We resume our discussion of the claims raised against Dr. Whites points.
The Qurans polemical stance against the Jews and Christians: Proof of Bible Corruption?
The polemicist sources one Muslim Professor named Walid Saleh who makes the following assertion:
The claim that the Quran tallies with Christian scripture is certainly one of the least substantiated claims about the Quran and the nature of its relationship to previous scriptures ever to be stated.
The Quran maintains a polemical tone while addressing Christian (and Jewish) claims and beliefs. The Quran considers itself to be Gods final authoritative word and the judge/arbitrator for what the Jews and Christians differ about (27:76).
For example, the author of the Quran is aware that the Christians believe that Jesus had been killed via crucifixion. Yet, despite knowing this, He labels the story "conjecture." (Source)
He further states:
Similarly, the Qurans author is aware that the Christians believe that Jesus was the Son of God (understood in a more than human type of sense). The Christians must have acquired this belief from their Scriptures and traditions. Knowing what the Christians say about Jesus, the Qurans author denies this belief of theirs and insists that Jesus was only Gods servant, messenger and messiah. That he was no more than a mortal. In other words, the Quran deals with the teachings themselves and rectifies them; dismissing the falsehood while presenting the corrections. Many examples like these can be cited where specific teachings and claims, which the Jews and Christians acquired from their sacred Scriptures and traditions, are rectified by the Quran. Thus, any book, report, or tradition which proclaims Jesus as more than a man, for example, is wrong in this particular claim since the assertion has been directly dismissed by the Quran.
Our Muslim neophyte friend, the gent who is trying to make a name for himself as an "apologist" and "polemicist" by addressing Dr. White, boldly asserts that:
B. Due to the revelation of the Quran, Muhammad was not ignorant despite not having read for himself, or having possession of, any Christian scripture. Muhammad, through the Quran, came to correctly learn that Christians worshipped Jesus as God, that they believed that Jesus had died on the cross, that Jesus was proclaimed to be Gods son in the divine sense and he knew that God was conceived in a Trinitarian sense. All of these items were naturally acquired by Christians on the basis of their traditions and Scripture (whatever it may have been). (Response to Dr. James Whites "Anonymous Books and Inspiration"; source)
Prof. Saleh goes on to say:
Viewed in this light, it becomes clear that the Quran does not endorse or affirm any particular Jewish and Christian book in totality, whether it is canonical or non-canonical. On the contrary, the book whatever it may be may contain teachings which are either in conformity to the Quran or in disagreement with it. In the later case the judgement of the Quran prevails and is the final word since it is Gods final authoritative Revelation.
The problem with these assertions is that the Quran doesnt show any familiarity with what Jews and Christians truly believed, but actually distorts and/or misunderstands what these groups taught concerning doctrines such as the Trinity, the Deity of Christ etc.
For example, the Quran erroneously teaches that Jews believe that Ezra (or Uzayr) is Gods son and that Christians worshiped three gods consisting of God, Mary and Jesus:
They are unbelievers who say, 'God is the Third of Three. No god is there but One God. If they refrain not from what they say, there shall afflict those of them that disbelieve a painful chastisement. S. 5:73
And when God said, 'O Jesus son of Mary, didst thou say unto men, "Take me and my mother as gods, apart from God"?' He said, 'To Thee be glory! It is not mine to say what I have no right to. If I indeed said it, Thou knowest it, knowing what is within my soul, and I know not what is within Thy soul; Thou knowest the things unseen. I only said to them what Thou didst command me: "Serve God, my Lord and your Lord." And I was a witness over them, while I remained among them; but when Thou didst take me to Thyself, Thou wast Thyself the watcher over them; Thou Thyself art witness of everything. S. 5:116-117
The Jews say, 'Ezra is the Son of God'; the Christians say, 'The Messiah is the Son of God.' That is the utterance of their mouths, conforming with the unbelievers before them. God assail them! How they are perverted! S. 9:30
The Muslim scripture further assumes that for God to have a son he must have a wife whom he impregnates:
Yet they ascribe to God, as associates, the jinn, though He created them; and they impute to Him sons and daughters without any knowledge. Glory be to Him! High be He exalted above what they describe! The Creator of the heavens and the earth -- how should He have a son, seeing that He has no consort, and He created all things, and He has knowledge of everything? S. 6:100-101
As any informed Christian fully knows, Christianity has never historically taught that God is the third of three, or that Jesus taught his followers to worship three gods consisting of Allah, Mary, and Jesus their Son. If by God the Quran means the Person whom Christians call the Father then he is the first of three Persons, not the third of three. If by God the Quran means the entire Godhead of Father, Son and Holy Spirit then this is blatantly wrong since historic Christianity has never taught as part of its creed that the Triune Godhead is the third of three.
