The Bible, John 13:34, 35
"A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another.† By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another."† 
The Quran - 8:63, Al Anfal (The Spoils)
He it is Who has supported you with His Help and with the believers. And He has united their (i.e. believers') hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah has united them. Certainly He is All-Mighty, All-Wise.†† 
††††††††††† Muhammad was not alone in his endeavor to spread his religion.† By the time Muhammad had attacked and conquered Mecca he had with him a devoted family and thousands of devoted friends (Companions).† And make no mistake about it; his followers loved him and would gladly kill for or die for him.† They hung on his every word, and rigidly followed his commands, and hundreds of them memorized as much of his Quranic words as they could.
††††††††††† Like all popular leaders, Muhammad had around him special friends and family members.† Muhammad loved his wife, Aisha, best (Muhammad married her when she was nine; she was 18 when he died).† After her, he loved her father Abu Bakr best, then his strong friend Umar.† Beyond them there were other special friends and family who were closer than most Companions.† Many of these special friends became important leaders of one type or another in the Islamic community.
††††††††††† This special group of people I am referring to I am calling the Royal Family.† No, they were not considered royalty as the Queen of England is considered royalty.† But these people knew Muhammad intimately and hold a very special place in both Islamic politics, history, and theology.† Hence the name is somewhat fitting.† These people knew Muhammad best, and he knew them best.† They loved him and he loved them.† They knew and memorized his teachings and they strove to imitate him in all manner of life.† Through their intimate contact with Muhammad they were able to teach and lead the Islamic community.
††††††††††† In a similar way, Jesusí followers knew Jesus, and following His death, they strove hard to obey His teachings and teach others what they knew through their personal contact with Him.
††††††††††† I am presenting a series of articles on Islamís Royal Family.† Let us examine their actions following Muhammadís death.† I believe it to be a fair assessment of real Islam.† Arguably these Muslims were the best Muslims.† They are foundational to Islam because they constitute a large percentage of Sahih Hadith narrators and some even ruled the Islamic empire.† One of them even compiled his own version of the Quran.† If there were anyone who knew Muhammad and his commands - it was them.
††††††††††† Jesus said you shall know a tree by its fruit.† Certainly it is no stretch for us to judge the genuineness of Islam by these, the best of Muslimsí, fruits.† After all, wouldnít Muhammadís and the Islamís biggest impact be on those that were with him almost 24 hours a day?
††††††††††† Jesus commanded His disciples to love one another.† And we know that they loved each other; after His death, these men became the leaders of the church, they lived together, shared in each otherís fate, cared for each other and so on.† Because of their faith in Him, their intimate knowledge of Him, and their commitment to Him, they obeyed Ė even to the point of death.
††††††††††† Muhammad also commanded his followers to love one another.† His followers were keen to follow Muhammad in how he dressed, how he ate, how he prayed, and so on.† How did Muhammadís followers hold to their faith and obedience following his death?† Iím not focusing on mere outward appearances and form.† Iím focusing on matters of the mind, spirit, and heart, i.e. the inward.†
††††††††††† If Islam was real, shouldnít we expect to see them carry on in obedience to Muhammadís commands as Jesusí disciples did?† Should we expect anything less from these Ė the closest of Muhammadís family and friends?† If Islam were real, shouldnít these, the best of Muslims, have acted in a spiritual manner when it was crunch time?† Letís see.
1)† I will not type out the entire chain of narrators (isnaads).
2)† I will not quote entire traditions (Hadith) because much of the provided text and detail (matn) is not relevant to the subject.
3)† I will endeavor to present quoted material in blue font.
4)† All Biblical quotes will be from the New International Version, unless otherwise noted.
5)† All Quranic quotes will be from The Noble Quran.
For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some people, eager for money, have wandered from the faith and pierced themselves with many griefs.
Narrated 'Uqba bin 'Amir:
"... By Allah! I am not afraid that you will worship others along with Allah after my death, but I am afraid that you will fight with one another for the worldly things."
