THE SWORD OF MUHAMMAD AND ALI
IN the concluding chapter of Sir William Muir’s Life of Mahomet he speaks of “the sword as the inevitable penalty for the denial of Islam” and continues: “The sword of Mahomet and the Coran are the most fatal enemies of civilization, liberty, and truth, which the world has yet known.” 1 That is a very strong and a very sweeping statement. What did he mean by the sword of Mohammed? Where did Mohammed get it, and how did he use it? It was Thomas Carlyle who first asked that question: “Much has been said of Mahomet’s propagating his Religion by the Sword. It is no doubt far nobler what we have to boast of the Christian Religion, that it propagated itself peaceably in the way of preaching and conviction. . . . The sword indeed. But where will you get your sword! Every new opinion, at its starting, is precisely in a minority of one. . . . You must get your sword.” 2
However Mohammed may have got his sword, Islam has certainly made much of it and woven legends around the battlefield of Badr, where as far as we know, the Prophet first used it to shed the blood of unbelievers in his mission.
It is a long and interesting story, and less known than other details of his life; also one which has left a permanent influence on his followers. When Khalid won his victory over the recalcitrant tribe of Bni Jazma, who dwelt a day’s march south of Mecca, and butchered most of his prisoners, he got for himself the title “The Sword of God” from the lips of Mohammed, although he did not altogether approve of the act. 3 Among the ancient Arabs the sword was always a type of personality. Thus Zaid ibn ‘Ali boasts:
“The wielded sword-blade knows my hand,
while ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, the greatest hero of Islam, has some famous verses attributed to him, which are everywhere in Arabia quoted to indicate his renowned prowess in battle:
“Our flowers are the sword and dagger,
To those who have lived with the Bedouin of the desert and know their daily life, it is not surprising to hear them quote the proverb, “The history of the sword is the history of humanity,” and again, “If there were no sword there would be no law of Mohammed.” The latest traveller in Yemen , Ameen Rihani, writes: “I am not exaggerating when I say that a permanent state of war, with short intervals of peace, is the prevailing condition in Al-Yaman. It was an open field always for one Saif-ul-Islam (Sword of Islam) or other during Turkish régime.” 5 Arabic dictionaries boast that the language has a thousand words for sword, and Arabian dynasties from the first century of Islam to the present day have risen and fallen only by the sword.
It is at the battle of Badr that we first meet Mohammed with a sword. According to the Arab chronicles this was one of the decisive battles of history. What part the Prophet himself took is not clear. Some traditions represent him as moving along the ranks with a drawn sword, but this is not likely. 6 He probably contented himself with inciting his followers by the promise of divine assistance and the prospect of paradise; for he had no sword, as far as we know, until he received one which became famous as part of the booty at the end of the battle of Badr. Without going into detail, we quote an account of the distribution of that booty from Muir (p. 113):
“In accordance with these commands, the booty was gathered together on the field, and placed under a special officer. The next day it was divided, near Safra, in equal allotments, among the whole army, after the royal fifth had been set apart. All shared alike, excepting that the horsemen received each two extra portions for their horses. To the lot of every man fell a camel, with its gear; or two unaccoutred camels; or a leathern couch, or some equivalent. Mahomet obtained the famous camel of Abu Jahl, and a sword known by the name of Dzul Ficar. The sword was selected by him beyond his share, according to a custom which allowed him, in virtue of the prophetic dignity, to choose from the booty, before division, whatever thing pleased him most.” (Cf. Sa hi h of Muslim, ed. Constantinople, 1329, Part IV, p. 146.)