Moreover, the single reference to Jesus crucifixion has baffled Muslims till this day:
and for their saying, 'We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God' -- yet they did not slay him, neither crucified him, only a likeness of that was shown to them. Those who are at variance concerning him surely are in doubt regarding him; they have no knowledge of him, except the following of surmise; and they slew him not of a certainty -- no indeed; God raised him up to Him; God is All-mighty, All-wise. There is not one of the People of the Book but will assuredly believe in him before his death, and on the Resurrection Day he will be a witness against them. S. 4:157-159 Arberry
The expositors were confused and perplexed over the precise meaning of Q. 4:157-159. Their confusion stemmed from the fact that this specific reference is written in a rather incoherent manner and leaves out important details.
For example, what does it mean that Jesus was neither killed nor crucified and that only a likeness of that was shown to them? Does this mean that Allah made it seem as if the crucifixion did take place when it never did and if so how did Allah pull this off? Is the citation saying that a likeness of Christ was seen being crucified? Is that how Allah pulled the wool over the peoples eyes? According to Muslim expositors like Ibn Kathir, this is precisely what Allah did:
The Evil Accusation the Jews Uttered Against Maryam and Their Claim that They Killed `Isa
<And because of their (Jews) disbelief and uttering against Maryam a grave false charge.> `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas stated that the Jews accused Maryam of fornication. This is also the saying of As-Suddi, Juwaybir, Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others. This meaning is also apparent in the Ayah, as the Jews accused Maryam and her son of grave accusations: They accused her of fornication and claimed that `Isa was an illegitimate son. Some of them even claimed that she was menstruating while fornicating. May Allah's continued curse be upon them until the Day of Resurrection. The Jews also said
<"We killed Al-Masih, `Isa, son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah,"> meaning, we killed the person who claimed to be the Messenger of Allah. The Jews only uttered these words in jest and mockery, just as the polytheists said
<O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur'an) has been sent down! Verily, you are a mad man!> When Allah sent `Isa with proofs and guidance, the Jews, may Allah's curses, anger, torment and punishment be upon them, envied him because of his prophethood and obvious miracles; curing the blind and leprous and bringing the dead back to life, by Allah's leave. He also used to make the shape of a bird from clay and blow in it, and it became a bird by Allah's leave and flew. `Isa performed other miracles that Allah honored him with, yet the Jews defied and bellied him and tried their best to harm him. Allah's Prophet `Isa could not live in any one city for long and he had to travel often with his mother, peace be upon them. Even so, the Jews were not satisfied, and they went to the king of Damascus at that time, a Greek polytheist who worshipped the stars. They told him that there was a man in Bayt Al-Maqdis misguiding and dividing the people in Jerusalem and stirring unrest among the king's subjects. The king became angry and wrote to his deputy in Jerusalem to arrest the rebel leader, stop him from causing unrest, crucify him and make him wear a crown of thorns. When the king's deputy in Jerusalem received these orders, he went with some Jews to the house that `Isa was residing in, and he was then with twelve, thirteen or seventeen of his companions. That day was a Friday, in the evening. They surrounded `Isa in the house, and when he felt that they would soon enter the house or that he would sooner or later have to leave it, he said to his companions, "Who volunteers to be made to look like me, for which he will be my companion in Paradise?" A young man volunteered, but `Isa thought that he was too young. He asked the question a second and third time, each time the young man volunteering, prompting `Isa to say, "Well then, you will be that man." ALLAH MADE THE YOUNG MAN LOOK EXACTLY LIKE `ISA, while a hole opened in the roof of the house, and `Isa was made to sleep and ascended to heaven while asleep. Allah said