ABU BAKR - The first Caliph (supreme ruler) of the Islamic empire, and the first of the so-called four rightly guided Caliphs.† He became Caliph following Muhammadís death.† He was Muhammadís closest male friend.† He ruled for two years then died.† He was the father of Aisha, Muhammadís nine year old bride ( http://answering-islam.org/Silas/childbrides.htm ). † Through war Abu Bakr established the beginning of the Islamic Empire.
UMAR Ė The second caliph.† He was Muhammadís second closest male friend.† His reign lasted some 12 or so years.† Through attacks upon non-Islamic countries, he greatly expanded the Islamic empire.
ALI Ė Muhammadís son in law, married to Muhammadís daughter Fatima.† Ali was a brave and strong Muslim warrior who accomplished some important exploits in battle.† Ali was the fourth of the rightly guided Caliphs.† Ali had two sons:† Hassan and Hussain (Hussain bears importance later on).
FATIMA Ė One of Muhammadís daughters, later married to Ali.† She died some 6 months after Muhammad died.
IBN ABBAS Ė Muhammadís cousin.† He became one of the greatest early Islamic scholars.† The Reliance of the Traveler  states that he narrated 1660 hadith, contributed a great amount of Koranic exegesis, and the Caliph Umar used him for help reaching legal conclusions.
††††††††††† Through threats, intimidation, and extortion of neighboring tribes, Muhammad was able to amass a personal fortune.† But make no error:† Muhammad did not live a indulgent, opulent, lifestyle.† He lived frugally.† He was very disciplined and controlled his wealth using it for the benefit of his poorer followers and to make war upon non-Muslims.† Prior to his death Muhammad issued a declaration regarding his wealth:† he would follow in the footsteps of previous prophets and NOT leave an inheritance to his family.† His wealth was NOT to be divided among family members, rather it was to continue to be distributed in the same manner as before.† However he did make provisions for his wivesí and slaveís maintenance.† Other than that Muhammad only detailed a few minor items to be given out.
††††††††††† Muhammad had just died and the Caliphate was offered to Abu Bakr.†† On the day after Muhammadís death, intriguing events begin to transpireÖÖ.
(Below are several biographical anecdotes of the† Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, (Book of the Major Classes), Volume 2, by Ibn Saíd, pages 391 Ė 394:† )
ACCOUNT OF THE LEGACY (INHERITANCE) OF THE APOSTLE OF ALLAH, AND WHAT PROPERTY HE LEFT BEHIND
††††††††††† The apostle of Allah said, The dinars and dirhams (money) should not be distributed among my heirs, what I leave should go into charity after the maintenance expenses of my wives and the provisions of my servant. (pages 391, 392).
††††††††††† I heard Umar saying, The day when the Apostle of Allah died bayah was offered to Abu Bakr.† On the following day Fatimah came to Abu Bakr and there was Ali with her. (page 393).
††††††††††† Fatimah came to Abu Bakr and demanded her share in the inheritance.† Al-Abbas came to him and demanded his share in the inheritance.† Ali came with them.† Thereupon Abu Bakr said, The Apostle of Allah said, We leave no inheritance, what we leave behind us is sadaqah.† I shall make provisions for those for whom the Prophet had made.† On this Ali said, Sulayman (Solomon) inherited Dawud (David), and Zakariya said, He may be my heir and the heir of the children of Yaqab (Zachariah and John the Baptist).† Abu Bakr said, This is as this is.† By Allah!† You know it as I know.† Thereupon Ali said, This is the Book of Allah that speaks.† Then they became quiet and retired.† (page 393).
††††††††††† Fatimah asked Abu Bakr, When you die who will inherit you?† He replied, My children and relatives. She said, What is the justification of your becoming inheritor of the Prophet keeping us away?† He replied, O daughter of the Apostle of Allah!† I did not inherit your fatherís land, gold, silver, slave, or property.† She said, The share of Allah (Khums i.e. one-fifth) which He has allotted to us and which is only our share, is in your hands.† Thereupon he replied, I heard the Apostle of Allah saying, It is the food that Allah makes me eat.† When I die it will be distributed among the Muslims† (page 392).
