Lit.. "A cube." The cube-like building in the centre of the mosque at Makkah, which contains the Hajaru 'l-Aswad, or black stone.

I. A Description of the Ka‘bah - It is, according to Burckhardt and Burton, an oblong massive structure, 18 paces in length, 14 in breadth, and about 35 feet in height. It is constructed of grey Makkan stone, in large blocks of different sizes, joined together in a very rough manner, with cement. (Burton says it is excellent mortar, like Roman cement.) The Ka'bah stands upon a base two feet in height, which presents a sharp inclined plane; its roof being flat, it has, at a distance, the appearance of a perfect cube. The only door which affords entrance, and which is opened but two or three times in the year (Burton says it can be entered by pilgrims, by paying the guardian a liberal fee), is on the east side, and about seven feet above the ground. At the south-east corner of the Ka'bah, near the door, is the famous black stone [HAJARU 'L-ASWAD], which forms a part of the sharp angle of the building, at four or five feet above the ground. The black stone is an irregular oval, about seven inches in diameter, with an undulating surface,


composed of about a dozen smaller stones of different shapes and sizes. It is surrounded on all sides by a border of reddish brown cement, both the stone and the border being encircled by a band of a massive arch of gold or silver gilt, the aperture of the stone being one span and three fingers broad. In the corner facing the south, there is another stone about five feet from the ground. It is one foot and a half in length, and two inches in breadth, placed upright, and of common Makkan stone. According to the rites of the pilgrimage, this stone, which is called ar-Ruknu 'l-Yamani, or Yaman pillar, should only be touched with the right hand as the pilgrim passes it, but Captain Burton says he frequently saw it kissed by the pilgrims. Just by the door of the Ka'bah, and close to the wall, is a slight hollow in the ground, lined with marble and sufficiently large to admit of three persons sitting, which is called al-Mi'jan, and supposed to be the place where Abraham and his son Ishmael kneaded the

THE KA'BAH (From a Photograph)

chalk and mud which they used to build the Ka'bah. Here it is thought meritorious to pray. On the basis of the Ka'bah, just above the Mi'jan, is an ancient Kufic inscription, which neither Burckhardt nor Burton were able to decipher or to copy. On the north-west side of the Ka'bah, about two feet below its summit, is the water-spout, which is called the Mi'zabu' r-Rahmah, or the water-spout of mercy. The spout is of gold and was sent hither from Constantinople in A.H. 981. It carries rain from the roof, and discharges it upon Ishmael's grave. There are two large green marble slabs, which are said to have been presents from Cairo, A.H. 241, which are supposed to mark the graves of Hagar and Ishmael. The pavement round the Ka'bah consists of a very handsome mosaic of various colored stones, and is said to have been laid down A.H. 826. On one side of the Ka'bah is a semicircular wall, the extremities of which are in a line with the sides of the Ka'bah, and distant about six feet leaving an opening which leads to the grave of Ishmael. The wall is called al-Hatim, "the broken," and the enclosed area al Hijr, "the enclosure." The Ka'bah is covered with a coarse tissue of mixed silk and cotton, being of a brilliant black color, and with a gold band round it, upon which is inscribed the ninetieth verse of the third chapter of the Qur'an: "Verily the first home founded for mankind was surely that at Bakkah, for a blessing and guidance to mankind." The inscription being in large Kufic characters. For a further account of this cover, see KISWAH.

THE KA'BAH (Burton)

II. The History of the Ka'bah, is embraced in the history of the Baitu 'llah or MASJIDU 'L-HARAM.

According to the Traditions and the inventive genius of Muslim writers, the Ka'bah was first constructed in heaven (where a model of it still remains, called Baitu 'l-Ma'mur) two thousand years before the creation of the world. Adam erected the Ka'bah on earth exactly below the spot its perfect model occupies in heaven, and selected the stones from the five sacred mountains, Sinai, al-Judi, Hira, Olivet, and Lebanon. Ten thousand angels were appointed to guard the structure, but, as Burckhardt remarks, they appear to have been often most remiss in their duty! At the Deluge the Sacred House was destroyed. But the Almighty is said to have instructed Abraham to rebuild it. In its reconstruction Abraham was assisted by his son Ishmael, who with his mother Hagar were at the time residents of Makkah, Abraham having journeyed from Syria in order to obey the commands on God.

Upon digging they found the original foundations of the building. But wanting a stone to mark the corner of the building, Ishmael started to search for one, and as he was going in the direction of Jabal Qubais, the angel Gabriel met him, and gave him the famous black stone. Ibn 'Abbas relates that the Prophet said, the black stone when it came down from Paradise was whiter than milk, but that it has become black from the sins of those who have touched it. (Mishkat, book xi. ch. iv. pt. 2.)

Upon the death of Ishmael, the Ka'bah fell into the possession of the Banu Jurhum,


and remained in their hands for a thousand years. It then became the property of the Banu Khuza'ah, who held it for three hundred years. But being constantly exposed to torrents, it was destroyed, and was rebuilt by Qusaiy ibn Kilab, who put a top to it, up to this time it is said to have been open at the roof.

It is said, by Muhammadan historians, that 'Amr ibn Luhaiy was the first who introduced idolatry into Arabia, and that he brought the great idol Hubal from Hait in Mesopotamia and placed it in the sacred house. It then became a Pantheon common to all the tribes. [IDOLS.] The tribe of Qusaiy were the first who built dwelling-houses round the Ka'bah. The successors of the Banu Qusaiy were the Quraish. Soon after they came into possession, the Ka'bah was destroyed by fire, and they rebuilt it of wood and of a smaller size than it had been in the time of the Banu Qusaiy. The roof was supported within by six pillars, and the statue of Hubal was placed over a wall then existing withing the Ka'bah. This took place during the youth of Muhammad. Al-Azraqi, quoted by Burckhardt, says that the figure of the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus was sculptured as deity upon one of the six pillars nearest the gate.