<And (remember) when Allah said: "O `Isa! I will take you and raise you to Myself."> When `Isa ascended, those who were in the house came out. When those surrounding the house saw the man who looked like `Isa, they thought that he was `Isa. So they took him at night, crucified him and placed a crown of thorns on his head. The Jews then boasted that they killed `Isa and some Christians accepted their false claim, due to their ignorance and lack of reason. As for those who were in the house with `Isa, they witnessed his ascension to heaven, while the rest thought that the Jews killed `Isa by crucifixion. They even said that Maryam sat under the corpse of the crucified man and cried, and they say that the dead man spoke to her. All this was a test from Allah for His servants out of His wisdom. Allah explained this matter in the Glorious Qur'an which He sent to His honorable Messenger, whom He supported with miracles and clear, unequivocal evidence. Allah is the Most Truthful, and He is the Lord of the worlds Who knows the secrets, what the hearts conceal, the hidden matters in heaven and earth, what has occurred, what will occur, and what would occur if it was decreed. He said
<but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared as that to them,> referring to the person whom the Jews thought was `Isa. This is why Allah said afterwards
<and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture.> referring to the Jews who claimed to kill `Isa and the ignorant Christians who believed them. Indeed they are all in confusion, misguidance and bewilderment. This is why Allah said
<For surely; they killed him not.> meaning they are not sure that `Isa was the one whom they killed. Rather, they are in doubt and confusion over this matter
<But Allah raised him up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful,> meaning, He is the Almighty, and He is never weak, nor will those who seek refuge in Him ever be subjected to disgrace
<All-Wise.> in all that He decides and ordains for His creatures. Indeed, Allah's is the clearest wisdom, unequivocal proof and the most glorious authority. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Just before Allah raised `Isa to the heavens, `Isa went to his companions, who were twelve inside the house. When he arrived, his hair was dripping water and he said, `There are those among you who will disbelieve in me twelve times after he had believed in me.' He then asked, `Who volunteers that his image appear as mine, and be killed in my place? He will be with me (in Paradise).' One of the youngest ones among them volunteered and `Isa asked him to sit down. `Isa again asked for a volunteer, and the young man kept volunteering and `Isa asking him to sit down. Then the young man volunteered again and `Isa said, `You will be that man,' AND THE RESEMBLANCE OF `ISA WAS CAST OVER THAT MAN while `Isa ascended to heaven from a hole in the house. When the Jews came looking for `Isa, they found that young man and crucified him. Some of `Isa's followers disbelieved in him twelve times after they had believed in him. They then divided into three groups. One group, Al-Ya`qubiyyah (Jacobites), said, `Allah remained with us as long as He willed and then ascended to heaven.' Another group, An-Nasturiyyah (Nestorians), said, `The son of Allah was with us as long as he willed and Allah took him to heaven.' Another group, Muslims, said, `The servant and Messenger of Allah remained with us as long as Allah willed, and Allah then took him to Him.' The two disbelieving groups cooperated against the Muslim group and they killed them. Ever since that happened, Islam was then veiled until Allah sent Muhammad." This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn `Abbas, and An-Nasa'i narrated it through Abu Kurayb who reported it from Abu Mu`awiyah. MANY AMONG THE SALAF stated that `Isa asked if someone would volunteer for his appearance to be cast over him, and that he will be killed instead of `Isa, for which he would be his companion in Paradise. (source; capital and underline emphasis ours)
Thus, instead of Jesus dying in our place we have a disciple dying in the place of Christ, and this with Allahs express approval! Talk about a rather deceptive and wicked god Allah even makes satan look honest!