††††††††††† Abu Bakr said, Verily, the Apostle of Allah said, We do not leave inheritance, what we leave goes into sadaqah.† Verily, the members of Muhammadís family will get provision from this money.† By Allah!† I shall not change the distribution of the sadaqah of the Apostle of Allah from what it was in the time of Apostle of Allah.† I shall continue to spend them under the same heads as the Apostle of Allah was spending.† So Abu Bakr refused to give any thing to Fatimah.† Consequently Fatimah became angry with Abu Bakr and left him.† She did not talk with him till she died.† She lived six months after the Apostle of Allah. (page 392)
The Hadith of Sahih Muslim, , adds the following detailsÖ
Book 019, Number 4355:
It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah† said: My heirs cannot share even a dinar (from my legacy); what I leave behind after paving maintenance allowance to my wives and remuneration to my manager is (to go in) charity.
Book 019, Number 4351:
It is narrated on the authority of 'Aisha who said: When the Messenger of Allah† passed away, his wives made up their minds to send 'Uthman b. 'Affan (as their spokesman) to Abu Bakr to demand from him their share from the legacy of the Holy Prophet . (At this), Aisha said to them: Hasn't the Messenger of Allah said: "We (Prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity"?
††††††††††† Abu Bakr died 2 years after assuming the Caliphate and Umar became Caliph.† But, Ali and Ibn Abbas had never allowed the dispute to die out Ė they still wanted the money.† Sahih Muslim details the ongoing conflictÖ
Book 019, Number 4349:
††††††††††† ÖAt this moment (his man-servant) Yarfa' came in and said: Commander of the Faithful, what do you say about Uthman, Abd al-Rabman b. 'Auf, Zubair and Sa'd (who have come to seek an audience with you)? He said: Yes, and permitted them. so they entered. Then he (Yarfa') came again and said: What do you say about 'Ali and Abbas (who are present at the door)? He said: Yes, and permitted them to enter. Abbas said: Commander of the Faithful, decide (the dispute) between me and this sinful, treacherous, dishonest liar. The people (who were present) also said: Yes. Commander of the Faithful, do decide (the dispute) and have mercy on them. Malik b. Aus said: I could well imagine that they had sent them in advance for this purpose (by 'Ali and Abbas). 'Umar said: Wait and be patient. I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained, don't you know that the Messenger of Allah† said:" We (prophets) do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity"? They said: Yes. Then he turned to Abbas and 'Ali and said: I adjure you both by Allah by Whose order the heavens and earth are sustained, don't you know that the Messenger of Allah† said:" We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity"? They (too) said: Yes. (Then) Umar said: Allah, the Glorious and Exalted, had done to His Messenger† a special favor that He has not done to anyone else except him. He quoted the Qur'anic verse:" What Allah has bestowed upon His Apostle from (the properties) of the people of township is for Allah and His Messenger". The narrator said: I do not know whether he also recited the previous verse or not. Umar continued: The Messenger of Allah† distributed among you the properties abandoned by Banu Nadir. By Allah, he never preferred himself over you and never appropriated anything to your exclusion. (After a fair distribution in this way) this property was left over.
††††††††††† The Messenger of Allah† would meet from its income his annual expenditure, and what remained would be deposited in the Bait-ul-Mal. (Continuing further) he said: I adjure you by Allah by Whose order the heavens and the earth are sustained. Do you know this? They said: Yes. Then he adjured Abbas and 'All as he had adjured the other persons and asked: Do you both know this? They said: Yes. He said: When the Messenger of Allah† passed away, Abu Bakr said:" I am the successor of the Messenger of Allah ." Both of you came to demand your shares from the property (left behind by the Messenger of Allah). (Referring to Hadrat 'Abbas), he said: You demanded your share from the property of your nephew, and he (referring to 'Ali) demanded a share on behalf of his wife from the property of her father. Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah† had said:" We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is (to be given in) charity." So both of you thought him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah knows that he was true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. When Abu Bakr passed away and (I have become) the successor of the Messenger of Allah† and Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him), you thought me to be a liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest. And Allah knows that I am true, virtuous, well-guided and a follower of truth. I became the guardian of this property. Then you as well as he came to me. Both of you have come and your purpose is identical. You said: Entrust the property to us. I said: If you wish that I should entrust it to you, it will be on the condition that both of you will undertake to abide by a pledge made with Allah that you will use it in the same way as the Messenger of Allah† used it. So both of you got it. He said: Wasn't it like this? They said: Yes. He said: Then you have (again) come to me with the request that I should adjudge between you. No, by Allah. I will not give any other judgment except this until the arrival of the Doomsday. If you are unable to hold the property on this condition, return it to me.