The grandfather of Muhammad, 'Abdu 'l-Muttalib, the son of Hashim, became the custodian of the Sacred House; and during his time, the Ka'bah being considered too low in its structure, the Quraish wished to raise it; so they demolished it and then they rebuilt till the work reached the place of the black stone. Each tribe wishing to have the honor of raising the black stone into its place, they quarreled amongst themselves. But they at last agreed that the first man who should enter the gate of the enclosure should be umpire. Muhammad was the first to enter, and he was appointed umpire. He thereupon ordered them to place the stone upon a cloth and each tribe by its representative to take hold of the cloth and lift it into its place. The dispute was thus ended, and when the stone had reached its proper place, Muhammad fixed it in its situation with his own hand.

At the commencement of Muhammad's mission, it is remarkable that there is scarcely an allusion to the Ka'bah, and this fact, taken with the circumstances that the earliest Qiblah, or direction of prayer, was Jerusalem, and not the Ka'bah, seems to imply that Muhammad's strong iconoclastic tendencies did not incline his sympathies to this ancient idol temple with its superstitious ceremonies. Had the Jews favorably received the new prophet as one who taught the religion of Abraham, to the abrogation of that of Moses and Jesus, Jerusalem and not Makkah would have been the sacred city, and the ancient Rock [SAKHRAH.] and not the Ka'bah would have been the object of superstitious reverence.

Taking the Surahs chronologically, the earliest reference in the Qur'an to the Ka'bah occurs in Surah lii 4, where the Prophet swears by the frequented house (al-Baitu 'l-Ma'mur), but commentators are not agreed whether it refers to the Ka'bah in Makkah or its heavenly model above, which is said to be frequented by the angels. We then come to Surah xvii, i, where Muhammad refers to his celebrated night dream of his journey from the Sacred Mosque (al-Masjidu 'l-Haram) at Makkah to the Remote Mosque (al-Masjidu 'l-Aqsa) at Jerusalem. And in this verse we find the Rock at Jerusalem spoken of as "the precinct of which We (God) have blessed, to show him (Muhammad) of our signs," proving that even then the Prophet of Arabiz had his heart fixed on Mount Zion, and not on the Ka'bah.

When Muhammad found himself established in al-Madinah, with a very good prospect of his obtaining possession of Makkah, and it historic associations, he seems to have withdrawn his thoughts from Jerusalem, and its Sacred Rock and to fix them on the house at Bakkah as the home founded for mankind, - Blessed, and a guidance to all creatures (Surah iii. 90). The Jews proving obdurate, and there being little chance of his succeeding in establishing his claim as their prophet spoken of by Moses, he changes the Qiblah, or direction for prayer, from Jerusalem to Makkah. The house at Makkah is made "a place of resort unto men and a sanctuary" (Surah ii, 119).

The Qiblah is changed by an express command of the Almighty, and the whole passage is remarkable as exhibiting a decided concession of the part of Muhammad to the claims of the Ka'bah as a central object of adoration (Surah iii, 138-145).

"We appointed the Qiblah which thou for merly hast, only that we might know him who followeth the apostle, from him who turneth on his heels: The change is a difficulty, but not to those whom God hath guided. But God will not let your faith be fruitless; for unto man is God Merciful, Gracious. We have seen thee turning thy fact towards every part of Heaven; but we will have thee turn to a Qiblah which shall please thee. Turn then thy face towards the sacred Mosque, and wherever ye be, turn your faces towards that part. They, verily, to whom 'the Book' hath been given, know this to be the truth from their Lord; and God is not regardless of what ye do. Even though thou shouldest bring every kind of sign to those who have received the Scriptures, yet thy Qiblah they will not adopt; nor shalt thou adopt their Qiblah; nor will one part of them adopt the Qiblah of the other. And if, after the knowledge which hath come to thee, thou follow their wishes, verily then wilt thou become of the unrighteous. They to whom we have given the Scriptures know him - the Apostle - even as they know their own children: but truly a part of them do conceal the truth, though acquainted with it. The truth is from thy Lord. Be not then of those who doubt. All have a quarter of the Heavens to which they turn them; but wherever ye be, hasten emulously after good: God will


one day bring you all together; verily, God is all-powerful. And from whatever place thou comest forth, turn thy face toward the sacred Mosque; for this is the truth from thy Lord; and God is not inattentive to your doings. And from whatever place thou comest forth, turn thy face toward the sacred Mosque; and wherever ye be, to that part turn your faces, lest men have cause of dispute against you; but as for the impious among them, fear them not; but fear me, that I may perfect my favors on you, and that ye may be guided aright."

The verses of the second Surah of the Qur'an are, according to Jalalu 'd-din and other commentators, not in their chronological order. It is therefore difficult to fix the precise date of the following verse:-

Surah 108 ii: "Who is more unjust than he who prohibits God's mosques, that His name should not be worshiped there, and who strives to ruin them."

According to al-Baizawi, the verse either refers to the sacking of Jerusalem by Titus, or to the Quraish who, at al-Hudaibiyah, had prevented the Prophet from entering Makkah until the following year.

In the seventh years of the Hijrah, Muhammad was, according to the treaty with the Quraish at al-Hudaibiyah in the previous year, allowed to enter Makkah, and perform the circuit of the Ka'bah. Hubal and the other idols of the Arabian pantheon were still within the sacred building, but as Muhammad's visit was limited to three days, he confined himself to the ordinary rites of the 'Umrah, or visitation, without interfering with the idolatrous arrangement of the Ka'bah itself. Before he left, at the hour of midday prayer, Bilal ascended the holy house, and from its summit gave the first call to Muslim prayers, which were afterwards led by the Prophet in the usual form.

The following year, Muhammad occupied Makkah by force of arms. The idols in the Ka'bah were destroyed, and the rites of the pilgrimage were established as by divine enactment. From this time the history of the Ka'bah becomes part of the history of Islam.

The Khalifah 'Umar first built a mosque round the Ka'bah, A.H. 17.

For a history of the sacred mosque at Makkah, see MASJIDU 'L-HARAM.


A companion of the Prophet and one of the Ansars of the tribe of Khazraj. He was celebrated as a poet, and embraced Islam after the second pledge of 'Akabah. He was one of the three companions who refused to accompany Muhammad on the expedition to Tabuk (Hilal and Mararah being the other two), and who are referred to in the Qur'an, Surah ix. 118, 119: "Veily He is kind to them, unto the three who were left behind." For a time Muhammad was displeased with them, but he afterwards became reconciled. Ka'b became a companion of some note, and died during the reign of 'Ali.