This famous sword is, in some traditions, said to have been given to Mohammed by the archangel Gabriel, and bequeathed by him to his son-in-law ‘Ali, who cleft with it the skull of Marhab, the giant Jew warrior of Khaibar fort. 7 Its peculiar shape seems to be traditional, and pictures of the sword are found in every part of the Moslem world from Morocco to China. It appears upon the arms of the Zaidite princes of Yemen , and there is a representation of it on a Turkish standard, some twenty feet long, taken by Don Juan of Austria from the Turks at Lepanto. 8
Our frontispiece is a reproduction of a Chinese picture of this sword of Mohammed, printed in Peking. 9 Toward the left there is an account in Chinese, which may be summarized as follows:
“There was a rebellious person named Abu Sufyan who led an army of seven thousand men. He desired the imperial robe of Medina which was received by Mohammed from Allah. In accordance with the will of Allah three thousand infantry stood true and protected Mohammed in a bloody fight. The most worthy ‘Ali was sent to lead the believers, but his valuable sword suddenly broke, but Allah in a decree sent the angel Gabriel to fetch a magical two-edged sword, Dhu’l-Faq ar, from heaven, which was abundantly ornate. This he handed down to the Prophet, who in turn gave it to ‘Ali, the most worthy. Thus with this sword he was able to aid the infantry to destroy the enemy, and moreover, to defeat them completely. Hereafter he was able to cut down and exterminate any violent revolt, and to open the road for truth through all hidden and uncertain country.”
The two Chinese characters on the side of the sword read: “to avoid uncanny influences,” which would seem to indicate the use of this picture of the sword as an amulet. On the blade of peculiar shape are the familiar words “La fata mithl ‘Ali, wa la saif mithl Dhu’l-Faq ar,” that is “There is no hero like ‘Ali, and there is no sword like the Dhu’l-Faq ar.” To the left of the sword in the picture is the Prophet’s rosary, and to the right his seal of office. The two solar discs contain the Arabic mottoes: “To God belongs mercy,” and “To God belongs blessing.” The crescent and the seven stars are symbolic. The brief words in Chinese are the name of the printer.
In Persian art there is no more familiar figure than ‘Ali with the famous sword, Dhu’l-Faq ar. A reproduction of it, taken from a Persian mirror-case, is given in the Encyclopædia of Islam (vol. i. p. 961). From the accompanying article by E. Mittwoch we learn that, according to tradition, the sword previously belonged to an infidel named Munabbih b. al-Hajjaj. The name of the sword is connected with the expression Saif Mufaqqar, “sword with the notch.” It is mentioned in several hadiths, which have been collected, for example by Ibn Saad, ii. 2 (near the end of that section) among the Shama’il in the section fi Suyuf al-Nabi. According to one of these traditions the sword bore an inscription referring to the blood-money, which ended with the words “la yuqtal muslim bik afir” (“No Muslim shall be slain for an unbeliever”).
According to tradition and Moslem art, the sword was not only two-edged, but had a forked or swallow-tailed blade. This particular form of sword, according to Burton , may have been derived from the Greeks and the Latins, or from the double-pointed chisels still common in Egypt today. I have seen examples of such forked daggers in Yemen ; and there are instances of them on the monuments of Assyria . Illustrations may also be found of similar forms in Indian daggers. 10 This would seem to give the true derivation of the word Dhu’l-Faq ar, which Burton rendered “the Lord of Cleaving,” though it might perhaps be rendered “the Cloven Blade.” Lane in his Lexicon says (p. 2426), “It was thus named because there were in it small, beautiful hollows, meaning small scallops in the edge, such as some modern swords have, for the more easy cleaving of coats-of-mail.” But the same root-word is used for the vertebrae of the back, and it would seem that the sword received this name not only from its shape, but from its power of execution. A man whose back is broken is called mafq ur.
