewish Scriptures as the Word of God, preceding in date of revelation the Quran. Muslims are, therefore, bound to receive the Bible as the Word of God.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

NoŽldeke places the date of this chapter immediately after that of chap. xli. This agrees very well with the circumstances of the Muslims revealed in this chapter. Much depends upon what is implied in the exhortation of vers. 13 and 14. if the exhortation is intended to restrain the Muslims from violent resentment of the insults poured upon them, the date assigned above may be regarded as pretty correct. If, however, the exhortation implies actual persecution of Muslims, the date must be fixed at a later day.

Principal Subjects.

The Quran a revelation from God ... I
God revealed in his works . . .2-5
Punishment of those who reject the Quran . . . 6-10


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God's mercy seen in his works of providence ... 11, 12
Muslims exhorted to forgive the unbelievers . .. 13, 14
The Book of the law, wisdom, and prophecy given to the Israelites . . .15,16
Muhammad received the Quran. . . . 17-19
The wicked and just not rewarded alike . 20
Unbelievers and idolaters threatened . .. 21, 22
God the author of life, therefore may raise the dead .. . 23-25
Contrasted condition of believers and unbelievers in the judgment . . .26-34
Praise to the Lord of the universe .. . 35, 36

IN THE NAME OF THE MOST MERCIFUL GOD.

R 1/17.

(1) H. M. The revelation of this book is from the mighty, the wise GOD. (2) Verily both in heaven and earth are signs of the divine power unto the true believers: (3) and in the creation of yourselves, and of the beasts which are scattered over the face of the earth are signs unto people of sound judgment; (4) and also in the vicissitude of night and day, and the rain which GOD sendeth down from heaven, whereby he quickeneth the earth after it hath been dead: in the change of the winds also are signs unto people of understanding. (5) These are the signs of GOD; we rehearse them unto thee with truth. In what revelation therefore will they believe, after they have

(1) H.M. See Prelim. Disc., pp 100-102.

This book is, &c. See note on chap. xl. 2.

(3) "By the days of God, in this place, are meant the prosperous successes of his people in battle against the infidels. The passage is said to have been revealed on account of Omar, who being reviled by one of the tribes of Ghafar, was thinking to revelige himself by force. Some are of opinion that this verse is abrogated by that of War."- Sale, Baidhawi.

Since, according to Muslim belief, God will not pardon those who, having injured their fellow-men, have failed to secure pardon from them, this precept would amount to a refusal to allow enemies to escape the Divine wrath. See Prelim. Disc., pp. 145, 146. The forbearance towards enemies inculcated here was, however, dictated by policy. See note on chap. ii. 108.


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rejected GOD and his signs? (6) Woe unto every lying and impious person; (7) who heareth the signs of GOD, which are read unto him, and afterwards proudly persisteth in infidelity, as though he heard them not: (denounce unto him a painful punishment:) (8) and who, when he cometh to the knowledge of any of our signs, receiveth the same with scorn. For these is prepared a shameful punishment: (9) before them lieth hell; and whatever they shall have gained shall not avail them at all, neither shall the idols which they have taken for their patrons besides GOD; and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. (10) This is a true direction; and for those who disbelieve the signs of their LORD, is prepared the punishment of a painful torment.

R 2/18.

(11) It is GOD who hath subjected the sea unto you, that the ships may sail therein, at his command; and that ye may seek advantage unto yourselves by commerce, of his bounty; and that ye may give thanks: (12) and he obligeth whatever is in heaven and on earth to serve you; the whole being from him. Verily herein are signs unto people who consider. (13) Speak unto the true believers, that they forgive those who hope not for the days of GOD, that he may reward people according to what they shall have wrought. (14) Whoso doeth that which is right doth it to the advantage of his own soul; and whoso doeth evil doth it against the same: hereafter shall ye return unto your LORD. (15) We gave unto the children of Israel the book of the law, and wisdom, and prophecy; and we fed them with good things, and preferred them above all nations: (16) and we gave them plain ordinances concerning the business of religion; neither do they fall to variance, except after that knowledge had come unto them, through envy among themselves: but thy LORD will decide the controversy between them on the day of resurrection, concerning that wherein

(16) See notes on chap. xliii. 63.


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they disagree. (17) Afterwards we appointed thee, O Muhammad, to promulgate a law concerning the business of religion: wherefore follow the same, and follow not the desires of those who are ignorant. (18) Verily they shall not avail thee against GOD at all; the unjust are the patrons of one another; but GOD is the patron of the pious. (19) This Quran delivereth evident precepts unto mankind; and is a direction and a mercy unto people who judge aright. (20) Do the workers of iniquity imagine that we will deal with them as with those who believe and do good works, so that their life and their death shall be equal? An ill judgment do they make.

R 3/19.

(21) GOD hath created the heavens and the earth in truth, that he may recompense every soul according to that which it shall have wrought; and they shall not be treated unjustly. (22) What thinkest thou ? He who taketh his own lust for his God, and whom GOD causeth knowingly to err, and those ears and whose heart he hath sealed up, and over whose eyes he hath cast a veil; who shall direct him, after GOD shall have forsaken, him? Will ye therefore not be admonished? (23) They say, There is no other life, except our present life: we die, and we live; and nothing but time destroyeth us. But they have no knowledge in this matter; they only follow a vain opinion. (24) And when our evident signs are rehearsed unto them, their argument which they offer against the same is no other than that they say, Bring to life our fathers who have been dead; if ye speak truth. (25) Say, GOD giveth you life; and afterwards causeth you to die: hereafter will he assemble you together on the day of resurrection; there is no doubt thereof; but the greater part of men do not understand.

(17) Of those who are ignorant. "That is, of the principal Quraish, who were urgent with Muhammad to return to the religion of his forefathers."- Sale.

(22) Whom God causeth knowingly to err. See note and reference's in chap. vii. 179, 180.


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R 4/20.

(26) Unto GOD appertaineth the kingdom of heaven and earth; and the day whereon the hour shall be fixed, on that day shall those who charge the Quran with vanity perish. (27) And thou shalt see every nation kneeling: every nation shall be called unto its book of account; and it shall be said unto them, This day shall ye be rewarded according to that which ye have wrought. (28) This our book will speak concerning you with truth; therein have we written down whatever ye have done. (29) As to those who shall have believed and done good works, their LORD shall lead them into his mercy: this shall be manifest felicity. (30) But as to the infidels, it shall be said unto them, Were not my signs rehearsed unto you? but ye proudly rejected them, and became a wicked people (31) And when it was said unto you, Verily the promise of GOD is true: and as to the hour of judgment, there is no doubt thereof: ye answered, We know not what the hour of judgment is: we hold an uncertain opinion only; and we are not well assured of this matter. (32) But on that day the evils of that which they have wrought shall appear unto them; and that which they mocked at shall encompass them: (33) and it shall be said unto them, This day will we forget you, as ye did forget the meeting of this your day: and your abode shall be hell-fire; and ye shall have none to deliver you. (34) This shall ye suffer, because ye turned the signs of GOD to ridicule; and the life of the world deceived you. On this day, therefore, they shall not be taken forth from thence, neither shall they be asked any more to render themselves well-pleasing unto God. (35) Wherefore praise be unto GOD, the LORD of the heavens, and the LORD of the earth; the LORD of all creatures: (36) and unto him be glory in heaven and earth; for he is the mighty, the wise God.

(27) Every nation. "The original word, ummat, properly signifies people profess one and the same law or religion."-Sale. The followers of each of the great prophets constitute an ummat.

This day shall ye be rewarded &c. See Prelim. Disc., pp.144,145.


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