"The Great One." One of the ninety-nine attributes of God, Surah xxiv. 22: "He is the High (al-'Ali) and the Great (al-Kabir)."


The fem. of kabir, "great." A term used in theological books for Gunah-i-Kabirah, "a great sin"; namely, that sin which is clearly forbidden in the law, and for which punishment has been ordained by God. [SIN.]


A sect of Muslims founded by Abu Qasim Muhammad ibn al-Ka'bi, who was a Mu'tazili of Bagdad, who said the acts of God were without purpose, will, or desire.


Persian (vulg. kachkol). The begging bowl of a religious mendicant. [FAQIR.]



The shroud for the dead. It usually consists of three pieces of cloth for a man and five for a woman. Those for a man: 1, An izar, or piece of cloth, reaching from the navel to the knees or ankle joings; 2, A qamis, or shirt, from the neck to the knees; 3, A sheet to cover the whole corpse. For a woman there are also a breast band and head band. The whole being of white. [BURIAL.]


From kafr, "to hide." Heb. Lit. "Coverings; atonements; expiation."

The word occurs four times in the Qur'an:-

Surah v. 49: "Whoso remitteth it as alms shall have expiation for his sins."

Surah v. 91: "Its expiation shall be to feed ten persons." "This is the expiation for your oaths."

Surah v. 96: "In expiation thereof shall ye feed the poor."

The other word used is fidyah [FIDYAH]. The expression kaffaratu 'z-zunub, "atonement for sins," is used for expiation by prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage. [EXPIATION.]


"The Sufficient One." An attribute of God mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah xxxix. 37: "Is not God sufficient for His servant."


The title of a collection of traditions by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulini (A.H. 328) received by the Shi'ahs.


pl. kafirun. Lit. "The coverer." One who hides or covers up the truth.

The word is generally used by Muhammadans to define one who is an unbeliever in the ministry of Muhammad and his Qur'an, and in this sense it seems to have been used by Muhammad himself. Surah ii. 37: "Those who misbelieve (wa'llazina kafaru),


and call our signs lies, they are fellows of the Fire, they shall dwell within for ever."

It is also used for those who believe in the Divinity of the Lord Jesus, and the Holy Trinity, Surah v. 76: "They indeed are infidels (la-gad kafara 'llazina), who say God is al-Masibu ibn Maryam.... Verify him who associates anything with God, hath God forbidden Paradise, and his resort is the Fire."

Sura v. 77: "They are infidels who say Verily God is the third of three."

[On this passage the Kamalan say it refers to the Nestorians and to the Malaka'iyah, who believe that God is one of three, the other two being the mother and son.]

According to the Raddu 'l-Muhtar (vol. iii. p. 442), there are five classes of kafirs or infidels: (1) Those who do not believe in the Great First Cause; (2) Those who do not believe in the Unity of God, as the Sanawiyah who believe in the two eternal principles of light and darkness; (3) Those who believe in the Unity of God, but do not believe in a revelation; (4) Those who are idolaters; (5) Those who believe in God and in a revelation, but do not believe in the general mission of Muhammad to the whole of mankind, as the Christians, a sect of the Jews (sic).

Saiyid Sharif Jurjani says : "Mankind are divided into two parties, namely, those who acknowledge the mission of Muhammad, and those who do not believe in it. Those who do not believe in his mission are either those who reject it and yet believe in the inspiration and divine mission of other prophets, as the Jews and Christians, and also the Majusi (Fire Worshippers); or those who do not believe in any revelation of God's will. Those who do not believe in any revelation from God, are either those who acknowledge the existence of God, as the Brahma (Buddhists?), or those who deny the existence of a Supreme Ruler, as the Dahri or Atheists."

"Those who do not acknowledge Muhammad as an inspired prophet are either those who do it wilfully and from mere enmity, or those who do not acknowledge it from reflection and due to study of the subject. For the former is eternal punishment, and for the latter that punishment which is not eternal. There are also those who, whilst they are Muslims, are not orthodox in their belief; these are heretics, but they are not kafirs. Those who are orthodox are an-Naji or the salvationists." (Sharhu 'l-Muwaqif, p. 597.)


The unthankful, or ungrateful. Condemned in the Qur'an, Surah xxii. 39: "God loveth not the false, the unthankful.


Lit. "Camphor." A fountain in Paradise mentioned in the Qur'an (Surah xxvi. 5) as the fountain where-of the servants of the Lord shall drink. But al-Baizawi, the commentator, takes it for an appellative, and believes that the wine of Paradise will be mixed with camphor because of its agreeable coolness and smell.


"The Cave." The title of the XVIIIth chapter of the Qur'an, in which is related the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, known as the Ashabu 'l-Kahf.


pl. kahanah and kuhhan. A soothsayer, or augur. The word occurs only twice in the Qur'an; and in both instances it is used for "a soothsay."

Surah lii. 29: "For thou (Muhammad), by the favor of thy Lord, art neither a soothsayer (kahin), nor one possessed (majnun)."

The word is used in the Traditions in the same sense only:-

Mishkat, book iv. chap. i.: "The Prophet said, believe in Islam, and put not your trust in soothsayers (kahanah)."

Mishkat, book xxi. ch. ii. : "Ayishan relates that the Prophet was asked about kahanah, fortune-tellers, and he said, 'You must not believe anything they say.' It was then said, 'O Prophet, why do they then sometimes tell lies?' And the Prophet said: 'Because one of the jinn steals away the truth and carries it to the magician's ear, and the magicians (kuhhan) mix a hundred lies with it.'"

The Hebrew Kohain, is applied in the Old Testament not only to the Jewish priests, but also to Melchizedek (Gen. xiv. 18), Potipher (Gen. xli. 45; see marginal reading in our Englich version), and to Jethro (Ex. ii. 16).


Lit. "Attracting Straws." Electricity, or the power of attraction. A Sufi term.