Moreover, whose death does the Quran have in mind when it says that "the People of the Book will assuredly believe in him before his death"? Is this referring to the Jews since the immediate context is dealing with the Jewish rejection of Jesus and his mother? If so is this saying that every Jew must believe in Christ before they die? If this also includes Christians then are Christians required to believe in Jesus before their deaths even though they already believe in him? Or is this referring to Christians who pay lip service and do not truly love and follow Jesus, exhorting them to truly believe in him by obeying his teachings before they die? This would be similar to what Jesus himself taught in the NT (cf. Matthew 7:21-27; John 14:23-24).
Or is the passage actually referring to Jesus own death, i.e. every Jew and/or Christian will have to come to faith before Christ dies? If this is the intended meaning then does this refer to Jesus dying during his stay on earth or to a future time in which he will die? If the former then does this mean that since Jesus has already died everyone must now come to believe in him in order to be saved since if they dont he will be a witness against them on the judgment day?
More importantly, how does a Muslim know what the answer is?
The preceding examples show that if anyone is following conjecture it is actually the author of the Quran and the Islamic scholars. It isnt the Jews or Christians who were perplexed or in doubt but the author of the Quran and subsequent Muslim expositors who couldnt agree or figure out what passages such as Q. 4:157-159 truly mean or what Jews and Christians actually believed.
For more on the Qurans confusion and gross misunderstanding of specific Jewish and Christian doctrines we recommend the following articles:
The Quran The work of an ignorant, fallible human and some final observations
With the foregoing in perspective it is rather apparent that, contrary to Dr. Salehs erroneous assertions, the Quran does indeed endorse and affirm that the Books of the Jews and Christians are completely reliable and authoritative. The problem is that the author of the Quran was rather ignorant of what these inspired Scriptures taught and erroneously assumed that his teachings and denials were in complete conformity with what these said Books contained.
The gross mistakes, errors and denials in the Quran pose a serious problem for Muslims. According to Islamic theology Muhammad did not write the Quran but he was rather a passive recipient through whom Allah dictated and communicated the Muslim scripture. The Quran is believed to be the very direct speech of Allah and that Muhammad merely acted as his passive instrument to communicate it to the people. Muslims further believe that Allah is not ignorant which means that he would get the beliefs of the Jews and Christians as well as the contents of the Bible correct.
But this is not what we find in the Quran with all its blatant distortions and gross misunderstanding of Jewish and Christian teachings. Such ignorance means that either Allah is an ignoramus or that the Quran is not the composition of an all-knowing deity. The Muslim scripture is actually the work of an imperfect, fallible agent, perhaps Muhammad himself.
In support of the latter view there is evidence from the hadith literature which indicates that Muhammad was rather ignorant and uninformed about what the Books in the hands of the Jews and Christians actually contained. There are Islamic narratives where Muhammad often asked or needed the help of the Jews and Christians to learn what their Scriptures taught concerning a specific issue.
For instance, in the following reports Muhammad needed a Jew to tell him what the Torah prescribed concerning the punishment of the sexually immoral:
Narrated Ibn Umar:
A Jew and a Jewess were brought to Allah's Apostle on a charge of committing an illegal sexual intercourse. The Prophet asked them, "What is the legal punishment (for this sin) in your Book (Torah)?" They replied, "Our priests have innovated the punishment of blackening the faces with charcoal and Tajbiya." Abdullah bin Salam said, "O Allahs Apostle, tell them to bring the Torah." The Torah was brought, and then one of the Jews put his hand over the Divine Verse of the Rajam (stoning to death) and started reading what preceded and what followed it. On that, Ibn Salam said to the Jew, "Lift up your hand." Behold! The Divine Verse of the Rajam was under his hand. So Allahs Apostle ordered that the two (sinners) be stoned to death, and so they were stoned. Ibn Umar added: So both of them were stoned at the Balat and I saw the Jew sheltering the Jewess. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 82, Number 809)
Narrated Abdullah bin Umar:
The Jews came to Allahs Apostle and mentioned to him that a man and a lady among them had committed illegal sexual intercourse. Allahs Apostle said to them, "What do you find in the Torah regarding the Rajam?" They replied, "We only disgrace and flog them with stripes." Abdullah bin Salam said to them, "You have told a lie the penalty of Rajam is in the Torah." They brought the Torah and opened it. One of them put his hand over the verse of the Rajam and read what was before and after it. Abdullah bin Salam said to him, "Lift up your hand." Where he lifted it there appeared the verse of the Rajam. So they said, "O Muhammad! He has said the truth, the verse of the Rajam is in it (Torah)." Then Allahs Apostle ordered that the two persons (guilty of illegal sexual intercourse) be stoned to death, and so they were stoned, and I saw the man bending over the woman so as to protect her from the stones. (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 82, Number 825)
Notice how Muhammad was at the mercy of Abdullah ibn Salam, a Jew, to inform him concerning the contents of the Torah.