According to many traditions, this sword became one of Mohammed’s most precious possessions, and is mentioned among the things which he bequeathed at his death. The relics of Mohammed form a special subject of legend in the collections of traditions. 11 None among the companions of Mohammed would seem to be more entitled to inherit his sword than ‘Ali. He was both a cousin and a son-in-law of the Prophet, and became the fourth orthodox Caliph. Some say he was the first male convert to Islam, and the Prophet promised him paradise as a special portion. He received sixteen wounds at Ohod, and carried the banner on the day of victory at Khaibar. He smashed idols, destroyed images and levelled graves in Medina. 12 He is pictured as the great warrior of early Islam, and is said to have punished infidels by death through fire. 13 From the earliest time legends gathered around him, as hero-warrior and saint. In the battle of Siff in he is said to have killed five hundred and twenty-three men in one day with his sword. Afterwards, extraordinary feats were told of him: how he had severed heads from bodies and hewn bodies in two with his sabre, Dhu’l-Faq ar. 14
Because ‘Ali was the second proud possessor of this magic weapon, we are not surprised that Shi‘ah tradition magnifies the sword of Mohammed. In Hyat-ul-Kuloob, a famous account of Mohammed’s life and character, translated from the Persian by the Reverend James L. Merrick ( Boston , 1850), there are the following embellishments (pp. 88, 253, 255). We retain the peculiar spelling:
“Authentic traditions declare that Mohammed had three caps, one of which was white. One of them having ear-pieces he was accustomed to wear in battle. He had a slender staff, on which he leaned while addressing the people. He had likewise a walking-stick called Memshook, a tent named Akan, and a cup denominated Matbah, and a vessel entitled Rayy. He had two horses, one called Merbaz, and the other Sekeb; and two mules, Duldul and Shahba, and two she-camels, Ghasba and Jedan. He possessed four swords, Zoolfakar, Aun, Mejzim and Rasoom. He owned an ass called Yafoor. His turban was named Sahab, and his coat of mail Zat-ul-Fazool. He banner was entitled Akab, and his pack-camel Deebaj. He had a flag called Maloom, and a helmet named Asad. At his death he gave all these articles and animals to Aly, and also took off his ring and put it on Aly’s finger. The commander of the faithful says that in the scabbard of one of the swords he found a writing that contained much wisdom, of which were these three sentences: Adhere to those that forsake you; Speak the truth though to your disadvantage; Do good to every one that does ill by you.”
“At the battle of Ohod, Ibn-Kimyah assaulted Mohammed, and aiming a blow at his shoulder, shouted that he had killed him. The Prophet’s glance now fell on a cowardly fellow of the Muhajerees, who was running away with his shield hung on his back. ‘Throw down your shield and go to hell!’ cried Mohammed. The fellow actually dropped his shield, which was taken by Neseebah and borne in defence of the Prophet, who declared her reward for the day greater than that of Abubekr, Omar and Osman. Aly fought till his sword was broken, and then the Prophet gave him his sword, Zoolfakar, by which he sent every wretch that ventured to attack the Prophet to the lowest hell. Mohammed retired to Mount Ohod , which protected him in the rear and prevented his being surrounded by his enemies. Aly received ninety wounds, all in front, in defending the Prophet, and often charged and routed the idolaters that advanced to the attack. The Musulmans heard a voice from heaven, saying, There is no sword but Zoolfakar, and no hero but Aly.”
But in the same book there is a discrepancy, for again we read:
“Aly, according to some traditions, received forty wounds at the battle of Ohod. The Prophet took water in his mouth and ejected it on the wounds, which were so completely healed that not a trace of them remained. When Aly’s sword was broken in the battle. Mohammed took a dry branch of a date-tree, which became Zoolfakar, and gave it to Aly.”