"Detailed circumstances." A term used in Muhammadan books for a statement or account of anything, e.g. kaif iyat-i-taskhir, "the manner of attack"; kaif iyat-i-rasikhah, "a fixed or permanent quality"; kaif iyat-i-'arizah, "a moveable or accidental quality."


A kind of sale which is prohibited. Mishkat, book xii. ch. v. pt. 2: "The Prophet has forbidden selling on credit for credit."

'Abdu 'l-Haqq explains it thus: "If 'Amr owe Zaid a piece of cloth, and Bakr ten dirhams, and Said say to Bakr, I have sold you the piece of cloth, which is with 'Amr for ten dirhams" - this sale is forbidden.


"A word; speech." 'Ilmu 'l-kalam, "scholastic theology"; fasihu 'l-kalam, "eloquent"; muhassalu 'l-kalam, "the substance of a discourse."


"The Word of God." A title given to the Qur'an. Surah ii. 70: "Already a sect of them have heard the Word of God."



Lit. "The Word." The Creed of the Muslim.

La Ilaha illa 'llahu: Muhammadan Rasulu llah.

"There is no deity by God: Muhammad is the Apostle of God."

The whole sentence as it stands does not occur in the Qur'an; but the first part of the creed, "There is no deity but God," is in the Auratu Muhammad, or XLVIIth chapter of the Qur'an, verse 21; and the second part, "Muhammad is the Apostle of God," is in the Suratu 'l-Fath, or XLVIIIth chapter, verse 29. The first sentence is known as the Nafy and the Isbat, or the rejection (there is no deity) and the affirmation (but God), and is recited often as a religious office by the Suri faqirs.

The whole creed frequently occurs in the Traditions, and is an oft-recurring clause in the daily prayer.

This Kalimah occupies a similar place in the Muslim religion to the "Shema Israil" of the Hebrew Bible in the Jews' religion. The Shema' ("Hear") is the fourth verse of Deut. vi: "Hear, O Israel, Jehovah our Elohimis one Jehovah"; which is frequently used in daily morning and evening service of the Jews. From the Traditions (Mishkat, book xi. ch. pt. 1) it appears that a something similar to this well known symbol of the Muslim creed, was in use amongst the ancient Arabians, and is still recited by Muslims, amongst whom it is known as the Talbiyah: "I stand up for Thy service, O God! There is no partner with Thee." [TALBIYAH.]

The recital of the kalilmah is the first of the five foundations or pillars of practice, and, according to the Fawa'idu 'sh-Shari'ah, every Muslim should recite it aloud at least once in his lifetime, and he should understand its meaning. [RECITAL OF THE CREED.]


The fiat of God, when He said "Be," and it was created. The word kun, is therefore called the Kalimatu 'l-Hazrah. It occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xxxvi. 82: "His bidding is only when He desires anything to say to it 'BE', and it is ." And in about eleven other places.


"The word of testimony." The following expression of belief; "I bear witness that there is no deity but God, and that Muhammad is His Apostle." {PRAYER.]


"The Converser with God." A title given to the Prophet Moses (vide Mishkat, book xxii xxii. ch. xii). It is also referred to in the Qur'an, Surah iv. 162: "Moses did God speak to - conversing."


A Christian Church . The word is used in the books of Muhammadan law for both Christian and Jewish places of worship. The word kanisah is also used [KANISAH.]


"Perfect; complete." Al-Insanu 'l-Kamil, "the perfect man." A mystic term. [INSANU 'L-KAMIL.]


A sect of Shi'ah Muslims founded by Abu 'l-Kamil, who said the Asahib, or Companions of the Prophet, were infidels, because they rejected the house of 'Ali in forming the Khalifate, and he even called the Kalifah 'Ali an infidel because he did not claim his rights when Muhammad died. (Kitabu 't-Ta'rifat, in loco.)


"Canaan." Not mentioned by name in the Qur'an. The Commentators al-Baizawi and Jalalu 'd-din, say he was the son of Noah; but the author of the Qamus dictionary says he was the son of Shem. (According to the Old Testament, he was the son of Ham, Gen. x. 6; 1 Chron. i. 8.)

He is said to be the son of Noah who was drowned, through unbelief, in the deluge. See Qur'an, Surah xi. 44. [NOAH.]


A Christian church, a Jewish synagogue, or a pagan temple. It is used in the Hidayah (vol. ii. p. 219) for a synagogue. [CHURCHES.]


Lit. "The Secret Treasure." A term used by the Sufis for the essence and personality of God.


Persian. "A caravan." The Arabic term is Qafilah. A party of merchants proceeding on a journey under the direction of a leader who is called a Qafilah Bashi.


or MASH-HADU 'L-HUSAIN. A city in al-'Iraq, celebrated as the scene of the martyrdom of al-Husain [AL-HUSAIN] and the place of his sepulcher. It is fifty mile south-west of Baghdad, and about six mile west of the Euphrates.


"The Generous One." One of the ninety-nine attributes of God.




The uncovering of anything covered; manifestation. A mystic term used for a revelation of any secret truth to the mind of man, by the grace and power of God.


An Amanuensis; a clerk; a secretary. In the latter sense it is used for Muhammad ibn Sa'd Mani' az-Zuhri, the secretary to al-Waqidi. [KATIBU 'L-WAQIDI.]


The secretary of al-Waqidi. A Muslim historian, largely quoted by Sir William Muir in his Life of Mahomet, and


also by Sprenger, and often given as an authority in the present work.

