1 "Malay Magic," by W. W. Skeat, London, 1900.

2 I have not found this stated in the Traditions, but it is a well known belief in Egypt and in Arabia.

3 Palmer's translation is used throughout.

4 'The Qarina. The belief in the Qarina shows itself in the common speech of the people. When an Egyptian wishes to send some one away he always uses the expression Rukh-anta-wa-huwa, i.e., Go thou and he. The latter pronoun refers to the man's demon mate or Qarina.

5 Many stories are related of the terrible consequences that follow beating a cat. These stories are credited even by the educated.

6 The unseen world, Hades, the abode of Souls after death and before birth.

7 A translation of this is given in the chapter on amulets, charms and knots.

8 This portion shows Jewish origin and gives some of the Hebrew names of God-Jehovah.

9 These are the mystical letters which occur in the Koran text.

10 "Al Damiri - Hayat-ul-Hayawan." Vol.I, p. 470. (English Translation by Jayakar.)