It is in the famous miracle-play of Hasan and Husain, as collected from oral tradition by Colonel Sir Lewis Pelly, that we have the legend of Dhu’l-Faq ar fully developed. In this drama and tragedy of the plains of Kerbela , annually re-enacted in every city of Persia , ‘Ali is the central figure, the hero and redeemer of his people. In the fourth scene he offers to sacrifice his life for a fellow-creature. The scene opens with “the holy family” of five (Mohammed, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husain), seated in dire want, kept from starvation by heavenly nymphs who bring down trays of fresh dates. 15 “Then in anguish of mind ‘Ali goes out for a ride on his mule, partly with the view of seeking employment, and partly with the idea of driving care from his mind. On his way he meets with a young man anxious to slay him, and thereby obtain as wife a certain lady, whose father desired the head of ‘Ali as a dowry for his daughter. ‘Sever my head from my body, thou foolish young man, and return to thy country rejoicing,’ was the ready rejoinder of the Bayard of Islam, who made no scruple to sacrifice his own life in order to benefit a fellow-creature. The eyes of the youth, however, were suddenly enlightened, and he begged forgiveness.” Such is a summary of the plot. There follow the passages that deal with the famous sabre of Mohammed
“The King (to the Youth):—There is no refusal to what thou sayest, but I have a request too. I demand a good dowry for her. If thou canst get me the head of ‘Ali, the chief of the true believers, as a dowry for thy cousin, thou mayest have her for a wife.
“The Youth in Love:—O uncle! I have heard many say that ‘Ali has a sword which in fact is a dragon. Its name is Zu’l-faqar; it has two points in reference to life and death. It is not an easy thing in the world to cut ‘Ali’s head, nor can it be performed by human agency.
“The King:—There is no other way of attaining her.
“. . . The Youth (seeing the Zu’l-faqar):—What precious and beautiful weapon is that? I think good luck attends me on this my journey. What have this horse and scymetar to do with a slave? Royal weapons are fit for royal persons only. O young Arab, whose are this horse and sword which cannot be equalled in all the world? . . .
“. . . Gabriel:—Thou prince of the two worlds, thou protector of the faithful, thou leader of men and jinns, O chief of believers! it is engraved on the seal of the universe, ‘There is no youth but ‘Ali, and no sword but Zu’l-faqar.’ . . .
“. . . Michael:—The breasts of jinns and angels are ravished with joy and delight. God and His Prophet are witness of the truth of what I say. The Creator of the world has declared that there is none like ‘Ali, no youth but ‘Ali, no sword but Zu’l-faqar. . . .
“. . . ‘Ali (putting down the Youth):—Thou unbelieving wretch, ignorant of God and his religion, bare thy neck quickly to the edge of the dagger. If thou become a Musulman thou shalt obtain quarter; if not, thou shalt at once receive a blow from my soul-destroying sword.”
And then the hero-warrior relents at the cry of the lovelorn youth and offers to die in his stead, while Gabriel exclaims: “O holy ones! ‘Ali is offering his head for the sake of the people of the Prophet’s family.” 16
So much for the Sword of Mohammed and ‘Ali in the Shi‘ah tradition.
Entirely apart from these sanguinary legends we have the fact that from the very earliest times the preacher in the mosque was accustomed to hold a sword in his hand while addressing the people. In the commentary on Al-Ghazali’s Book of Worship by Al Murtada, 17 it is stated that the preacher in the mosque occupies his hands with the hilt of a sword or a staff when he delivers the two addresses. Both the sword and the staff are mentioned, we are told, because the sword indicates that the city was taken forcibly by the sword, as, e.g., Damascus . “So if you turn back from Islam it is still in the hands of the Moslems to fight against you with it until you return to Islam.” In every city that was taken peaceably, e.g. Cairo
and its districts, the wooden staff is used. “But the learned differ, and say that half of Cairo was taken forcibly and half peaceably, and so the present practice is to adopt a sword of wood so as to combine both statements.” 18
As it is not generally known that this custom of carrying a sword or a staff into the pulpit of the mosque every Friday is universal, we give the account in full from Lane’s careful observations in Egypt. 19 He says, that as soon as the call to prayer is finished, the congregation stands and then
“a servant of the mosque, called a ‘Murakkee,’ opens the folding-doors at the foot of the pulpit-stairs, takes from behind them a straight, wooden sword, and, standing a little to the right of the door-way, with his right side towards the qibleh, holds this sword in his right hand, resting the point on the ground. In this position he says, ‘Verily God and his angels bless the Prophet. O ye who believe, bless him, and greet him with a salutation.’ Then, one or more persons, called ‘Muballighs,’ stationed on the dikkeh, chant the following, or similar words: ‘O God, bless and save and beatify the most noble of the Arabs and ‘Agam (or foreigners), the Imam of Mekkeh and El-Medeeneh and the Temple, to whom the spider shewed favour, and wove its web in the cave; and whom the dabb saluted; and before whom the moon was cloven in twain; our Lord Mohammed, and his Family and Companions.’ The Murakkee then recites the adán (which the Mueddins have already chanted); after every few words he pauses, and the Muballighs, on the dikkeh, repeat the same words in a sonorous chant. Before the adán is finished, the Khateeb, or Imam, comes to the foot of the pulpit, takes the wooden sword from the Murakkee’s hand, ascends the pulpit, and sits on the top step or platform. The pulpit of a large mosque, on this day, is decorated with two flags, with the profession of the faith, or the names of God and Mohammed, worked upon them: these are fixed at the top of the stairs, slanting forward. The Murakkee and Muballighs having finished the adán, . . . the Khateeb rises, and, holding the wooden sword in the manner as the Murakkee did, delivers an exhortation, called khutbet el-wa‘az.”