Mr. Ameer Ali in his Life of Muhammad (London, 1873), couples the name of Katibu l-Waqidi with that of al-Waqidi himself, as regarded by "the Muhammadan as the least trustworthy and most careless biographers of Muhammad," and quotes Ibn Khalliakan in support of his opinion. It is quite true that Ibn Khallikan does speak of the traditions received by al-Waqidi as "of feeble authority," but he bears testimony to the trustworthiness of al-Waqidi' secretary in the strongest terms, as will be seen in the following quotation, and it is manifestly unfair of Mr. Ameer Ali to couple the two names together in his preface: -

"Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Saad Ibn Mani za-Zuhri, was a man of the highest talents, merit, and eminence. He lived for some time with al-Wakidi [WAQIDI] in the character of a secretary, and for this reason he became known by the appellation of Karibu-l-Wakidi. Amongst the masters, under who he studied was Sofyian Ibn Oyaina. Traditional information was delivered on his own authority by Abu Bakr Ibn Abid-Dunya and Abu Muhammad al-Harith Ibn Abi Osama at-Tamimi. He composed an excellent work, in fifteen volume, on the different classes (tabakat) of Muhammad's companions and of the Tabis. It contains also a history of the khalif brought down to his own time. He left also a smaller Tabakat. His character as a veracious and trustworthy historian is universally admitted. It is said that the complete collection of al-Wakidi's works remained in the possession of four persons, the first of whom was his secretary, Muhammad ibn Saad. This distinguished writer displayed great acquirements in the sciences, the traditions, and traditional literature; most of his books treat of the traditions and law. The Khatib Abu Bakr, author of the history of Baghdad, speaks of him in these terms: 'We consider Muhammad ibn Saad as a man of unimpeachable integrity, and the Traditions which he delivered are a proof of his veracity, for in the greater part of the information handed down by him, we find him discussing it, passage by passage.' He was a mawla (slave) to al-Husain Ibn Abd Allah Ibn Obaid Allah Ibn al-Abbas Ibn Abd al-Muttalib. He died at Baghdad on Sunday the 4th of the latter Jumada, A.H. 203 (December, A.D. 818), at the age of sixty-two years, and was interred in the cemetery outside the Damascus gate (Bab as-Sham.)" - (Ibn Khallikan, Biog. Dict, in loco.)


Lit. "Abudance." A pond in Muhammad's paradise known as the Hanzu 'l-Kausar, or "The Pond of Abudance."

The word occurs once in the Qur'an, Surah cviii. 1-3:-

Truly we have given thee an abundance (i.e. al-Kausar);

Pray therefore to the Lord, and slay the victims.

"Verily whoso hateth thee shall be childless."

But it is not clear whether the pond is intended in this verse. Al-Baizawi thinks it refers to abundance of blessing and not to the pond.

Anas relates that the Prophet said the prophet saw the pond al-Kausar in the night of his Mi'raj or heavenly journey [MI'RAJ] and that it "was a river of water on each side of which there were domes, each formed by a hollow pearl."

Abdu 'llah ibn 'Amr relates that the Prophet said "the circumference of al-Kausar is a month's journey, and it is a square, its water whiter than milk, its smell sweeter than musk, and its cups for drinking sparkle like the stars of heaven. He who drinks of its waters shall never thirst." (Mishkat, book xxiii. ch. xii.)


A term used in the Traditions for a tradition related by one person and handed down by one chair of narrators. [TRADITION.]


A term used for a tradition which is handed down by very many distinct chains of narrators, and which has been always accepted as authentic and genuine, no doubt over having been raised against it.

Syud Ahmad Khan says all learned Muslims of every period have declared the Qur'an is the only Hadis Mutawatir, but some have declared certain Ahadis also to be Mutawatir, the number of such not exceeding five. (Essay on the Traditions, p. 15.) [TRADITIONS.]


"Impure; base; wicked."

Qur'an viii. 38: "That God may distinguish the vile from the good, and may put the vile one on the top of the other, and heap all up together, and put them into hell."


Known as Khadijatu 'l-Kubra, "Khadijah the Great." The first wife of Muhammad, and the first convert to a belief in his mission.

She was a Quraish lady of good fortune, the daughter of Khuwailid, who was the great grandson of Qusiay. Before she married Muhammad, she was a widow who had been twice married, and had borne two sons and a daughter. Upon her marriage with Muhammad, she had attained her fortieth year, whilst he was only twenty-five years of age. She continued to be his only wife until the day of her death. She died December A.D. 619, aged 65; having been his counsellor and support for five-and-twenty years. She had borne Muhammad two sons and four daughters: al-Qasim, and 'Abdu 'llah, also called at-Taiyib and at-Tahir, Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Fatimah, and Umm Kulsum. Of those, only Fatimah survived the Prophet, and from her and her husband 'Ali are descended that posterity of Saiyads who are


the subjects of such frequent petitions in the khutbahs and the liturgical prayers in all parts of the Muhammadan world.

Muhammad ever retained his affection for Khadijah. 'Ayishah said: "I was never so jealous of any one of the Prophet's wives as I was of Khadijah, although I never saw her. The Prophet was always talking of her, and he would very often slay goats and cut them up, and send pieces of them as presents to Khadijah's female friend. I often said to him, 'One might suppose there had not been such another woman as Khadijah in the world!' And the Prophet would then praise her and say she was so, and so, and I had children by her." (Mishkat, book xxix. ch. xxii.)

According to a traditional saying of Muhammad, Khadijah, Fatima, and the Virgin Mary, and Asiyah the wife of Pharaoh, were the four perfect women. (Mishkat, book xxiv. ch. xxix. pt. 2.) [MUHAMMAD.]


"Hidden." A term used in works on exegesis for that which is hidden in its meaning, as compared with that which is obvious. [QUR'AN.]


A rich and populous valley, eight stages from al-Madinah, inhabited by Jews. It is celebrated in the history of Islam as the scene of one of Muhammad's expeditions, A.H. 7, when the chief Kinanah was slain and the whole valley conquered. (See Muir's Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 388, seqq.)

Here the Prophet instituted mut'ah, or temporary marriage. [MUT'AH.] Here were the special orders regarding clean and unclean animals promulgated. Here Muhammad married Safiyah, the widow of the chief of Khaibar. Here Zainab, the sister of the warrior Marhab, who had lost her husband, her father, and her brother in battle, tried to poison the Prophet with a poisoned kid. The campaign of Khaibar, therefore, marks an epoch in the Prophet's history. [MUHAMMAD.]


The plural of Khair. "Charity; good deeds." The word occurs in the Qur'an in its singular form (khair), but in modern theological works it is more frequently used in its plural form.


The best generations. A term used for the first three generation of Muslims from the time of the Prophet. Muhammad is related to have said there would be three virtuous generations, the one in which he lived and the two following it.