The following narrative provides further attestation that Muhammad wasnt aware of what the Holy Bible taught:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The people of the Scripture (Jews) used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and they used to explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. On that Allah's Apostle said, "Do not believe the people of the Scripture or disbelieve them, but say:-- We believe in Allah and what is revealed to us." (2.136) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 12)
Had Muhammad known what the Holy Bible taught he would have realized that what the Jews were saying in Arabic was either consistent with the message of the inspired Scriptures or not.
Yet this point needs to be reiterated: even though he wasnt certain what the Holy Bible taught Muhammad still professed complete faith and trust in it, as we already saw earlier and as the following references further attest:
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Umar:
A group of Jews came and invited the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) to Quff. So he visited them in their school.
They said: AbulQasim, one of our men has committed fornication with a woman; so pronounce judgment upon them. They placed a cushion for the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) who sat on it and said: Bring the Torah. It was then brought. He then withdrew the cushion from beneath him and placed the Torah on it saying: I believed in thee and in Him Who revealed thee.
He then said: Bring me one who is learned among you. Then a young man was brought. The transmitter then mentioned the rest of the tradition of stoning similar to the one transmitted by Malik from Nafi' (No. 4431)." (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 38, Number 4434)
Noted commentator Ibn Kathir also sources this specific narration in his exposition of Q. 5:41:
Abu Dawud recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "Some Jews came to the Messenger of Allah and invited him to go to the Quff area. So he went to the house of Al-Midras and they said, `O Abu Al-Qasim! A man from us committed adultery with a woman, so decide on their matter. They arranged a pillow for the Messenger of Allah and he sat on it and said
<<Bring the Tawrah to me.>> He was brought the Tawrah and he removed the pillow from under him and placed the Tawrah on it, saying
<<I TRUST YOU AND HE WHO REVEALED IT TO YOU.>> He then said
<<Bring me your most knowledgeable person.>> So he was brought a young man and then he mentioned the rest of the story that Malik narrated from Nafi` These Hadiths state that the Messenger of Allah issued a decision that conforms with the ruling in the Tawrah, not to honor the Jews in what they believe in, for the Jews were commanded to follow the Law of Muhammad only. Rather, the Prophet did this because Allah commanded him to do so. He asked them about the ruling of stoning in the Tawrah to make them admit to what the Tawrah contains and what they collaborated to hide, deny and exclude from implementing for all that time. They had to admit to what they did, although they did it while having knowledge of the correct ruling (Tafsir Ibn Kathir; source; bold, capital and underline emphasis ours)
Here was an excellent opportunity for Muhammad to say that he didnt believe that the Torah which he held was completely reliable since the Jews had corrupted some of its parts. Rather than saying that the Torah wasnt fully authoritative since its textual purity was less than certain Muhammad honors it and professes absolute faith and trust in its contents, going so far as to judge by it!