Book 019, Number 4354:
ÖThe Messenger of Allah said:" We do not have any heirs; what we leave behind is Sadaqa (charity)." The narrator said: She (Fatima) lived six months after the death of the Messenger of Allah† and she used to demand from Abu Bakr her share from the legacy of the Messenger of Allah from Khaibar, Fadak and his charitable endowments at Medina. Abu Bakr refused to give her this, and said: I am not going to give up doing anything which the Messenger of Allah† used to do. I am afraid that it I go against his instructions in any matter I shall deviate from the right course. So far as the charitable endowments at Medina were concerned, 'Umar handed them over to 'Ali and Abbas, but 'Ali got the better of him (and kept the property under his exclusive possession). And as far as Khaibar and Fadak were concerned 'Umar kept them with him, and said: These are the endowments of the Messenger of Allah† (to the Umma). Their income was spent on the discharge of the responsibilities that devolved upon him on the emergencies he had to meet. And their management was to be in the hands of one who managed the affairs (of the Islamic State). The narrator said: They have been managed as such up to this day.
The Sunan of Abu Dawud, , adds the following detailsÖ
Sunan of Abu Dawud
Book 19, Number 2961:
Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:
Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan said: One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Apostle of Allah† received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs, Fadak for travelers, and Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allah† into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants.
††††††††††† And The History of Tabari  also provides an account of the conflictÖ
††††††††††† Fatimah and al-Abbas came to Abu Bakr demanding their share of inheritance of the Messenger of God.† They were demanding the Messenger of Godís land in Fadak and his share of Khaybarís tribute.† Abu Bakr replied, I have heard the Messenger of God say, Our, i.e. the prophetsí property cannot be inherited and whatever we leave behind is alms to be given in charity.† The family of Muhammad will eat from it.† (1)††† By God, I will not abandon a course which I saw the Messenger of god practicing, but will continue it accordingly.† Fatimah shunned him and did not speak to him about it until she died.† Ali buried her at night and did not permit Abu Bakr to attend her burial.† While Fatimah was alive, Ali held respect among the people.† After she died their attention turned away form him.† A man asked al-Zuhri, Did Ali not give his oath of allegiance for six months?† No, nor anyone of the Banu Hashim until Ali rendered his, he replied.† (pages 196, 197).
Note 1 states:† It was the first and most important step taken by both Abu Bakr and Umar in their attempts to displace the Banu Hashim and especially Ali from their prerogatives in the leadership of the Muslim polity.† Acceptance of this claim of inheritance based on family ties would have opened the door widely to Aliís right to the succession.† Moreover, the income from both these sources was considerable, and it would have given some leverage to Ali.
1)† Before he died Muhammad proclaimed that he would not be leaving inheritance to his family members.
2)† On the day following Muhammadís death his daughter Fatima, her husband Ali, and Ibn Abbas visited Abu Bakr and demanded that he give them their fair share of Muhammadís wealth.† Abu Bakr refused on the grounds that Muhammad followed in the footsteps of other prophets and would not allow his family members to receive any inheritance.† However, Ali correctly pointed out that Muhammad was mistaken because the Quran records example of prophets leaving an inheritance to their sons (David to Solomon, Zechariah to John the Baptist).† The end result of this confrontation was that till her dying day, Fatima hated Abu Bakr and refused to speak to him.† Ali also continued in hating Abu Bakr, burying his wife in secret, to avoid Bakrís presence.† Ali reconciled with Abu Bakr, not because it was the right thing to do, but because he fell out of peopleís favor, and it was the only way to get their favor back.
3)† Muhammadís wives, other than Aisha, also set out to demand their share, but they were stopped by Aishaís repeating of Muhammadís words regarding no inheritance.