A sect of Muslims founded by Khalfu 'l-Khariji, who maintained, contrary to the general belief, that the children of idolaters will be eternally damned.


Son of al-Walid. The famous Muhammadan general. He fought against Muhammad at Uhud and defeated the Muslim army. The Prophet married Maimunah, who was an aunt to Khalid, a lady fifty-one years of age, and soon afterwards, Khalid himself embraced Islam and became one of its most powerful champions. He led the Bedouin converts in the advance on Makkah, and was present as one of the chief leaders of the Muslim army at the battle of Hunain, and subsequent expeditions. In the reign of Abu Bakr, he murdered Malik Ibn Nuwairah, an eminent Arab chief, and married his widow. The murder greatly displeased the Khalifah Abu Bake, and he would have ordered Khalid to be put to death, but 'Umar interceded for him. He afterwards took the lead in various expeditions. He invaded al-'Iraq and Syria, took Bustrah, defeated the Christians at Yarmuk, and subdued the country as far as the Euphrates. After the taking of Damascus, he was recalled by 'Umar, and sent to Hims and Ba'labakk.. He died at Hims A.H. 18, A.D. 639.


Pl. of khalid, "Everlasting." A term used to express the everlasting character of the joys of heaven and the torments of hell. It is used fifty times in the Qur'an in this sense. [ETERNAL PUNISHMENT.]


Pl. Khulafa', from khalf, "to leave behind." Anglice, "Caliph." A successor; a lieutenant; a vicegerent, or deputy. The word is used in the Qur'an for Adam, as the vicegerent of the Almighty on earth.

Surah ii. 28: "And when thy Lord said to the angels, 'I am about to place a vicegerent (khalifah) on the earth,' they said, 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will do evil therein and shed blood?'"

And also for David:-

Surah xxxviii. 25: "O David! Verily We have made thee a vicegerent (khalifah); judge then between men with truth."

In Muhammadanism it is the title given to the successor of Muhammad, who is vested with absolute authority in all matters of state, both civil and religious, as long as he rules in conformity with the law of the Qur'an and Hadis. The word more frequently used for the office in Muhammadan works of jurisprudence, is Iman (leader), or al-Imamu 'l-A'zam (the great leader). It is held to be an essential principle in the establishment of the office, that there shall be only one Khalifah at the same time; for the Prophet said: "When two Khalifahs have been set up, put the last to death and preserve the other, for the last is a rebel." (Mishkat, book xvi. ch. i.)

According to all Sunni Muhammadan books, it is absolutely necessary that the Khalifah be "a man, an adult, a sane person, a free man, a learned divine, a powerful ruler, a just person, and one of the Quraish (i.e. of the tribe of which the Prophet himself belonged).

The Shi'ahs hold that he should be one of the descendents of the Prophet's own family;


but this is rejected by the Sunnis and Wahhabis.

The condition that the Khalifah should be of the Quraish is very important, for thereby the present Ottoman Sultans fail to establish their claims to the Khalifate (Arabic Khalifah). The four immediate successors of Muhammad are entitled the Khulaf'u 'r-Rashidin, or "the well-directed Khalifahs." According to the Baghyatu 'r-Raid, only the first five Khalifahs, abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Usman, 'Ali, and al-Hassan, are entitled to the distinction of Khalifah, the others being merely Amirs; or Governors. After the deaths of the first five Khalifahs, the Khalifate, which is allowed by all parties to be elective and not hereditary, passed successively to the Umayades (Banu Umayah). The first Khalifah of this dynasty was Mu'awiyah, the grandson of Umaiyah of the Quraish tribe, who received the Khalifate from al-Hassan. Of the Umayades, there were fourteen Khalifahs who reigned at Damascus, extending over a period from A.H. 41 to A.H. 132 (A.D. 661 to A.D. 750). The title then passed to Abu 'l-'Abbas, the fourth in descent from al-'Abbas, the uncle of Muhammd, and the Abbaside Khalifahs, thirty-seven in number, who reigned at Baghdad from A.H. 132 to A.H. 656 (A.D. 750 to A.D. 1258).

The temporal power of the Abbaside Khalifahs was overthrown by Halak Khan, grandson of the celebrated Chenjiz Khan, A.D.1258; but for three centuries, certain descendants of the Abbaside, or Baghdad Khalifahs, resided in Egypt, and asserted their claim to the spiritual power. The founder of the present dynasty of Turkish Sultans was 'Usman (Othman), a chieftain descended from the Orghuz Turks (born at Sakut, A.D. 1259), who was at first the ruler of a small territory in Bithnyia, but who in 1299 invaded the whole country of Makkah, and subsequently extended his conquests to the Black Sea, and whose successor, Salim (ninth in descent), obtained the title of Khalifah from one of the Abbaside Khalifahs in Egypt. About the year A.D. 1515 (A.H. 921), Salim I., ruler of the Ottoman Turks and Emperor of Constantinople, finding himself the most powerful prince of his day in Islam, and wishing still further to consolidate his rule, conceived the idea of reviving in his own person the extinct glories of the Khalifate. He had more than one claim to be considered their champion by orthodox Muhammadans, for he was the grandson of that Muhammad II, who had finally extinguished the Roman Empire of the East; and he had himself just ended a successful campaign against the heretical Shah of Persia. His only rivals among Sunni princes were the Muslim Emperors in India, the Emperor of Morocco, and the Mameluke ruler of Egypt, then known to the world as par excellence, "the Sultan." With the two former, as rulers of what were remote lands of Islam, Salim seems to have troubled himself little, but he made was on Egypt. In A.D. 1516 he invaded Syria, its outlying province, and in A.D. 1517 he entered Cairo.

There he made prisoner the reigning Mameluke, Qansau 'l-Ghauri, and had him publically beheaded.