The German Orientalist, C. H. Becker, in his monograph on the pulpit in early Islam, gives further information regarding the significance of the customs described by Lane. 20“ Der Prediger betritt die Kanzel mit einem Stab oder Schwert oder Lanze oder Bogen in der rechten Hand. ” (The preacher ascends the pulpit with a staff or sword or lance or bow in his right hand.) In his historic investigation of the origin of this custom he concludes that the earliest mimbar (pulpit) was really a bema or judgment-seat for the Prophet when acting as judge and dispensing justice. He began the custom about 7 A . H . The sword or staff and the pulpit always go together as symbols of authority. They are called al-‘ud ani, i.e. the two pieces of wood, and explained as being originally mimbar an-nabi wa- ‘asahu, i.e. the Prophet’s pulpit and staff. Becker rightly concludes, therefore: “The staff or stick is considered by primitive races as an expression of superiority over against those who do not possess one. He who has a stick as weapon can strike, can punish. Thus the staff became the symbol of power in God’s hand or in that of His three representatives (prophet, priest or king). . . . Later on the staff became the sword.”
Whether it be sword or spear, the public service on Friday is not complete unless some weapon be in the hand of the khatib when he delivers the sermon in the pulpit. This custom, as we have seen, is universal and goes back to the example of Mohammed himself in the earliest mosque-pulpit of Medina . Later on the early Caliphs often established their right by the act of ascending the mimbar and wielding the staff or sword. 21
of Islam. The preaching of Islam and the power of its warlike propaganda were welded together by its founder. In the words of Charles M. Doughty (than whom no European better understood the soul of Islam): “The sword is the key of their imagined paradise. The unwarlike but frenetic Arabians, inflamed with the new greediness of both worlds, ran down like wolves to devour the civil borderlands. . . . The Mohammedan chain-of-credulities is an elation of the soul, breathing God’s favour only to the Moslemin; and shrewdness out of her cankered bowels to all the world besides. The Arabian religion of the sword must be tempered by the sword: and were the daughter of Mecca and Medina led captive, the Moslemin should become as Jews.” 22We turn to the Koran. The word sword (saif) does not occur in the book; yet there are many references to jihad or holy war, and there is one of these references which is generally known as “The Verse of the Sword” (Ayatu’s-Saif). 23 This celebrated verse occurs in one of the latest Surahs, that entitled Repentance (9:5), and reads as follows:
“And when the sacred months are past, kill those who join other gods with God, wherever ye shall find them; and seize them, beseige them, and lay in wait for them with every kind of ambush; but if they repent and observe the prayers, and pay the obligatory alms, then let them go their way, for God is gracious and merciful.”