The next quote is taken from the earliest biography on Muhammads life, Ibn Ishaqs Sirat Rasulullah:
Rafi b. Haritha and Sallam b. Mishkam and Malik b. al-Sayf and Rafi b. Huraymila came to him [Muhammad] and said: Do you not allege that you follow the religion of Abraham and believe in the Torah WHICH WE HAVE and testify that it is the truth from God? He replied, CERTAINLY, but you have sinned and broken the covenant CONTAINED THEREIN and concealed what you were ordered to make plain to men, and I dissociate myself from your sin. They said, We hold by WHAT WE HAVE. We live according to the guidance and the truth and we do not believe in you and we will not follow you. So God sent down concerning them: Say, O Scripture folk, you have no standing until you observe the Torah and the Gospel and what has been sent down from your Lord. What has been sent down to thee from they Lord will assuredly increase many of them in error and unbelief. But be not sad because of the unbelieving people. (The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaqs Sirat Rasul Allah, with introduction and notes by Alfred Guillaume [Oxford University Press, Karachi, Tenth impression 1995], p. 268; bold and capital emphasis ours)
The apostle wrote to the Jews of Khaybar according to what a freedman of the family of Zayd b. Thabit told me from Ikrima or from Said b. Jubayr from Ibn Abbas: In the name of God the compassionate the merciful from Muhammad the apostle of God friend and brother of Moses WHO CONFIRMS WHAT MOSES BROUGHT. God says to you O scripture folk, and you will find it in your scripture "Muhammad is the apostle of God; and those with him are severe against the unbelievers, merciful among themselves. Thou seest them bowing, falling prostrate seeking bounty and acceptance from God. The mark of their prostrations is on their foreheads. That is their likeness in the Torah and in the Gospel like a seed which sends forth its shoot and strengthens it and it becomes thick and rises straight upon its stalk delighting the sowers that He may anger the unbelievers with them. God has promised those who believe and do well forgiveness and a great reward." I adjure you by God, AND BY WHAT HE HAS SENT DOWN TO YOU, by the manna and quails He gave as food to your tribes before you, and by His drying up the sea for your fathers when He delivered them from Pharaoh and his works, that you tell me, DO YOU FIND IN WHAT HE SENT DOWN TO YOU that you should believe in Muhammad? IF YOU DO NOT FIND THAT IN YOUR SCRIPTURE THEN THERE IS NO COMPULSION UPON YOU. "The right path has become plainly distinguished from error" so I call you to God and His Prophet (313). (P. 256; bold and capital emphasis ours)
Again, if Muhammad didnt have full trust in the textual reliability of the previous Scriptures he could have stated it here. Yet, much like in the previous narratives, he confirms the authority and authenticity of the Scriptures which the Jews possessed.
Thus, both the Quran and the earliest Muslim sources attest that Muhammad believed, confirmed, and testified that the very Writings in the hands of the Jews and Christians are the revealed Words of God. He did not think for a moment that these Books were corrupted and unreliable, but actually thought that they could serve as reliable witnesses to his prophetic claims and even pointed to them for verification purposes:
So, if thou art in doubt regarding what We have sent down to thee, ask those who recite the Book before thee. The truth has come to thee from thy Lord; so be not of the doubters, S. 10:94
Unfortunately for Muhammad he was wrong since these inspired Scriptures contradicted his aspirations and theological aberrations, thereby exposing him as a false prophet just as the Jews and Christians of his day clearly realized:
According to what I heard from Ikrima, freedman of Ibn Abbas or from Said b. Jubayr from Ibn Abbas, Jews used to hope that the apostle would be a help to them against Aus and Khazraj before his mission began; and when God sent him from among the Arabs they disbelieved in him and contradicted what they had formerly said about him. Muadh b. Jabal and Bishr b. al-Bara b. Marur brother of B. Salama said to them: O Jews, fear God and become Muslims, for you used to hope for Muhammads help against us when we were polytheists and to tell us that he would be sent and describe him to us. Salam b. Mishkam, one of the B. al-Nadir, said, He has not brought us anything we recognize and he is not the one we spoke of to you. So God sent down about that saying of theirs: And when a book comes to them from God CONFIRMING what they have, though beforehand they were asking for help against those who disbelieve, when there came to them what they knew, they disbelieved in it, so Gods curse rests on the unbelievers.