He then, in virtue of a very doubtful cession made to him of his rights by one Mutawakkil Ibn 'Amri 'l-Hakim, a descendant of the house of al-'Abbas, whom he found living as titular Khalifah in Cairo, took to himself the following style and title: Sultanu 's-Salatin wa Hakim, Maliku 'l-Bahrain wa Hamiyu 'l-Barrain, Khalifatu 'r-Rasuli 'llah Amiru 'l-Mu'minin, wa Sutlan wa Khan; that is: "King of kings and Ruler of rulers, Monarch of the two seas (the Mediterranean and the Red Sea) and Protector of the two lands (al-Hijaz and Syria, the holy lands of Islam), Successor (Khalifah) of the Apostle of God, Ruler of the Faithful, King and Chief." It is said that he first had the satisfaction of hearing his name mentioned in the public prayers as Khalifah when he visited the Great Mosque of Zacharias at Aleppo, on his return northwards in 1519.

Such are the titles still claimed by the Ottoman Sultans, who arrogate to themselves the position of Khalifahs and Successors to the Prophet. It is, however, a mere assertion; for the title and office being elective and not hereditary, it was not in the power of any Khalifah to transfer it to another. Force of circumstances alone has compelled the ruler of the Ottoman Empire to assume the position, and has induced his subjects to acquiesce in the usurpation. We have not seen a single work of authority, nor met with a single man of learning, attempting to prove that the Sultans of Turkey are rightful Khalifahs; for the assumption of the title by anyone who is not of the Quraish tribe is undoubtedly illegal and heretical, as will be seen from the following authorities: -

Mishkatu 'l-Masabih, book xxiv. ch. xii.: "Ibn 'Amr relates that the Prophet of God siad: 'The Khalifah shall be in the Quraish tribe as along as there are two persons in it, one to rule and another to serve.'"

Sharha 'l-Muwaqif, p. 606. Arabic edition, Egypt: "It is a condition that the Khalifah (Imam) be of the Quraish tribe. All admit this except the Khawarij and certain Mu'tazilahs. We all say with the Prophet: 'Let the Khalifah be of the Quraish'; and it is certain that the Companions acted upon this injunction, for Abu Bakr urged it as an authority upon the Ansars, on the day of Sakhifah, when the Companions were present and agreed. It is, therefore, for a certainty established that the Khalifah must be of the Quraish."

The Hujjatu 'llahi 'l-Balaghah, p. 335, Arabic edition, Delhi: 'It is a necessary condition that the Khalifah (Imam) be of the Quraish tribe."

The Kash'hafu 'l Istilahat; A Dictionary of Technical Terms. Edited by Colonel N. Lees, in loco: "The Khalifah (Imam) must be a Quraish."

It is a matter of history that the Wahhabis regarded the Turkish Sultan as a usurper,


when Sa'ud took Makkah and al-Madinah in 1804; and to the present day, in countries not under Turkish rule, the khutbah is recited in behalf of the Amir, or ruler of the Muslim state, instead of the Ottoman Sultan, which would not be the case if he were acknowledged as a lawful Khalifah. In a collection of khutbahs, entitle the Majma'a Khutab, the name of the Sultan of Turkey does not once occur, although this collection as much used in Muhammadan states. We have seen it stated that the Sultan is prayed for in Hyderabad and Bengal; but we believe it will be found, upon careful inquiry, that he was not mentioned by name, until very recently, in any of the mosques of India, khutbahs, in which there are prayers for the Ottoman Sultan by name have been imported from Constantinople.

According to Mr. W.S. Blunt, the chief arguments of the Hanifite 'Ulama' in support of the claims of the present Ottoman dynasty are: -

(1) The right of the Sword. - The Khalifate being a necessity (and this all Muslims admit), it was also a necessity that the de facto holder of the title should be recognized until a claimant with a better title should appear. Now, the first qualification of a claimant was, that he should make the claim, and the second, that he should be supported by a party; and Salim had both claimed the Khalifate and supported his pretensions at the head of an army. He challenged the world to produce a rival, and no rival had been found.

(2) Election, that is, the sanction of a legal body of elders. It was argued that, as the ahlu 'aqd (or council), had been removed from al-Madinah to Damascus, and from Damascus to Baghdad, and from Baghdad to Cairo, so it had been once more legally removed from Cairo to Constantinople. Salim had brought with him to St. Sophia's some of the 'Ulama' (learned men) of the Azhar mosque in Cairo, and these in conjunction with the Turkish 'Ulama had elected him or ratified his election. A form of election is to the present day observed at Constantinople in token of this right, and each new Sultan of the house of 'Usman, as he succeeds to the temporal sovereignty of Turkey, must wait before being recognized as Khalifah till he has received the sword of office at the hands of the 'Ulama'. This ceremony it is customary to perform in the mosque of Aiyub.

(3) Nomination. - Sutlan Salim, as has been already said, obtained from Mutawakkil, a descendent of the Abbasides, and himself titularly Khalifah, a full cession of all the Khalifah rights of that family. The fact, as far as it goes, is historical, and the only flaw in the argument would seem to be that Mutawakkil had no right thus to dispose of a title to an alien, which was his own only in virtue of his birth. As a precedent for nomination, they cite the act of Abu Bakr, who on his death-bed recommended 'Umar as his successor in the Khalifate.

(4) The Guardianship of the Two Shrines Haraman. - that is to say of Makkah and Jerusalem, but especially of Makkah. It has been asserted by some of the 'Ulama, and it is certainly a common opinion at the present day, that the sovereignty of al-Hijaz is in itself sufficient title to the Khalifate. It seems certainly to have been so considered in the first age of Islam, and many a bloody war was then fought for the right of protecting the Baitu 'llah, but the connection of al-Hijaz with the empire of the Khalifahs has been too often broken to make this a very tenable argument. In the tenth century, Makkah was held by the Karmathian heretics, in the thirteenth by the Imams of San'a, and for seven years in the present century by the Wahhabis. Still the de facto sovereignty of the Haramain, or two shrines, was one of Salim's pleas; and it is one which has reappeared in modern arguments respecting the Khalifal rights of his descendents.