In his book on the Historical Development of the Quran, Canon E. Sell says:
“It has been said that this famous verse, known as the Ayatu’s-Saif, or ‘verse of the sword,’ abrogates the restriction which did not allow the Muslims to commence a war and which is recorded in the verse:— ‘Fight for the cause of God against those who fight against you: but commit not the injustice of attacking them first.’ Suratu’l-Baqara (ii) 186. 24
“It even does more, for it also abrogates 25 the kindly words of an earlier Meccan revelation:—
‘Dispute not unless in kindly sort with the people of the Book.’ Suratu’l-Anakabut (xxix) 45. . . .”
So important did the “Verse of the Sword” become in Islamic dogma that this verse abrogated not one or two, but a whole list of passages in the Koran, all of which teach a measure of leniency and good-will toward unbelievers. Indeed, there is not a single verse of greater importance in the whole Koran as regards its power of abrogation (nullification) of earlier teaching.
The passages are given by the Reverend Anwar-ul-Haqq, as follows: 26 2:133; 2:188; 2:214; 2:257 (“Let there be no compulsion in religion”); 3:19 (“Thy duty is only preaching”); 4:66; 4:82; 4:92, 93; 4:86 and 90; 5:2; 5:99; 6:66; 6:91; 6:104; 6:106, 107, 108, 112, 136, 138; 6:159, 160; 7:179, 198 (“Make the best of things and withdraw from the ignorant”); 8:73; 9:7; 10:99 (“What, wilt thou compel men to become believers”); 10:102, 108; 10:42, 47; 11:15 (“Thou art only a warner”); 13:40; 15:3; 15:85, 89, 94; 16:84; 16:126, 128; 17:56; 17:110, 19:40; 19:76, 87; 20:130, 135; 22:48, 55, 67; 23:56, 98; 24:53; 25:64; 27:94; 28:55; 29:49; 30:60; and fifty other passages all carefully marked as abrogated by the “Verse of the Sword”! That is, a total of over one hundred and ten injunctions or teachings are abrogated by the command to use the sword —the sword of Allah and of Mohammed.
At the beginning of his career Mohammed propagated the religion of Islam by teaching, by preaching, and by argument. In the earlier Surahs he said he was only a warner. But when he came to power he also felt conscious of a new authority and sanctioned the use of the sword. We are not surprised, therefore, that in the same short chapter that contains “the Sword Verse” he uses the astonishing phrase, “God and His Apostle,” no fewer than sixteen times. The evolution of this doctrine of the sword is accurately traced by a Mohammedan writer (Ibn ‘Abidin, vol. iii. p. 237, quoted by F. A. Klein, The Religion of Islam, p. 174) as follows:
“Know thou that the command of fighting was revealed by degrees, for the Prophet was at first commanded to deliver his message, then to discuss and dispute and endeavour to convince the unbelievers by arguments; then the believers were permitted to fight; then they were commanded to fight, at first at any time, except the sacred months, then absolutely, without any exception.”
The Rev. C. C. Adams, Ph.D., in his thesis on The Modern Reform Movement in Egypt, gives the summary of an article that appeared in Al-Urwah al-Wuthqah from the Tarikh of Muhammad ‘Abduh (vol. ii. pp. 250 seq.) as present-day teaching:
“It is a duty incumbent upon all Moslems to aid in maintaining the authority of Islam and Islamic rule over all lands that have once been Moslem; and they are not permitted under any circumstances to be peaceable and conciliatory towards any who contend the mastery with them, until they obtain complete authority without sharing it with any one else.”
And so it remains to this day, at least in theory. Holy war is “a duty in general on all male, free, adult Moslems, sane in mind and body and having means enough to reach the Moslem army. . . . So it must continue to be done until the whole world is under the rule of Islam . . . Islam must be completely made over before the doctrine of Jihad can be eliminated.” 27
It would be interesting to compare the teaching of the New Testament with the Koran verse quoted; but we refrain.
“For not with swords loud clashing,
1 Vol. iv. p. 322.
2 Heroes and Hero Worship , p. 56. Carlyle modified his ideal portrait of the Arabian Prophet in his lecture on the “Hero as Poet,” pp. 103-104.