4)† After Abu Bakr died Ali and Abbas again pressed their claim upon Umar.† Ali and Ibn Abbas were at odds over who might get the money.† Abbas calls Ali a sinful, treacherous, dishonest, liar!† Umar reproves them both and states that at one time they both thought Abu Bakr to be a liar, sinful, treacherous, and dishonest!† Then Umar tells them to their face that they think him to be a liar, sinful, treacherous, and dishonest!† Then, because of their pressure, anger, and general discord, Umar is not able to bear up and continue to fulfill Muhammadís commands, and he capitulates, giving them both some of Muhammadís inheritance wealth (ostensibly that they would continue to maintain it the same way he did)!†
††††††††††† Just a day after Muhammadís death the dark family squabbles begin.† There certainly was no real period of mourning, spiritual reflection, or drawing close together of Muhammadís family was there?† Instead, people were moving on the money right away!† Take a look, we have a number of dark and powerful emotions at work here.†
††††††††††† Note the greed displayed by Muhammadís closest family members.† The body is barely cold and here they were demanding their share of the inheritance.† Due to their lusting after this wealth, they bicker spitefully among themselves.† Greed continues to live in their hearts for 2 years.† After Abu Bakr dies they return to Umar and make the same monetary demands.
††††††††††† When spurned in their attempt to obtain the wealth, they hated Abu Bakr.† Fatima and Ali hated him to her dying day.† And out of spite, Ali refused to let Abu Bakr know she had died, burying her in secret.† Ibn Abbas, Fatima, and Ali all considered Abu Bakr to be a sinful, treacherous, dishonest, liar.† And when Umar becomes Caliph, they hate him and consider him to be liar, sinful, treacherous and dishonest
And interesting note that must not be overlookedÖ.
††††††††††† Ali, when confronted by Abu Bakr with the reason for rejection, states that Muhammad was ignorant of his own Quran it, a book Muhammad supposedly had memorized, states that prophets left inheritance for their sons.† Ref. Sura 27:16, and 19:6.†† Ali points that out to the group assembled there and leaves them silent, unable to respond, because they were shocked that he proved Muhammad to be in the wrong.† After all, this was Muhammadís own Quran, and he got it wrong!† All Abu Bakr could do in response, knowing Ali was correct, was say, well, thatís the way itís going to be.
††††††††††† The Bibleís statement is true Ė the love of money is a root to all sorts of evil.† These Muslims, - Muhammadís devoted family, lusted after worldly gain.† That lust caused them to hate each other.† Now what about Sura 8:63?† Would you consider that these peopleís hearts were knit together?† Perhaps they were at one time, under stressful circumstances.† But here, Allah was unable to knit or hold them together.† Allahís sewing job was rather poor wouldnít you say?† Wouldnít you expect these, some of the greatest Muslims, to have been able to hold it together a bit longer?† Wouldnít you expect them to have some semblance of love, trust and fidelity towards each other, especially just after Muhammadís death?† Wouldnít you expect there to be some level of true spirituality?† What happened to all that Islamic devotion?† Why did it evaporate so quickly?† Just how real was Islam for the Royal Family to discard it, (the deeper commands), so quickly.
1) The Bible, New International Version, pub. by Zondervan, Grand Rapids, Michigan
2) The Nobel Quran,† translated by Dr. Muhammad Taqi-ud-Din Al-Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, published by Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, PO Box 21441, Riyadh 11475, Saudi Arabia, 1994
3) Bukhari, Muhammad, Sahih Bukhari, Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi, India, 1987, translated by M. Khan
5) al-Misri, Ahmad, Reliance of the Traveler, (A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law), translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller, published by Amana publications, Beltsville, Maryland, USA† 1991
6) Ibn Sa'd, (d. 852 A.D.), "Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir", (Book of the Major Classes), Volume 2, translated by S. Moinul Haq, Pakistan Historical Society.
7) Muslim, A., "Sahih Muslim", translated by A. Sidiqqi, International Islamic Publishing House, Riyadh, KSA.
8) Abu Dawud, Suliman, Sunan, al-Madina, New Delhi, 1985, translated by A. Hasan
9) al-Tabari, "The History of al-Tabari", (Ta'rikh al-rusul wa'l-muluk), Volume 9, State University of New York Press, 1993. Translated by Ismail K. Poonawala
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