Malik b. al-Sayf said when the apostle had been sent and they were reminded of the condition that had been imposed on them and what God had covenanted with them concerning him, No covenant was ever made with us about Muhammad. So God sent down concerning him: Is it not that whenever they make a covenant a party of them set it aside? Nay most of them do not believe.
Abu Saluba al-Fityuni said to the apostle: O Muhammad, you have not brought us anything we recognize and God has not sent down to you any sign that we should follow you. So God sent concerning his words, We have sent down to thee plain signs and only evildoers disbelieve in them. (Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, p. 257; bold, capital and italic emphasis ours)
A number of them came in to the apostle and he said to them, Surely you know that I am an apostle from God to you. They replied that they did not know it and would not bear witness to him. So god sent down concerning their words: But God testifies concerning what He has sent down to thee. With His knowledge did He send it down and the angels bear witness. And God is sufficient as a witness. (P. 265; bold emphasis ours)
Mahmud b. Sayhan and Numan b. Ada and Bahri and Uzayr and Sallam came to him and said: Is it true, Muhammad, that what you have brought is the truth from God? For our part we cannot see that it is arranged as the Torah is. He answered, You know quite well that it is from God; you will find it written IN THE TORAH WHICH YOU HAVE. If men and jinn came together to produce its like they could not. Finhas and Abdullah b. Suriya and Ibn Saluba and Kinana b. al-Raba and Ashya and Kab b. al-Asad and Shamwil and Jabal were there and they said: Did neither men nor jinn tell you this, Muhammad? He said: You know well that it is from God and that I am the apostle of God. You will find it written IN THE TORAH YOU HAVE. They said: When God sends an apostle He does for him what he wishes, so bring down a book to us from heaven that we may read it and know what it is, otherwise we will produce one like the one you bring. So God sent down concerning their words: Say, Though men and jinn should meet to produce the like of this Quran they would not produce its like though one helped the other. (324).
Huyayy, Kab, Abu Rafi, Ashya, and Shamwil said to Abdullah b. Sallam when he became a Muslim, There is no prophecy among the Arabs, but your master is a king. Then they went to the apostle and asked him about Dhul-Qarnayn and he told them what God had sent him about him from what he had already narrated to Quraysh. They were of those who ordered Quraysh to ask the apostle about him when they sent al-Nadr and Uqba to them. (Pp. 269-270; bold, underline and capital emphasis ours)
It is therefore not surprising to find the Jewish scholars mocking and confounding Muhammad, seeing that they knew he was a false prophet, and that they also feigned belief in him in order to save their lives from his bloodlust and murdering sprees:
About this time the Jewish rabbis showed hostility to the apostle in envy, hatred, malice, because God had chosen His apostle from the Arabs. They were joined by men from al-Aus and al-Khazraj who had obstinately clung to their heathen religion. They were hypocrites, clinging to the polytheism of their fathers denying the resurrection; yet when Islam appeared and their people flocked to it they were compelled to pretend to accept it to save their lives. But in secret they were hypocrites whose inclination was towards the Jews because they considered the apostle a liar and strove against Islam.
It was the Jewish rabbis who used to annoy the apostle with questions and introduce confusion, so as to confound the truth with falsity. The Quran used to come down in reference to these questions of theirs, though some of the questions about what was allowed and forbidden came from the Muslims themselves (Guillaume, The Life of Muhammad, p. 239; bold and underline emphasis ours)
Among those people whom the Quran came down, especially the rabbis and the unbelieving Jews who used to ask him questions and annoy him in confusing truth with falsehood as I was told on the authority of Abdullah b. Abbas and Jabir b. Abdullah b. Riabwas Abu Yasir b. Akhtab who passed by the apostle as he was reciting the opening words of The Cow (P. 256; bold and underline emphasis ours)
We come to the end of this present rebuttal. Lord Jesus willing, further responses to follow soon.
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