1. Embryonic Sex Determination
One of the references on human reproduction which Muslims often quote from the Quran is verse 53:45-46. This is interpreted as a reference to the determination of sex at the fertilization stage itself. However, elsewhere, the Quran says that the sex of a developing embryo is determined well after the leech-like clot stage!
"That He did create the pairs - male and female from a sperm-drop* (nutfah) when lodged (in its place)"
"Was he not a drop of sperm emitted (in lowly form)? Then did he become a leech-like clot; then did (Allah) make and fashion (him) in due proportion. And of him He made the sexes, male and female" **
2. Width of the Garden
There is a clear discrepancy with reference to the width of the Paradise or Garden in the Quran. Verse 3:133 says that it is all the heavens (Samawath: plural) and the earth combined. Verse 57:21 says that the width is the (lower?) heaven (Sama: singular) and the earth combined.
".... a Garden whose width is that (of the whole) of the heavens and the earth, prepared for the righteous,"
".... a Garden (of Bliss), the width whereof is as the width of the heaven and the earth, prepared for those who believe in Allah .... "
3. Who misleads people? Satan or
According to verse 4:119-120, Satan (the rejected one) is the one who creates false desires and misleads people. Refer also 15:42. However, according to verse 16:93, it is God who leaves people astray as He wills! See also 4:78.
"I will mislead them, and I will create in them false desires....." (says Satan)
"Satan make them promises and creates in them false hopes...." (vouched by Allah)
"If Allah so willed, He could make you all one people. But He leaves straying whom He pleases and He guides whom He pleases ...."
4. Attitude towards unbelieving
Al-Quran givens contradicting information as to what a believer should do when unbelieving parents and brothers insist on worshipping their gods. Verse 31:15 asks believers to keep company with unbelieving parents even if they insist (on following their religion?), but verse 9:23 asks believers not to take their fathers and brothers as protectors if they disbelieved!
"But if they strive (Jahada) to make thee join in worship with Me things of which thou hast no knowledge, obey them not; yet bear them company in this life with justice (and consideration)..."
"O ye who believe! Take not protectors your fathers and your brothers if they love infidelity above faith: If any of you do so, they do wrong"
5. Which enters the Paradise:
Soul or Body or Both?
After resurrection, it is the body (after reuniting with the soul?) which enters the Paradise. This has been emphasized throughout the Book. See verses 13:5, 17:98-99, 20:55, 34:7, 75:3-4. However verses 27-30 in Sura 89 state that it is the Soul (Nafs)* which enters the Garden!
"See they not that Allah who created the heavens and the earth has the power to create the like of them (anew)? ...."
"Does man think that We cannot assemble his bones? Nay we are able to to put together in perfect order the very tips of his fingers..."
(To the righteous soul will be said) "O (tho) soul, in (complete) rest and satisfaction! Come back thou to thy Lord - well pleased (thyself), and well-pleasing unto Him! Enter thou, thee among my Devotees! Yea, enter thou My Heaven!"
"Your creation and your rising (from the dead) are only as (the creation and the rising of) a single soul..." (Pickthall)
6. God needs man or man needs
A very clear contradiction exists between verses 51:56 and 35:15. While the former verse says that God created Jinns and mankind for His own reasons (read also 67:2), the latter one says it is man who is in need of God! Read also 51:57.
"I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve me" *
"He who created Death and Life, that He may try which of you is the best in deed"
"O mankind! It is you that have need of God: but God is the One Free of all wants, worthy of all praise"
7. EVIL AND GOOD: Where do they
While one verse says that both Evil and Good issue from Allah, the very next verse says only Good comes from Allah!
".... If some good befalls them, they say "This is from Allah". But if evil, they say "This is from thee" (O prophet). Say: "All things are from Allah....."*
"Whatever good, (O man!) happens to thee, is from Allah. But whatever evil happens to thee, is from thyself"
8. Who has to be blamed
for BELIEF AND DISBELIEF ?
"It is they who have lost their own souls, that they will not believe"
"No soul can believe except by the will of Allah"
9. Who has to be blamed for the
From verses 35:8, 16:93, 74:31, 2:142, we learn that it is Allah who has to be blamed for all the misguidance. While other verses hold man himself responsible for the wrongs done (30:9, 4:79).
"Allah leaves stray whom He wills and guides whom He wills"
"It was not Allah who wronged them, but they wronged their own souls"
"Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth ....."
"Tell those who believe, to forgive those who do not hope for the Days of Allah; It is for Him to recompense (for good or evil) each people according to what they have earned"
Apologists can argue that verse 9:29 was revealed in the context of war and 45:14 perhaps towards the end of hostilities. The fact is that the Quran does not specify what verses are applicable in the context of war and what is to be followed during other occasions. And also what rulings were for the past, what are for the present and what are for the future! God has unfortunately left everything to our discretion. Ironically, Apologists claim that the Quran contains solutions for the problems of the Past, Present and Future. There is little doubt that their claims is more emotional than factual.
11. God's advice to Muhammed
on propagating Islam
We have seen apologists quoting verses from the Quran in support of their claim that the Quran does not recommend forceful conversions. The verse they often quote is 2:256 which says "There is no compulsion in religion". There are also many verses in the Quran which suggest otherwise and these have already appeared on web pages. Here we see two contradicting directives from God on conveying Allah's religion to the people:
"So if they dispute thee, say: "I have permitted my whole self to Allah and so have those who follow me"..... "Do you (also) submit yourselves? If they do, they are in right guidance. But if they turn back, thy duty is to convey the message. And in Allah's sight are (all) His servants"
"Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from disbelief), their past would be forgiven; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning to them). And fight them on until there is no more persecution and the religion becomes Allah's in its entirety... "
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Contradictions in the Qur'an
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