3 Muir’s Life of Mahomet, vol. iv. pp. 135, 193.
4 As-Saif wa’l khanjar ríh anuna,
‘Uffun ala’l narjis wa’l as
Shar abuna dam a‘ad auna,
Wa jumjumat ras al kas.
5 Arabian Peak and Desert , p. 109.
6 Margoliouth’s Mohammed, pp. 259, 269.
7 Richard Burton , The Book of the Sword ( London , 1884), p. 141.
8 Ibid., p. 142.
9 The translation of the Chinese is by Rev. Claude L. Pickens. It indicates that the Chinese-Moslems probably use it as an amulet. Islamic Magic gives this sword a place, as does Jewish Magic the sword of Moses (R. C. Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. xviii). I have seen pictures of it on walls of houses and mosques in Egypt , Persia and India .
10 Richard Burton, The Book of the Sword, p. 41. Cf. Schwarzlose, Die Waffen der Alte Arabieren .
11 Cf. on the booty of Badr, Kitab-al-Maghazi of Waqidi (Wellhausen), p. 83; on what those received who took part, Bukhari (Krehl), 64:12; and on Mohammed’s legacy at his death, the references in Wensinck Handbook of Early Mohammedan Tradition, p. 162. Also Sa hi h Bukhari with the Commentary of Qastalani, vol. v. p. 200, near the bottom.
12 Musnad, vol. i. pp. 87, 110, 128, 138.
13 Bukhari, 88:2.
14 Article on “‘Ali,” Encyclopædia of Islam, p. 284.
15 The Miracle Play of Hasan and Husain , vol. i. p. 51.
16 Ibid ., pp. 65, 67, 68.
17 Al-Murtada on the Ihya, vol. iii. p. 220.
18 Cf. E. E. Calverley, Worship in Islam ( Madras , 1925), p. 148. In the Futuh-al-Buldan of Baladhuri we read that Mohammed said: “All cities or districts were conquered by force, but Al Medina was conquered by the Koran” (Hitti’s translation, p. 21).
19 Lane’s Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians, pp. 86, 87.
20 Die Kanzel im Kultus des alten Islam (“ Islam Studien ,” Leipzig , 1924), pp. 451, 456, 457, 469. Cf. Ghazali, Ihya, 1, p. 130; Juynboll, Handleiding t. Moh. Wet . , pp. 80-81.
21 Ibid ., pp. 459, 461, 462. If the use of the sword in the pulpit were among the innovations it would have been mentioned as such in Kitab al-Mudkhal, which deals with all later developments of the Islamic cult.
22 Arabia Deserta , vol. ii. p. 379.
23 For the teaching of the Koran regarding Jihad, or holy war, see Dr. H. T. Obbink’s Die Heilige Oorlog (Leyden, 1901); the articles by W. R. W. Gardner, “Jihad” (Moslem World, vol. ii. p. 347), and S. V. R. Trowbridge “Mohammed’s View of Religious War” (Moslem World, vol. iii. p. 290); especially article on “Djihad” in Encyclopædia of Islam.
24 This order which restricted fighting to defensive warfare is, according to Husaini and Baidhawi, abrogated by the Ayatu’s-Saif.
25 Baidhawi, vol. ii. p. 98.
26 Abrogation in the Koran , Lucknow , 1925. His excellent monograph is based on the Koran commentary of Jalalain, and the standard work of Abu’l Qasim Hibatallah b. Salama of Baghdad (died 1019)—Al-Nasikh wa’l Mansukh. This book is one of the standard authorities and discusses 201 verses of the Koran that are abrogated on the basis of 95 different commentaries (Brockelmann, vol. i. p. 192). On the doctrine of abrogation see the commentaries on Surah 2:105 or As-Siyuti’s Itqan, vol. ii. pp. 20-27.
27 D. B. Macdonald, Article on “Djihad” in Encyclopædia of Islam
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