(5) Possession of the Amanat, or sacred relics. This last is a plea addressed to the vulgar rather than to the learned; but it is one which cannot be passed by unnoticed here, for it exercises a powerful influence at the present day over the ignorant mass of Muslims. It was asserted, and is still a pious belief, that from the sack of Baghdad in A.D. 1258, certain relicts of the Prophet and his Companions were saved and brought to Cairo, and thence transferred by Salim to Constantinople. These wee represented as constituting the imperial insignia of office, and their possession as giving a title to the succession. They consisted of the cloak of the Prophet, borne by his soldiers as a standard of some hairs of the Prophet's beard, and of the sword of 'Umar. The vulgar still believe them to be preserved in the mosque of Aiyub at Constantinople. (See The Future of Islam, by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, London, 1882, p. 66.)

On the general question as to whether or not an Imam or Khalifah, is necessary for Islam, the author of the Sharhu 'l-Muwaqif syas, "The appointment of an Imam (i.e. Khalifah) is incumbent upon the united body of Muslims, according to the orthodox law of the Sunnis, although the Mu'tazilahs and Zaidiyahs say it is merely expedient, but not ordered by the law, whilst the Ishmailiyahs and the Imamiyahs say God will Himself appoint an Imam for the establishment of sound doctrine. Some say the appointment of an Imam is only necessary when Muslims are at peace amongst themselves and united, and not when they are in a state of rebellion.

The arguments in favor of the absolute necessity of an Imam, or Khalifah, being appointed, are that in the time of Abu Bakr, the first Khalifah, it was established by general consent, and Abu Bakr, in his first khutbah after the death of Muhammad, said: "Beware! Muhammad is certainly dead, and it is necessary for this religion that some one should be appointed for its protection." And all the Muslims at that time consented to this saying of Abu Bakr, and consequently


in all ages Muslims have had an Imam. And it is well known that without such an officer Islam cannot be protected from evil, for without him it is impossible to maintain the orders of the Muslim law, such as marriage, Jihad, punishment and the various ordinances of Islam. (Sharhu 'l-Muwaqif, p. 603.)

The following are some of the injunctions of Muhammad regarding the Imam or Khalifah:-

"When two Khalifahs have been set up, put the last of them to death and preserve the other, for the second is a rebel."

"He who acknowledges an Imam must obey him as far as he can, and if a pretender comes, kill him."

"Whomever God appoints as Imam, and he does not protect his people, shall never smell the smells of paradise."

It is indispensable for every Muslim to listen to, and approve the orders of the Imam, whether he likes or dislikes, so long as he is not ordered to sin and act contrary to law; then when he is ordered to sin, he must neither attend to it nor obey it."

"Whoever quits obedience to the Imam and divides a body of Muslims, dies like the people of ignorance; and whosover takes a part in an affray, without knowing the true from the false, does not fight to show his religion but to aid oppression; and if he is slain, then he dies as the people of ignorance; and that person who shall draw his sword upon my people, and kill the virtuous and the vicious, and not fear the killing of Muslims or those protected by them, is not of me nor am I of him."

"The Companions said, 'O Prophet! When they are our enemies and we theirs, may we not fight with them?' He said, 'No, so long as they keep on foot the prayers amongst you'; this he repeated, 'Beware! He who shall be constituted your prince, see if he does anything in disobedience to God; and if he does, hold it in displeasure, but do not withdraw yourselves from his obedience."

"He who forsakes obedience to the Imam, will come before God on the Day of Resurrection without a proof of his faith; and he who dies without having professed to the Imam, dies as the people of ignorance."

"Prophets were the governors of the children of Israel; when one died, another supplied his place; and verily there is no prophet after me, and the time is near when there will be after me a great many Khalifahs. The Companions said, 'Then what do you order us?' The Prophet said, 'Obey the Khalifah, and give him his due; for verily God will ask about the duty of the subject.'"

"Beware! You are all guardians, and you will all be asked about your subjects; then the Imam is the guardian of the subject, and he will be asked respecting the subject; and a man is as a shepherd to his own family, and will be asked how they behaved, and his conduct to them; and a wife is a guardian to her husband's house and children, and will be interrogated about them; and a slave is a shepherd to his master's property, and will be asked about it whether he took good care of it or not."

"God never sent any prophet, nor ever made any Khalifah, but had two counselors with him; one of them directing lawful deeds, and that is an angel, and the other in sin, and that is the devil; and he is guarded from sin whom God has guarded." (Mishkat, book xvi. ch. i.)

I. - The Khalifahs of the Sunnis, from the death of Muhammad to the present time.

(1) The four rightly directed Khalifahs, and al-Hasan (at Makkah):-

1. Abu Bakr, A.H. 11 (A.D. 632).
(Collected the Qur'an into one volume.)

2. 'Umar A.H. 13 (A.D. 634).
(Conquered Egypt, Syria, and Persia.)

3. 'Usman, A.H. 23 (A.D. 643).
(Invades Cyprus; revolt at al-Kufah.)

4. 'Ali, A.H. 35 (A.D. 655).
(Revolt of Mu'awiyah; 'Ali assassinated.) 5. Al-Hasan, A.H. 40 (A.D. 660).
(Resigns; poisoned).

(2) Umaiyade dynasty. The Banu Umaiyah (at Damascus):-

1. Mu'awiyah I. A.H. 41 (A.D. 661).
(Siege of Constantinople; makes Damascus the capital.)

2. Yazid I., A.H. 60 (A.D. 679).
(Destruction of al-Husain's party and his death.)

3. Mu'awiyah II., A.H. 64. (A.D. 683).

4. Marwan I., A.H. 64 (A.D. 683).

5. 'Abdu 'l-Malik, A.H. 65 (A.D. 684).
(Arabian money first coined.)

6. Al-Walid I., A.H. 86 (A.D. 705.
(Conquest of Africa, Spain, Bukharah.)

7. Sulaiman, A.H. 96 (A.D. 715).
(Defeated before Constantinople; dies of grief.)

8. 'Umar (Omer), A.H. 99 (A.D. 717).

9. Yazid II., A.H. 101 (A.D. 720).
(His generals successful in war.)

10. Hisham, A.H. 105 (A.D. 724).
(Charles Martel checks the conquest of the Arabs in the West; rise of the Abbasides.)

11. Al-Walid II., A.H. 125 (A.D. 743).
(Slain by conspirators.)

12. Yazid III., A.H. 126 (A.D. 744).
(Died of plague.)

13. Ibrahim, A.H. 126 (A.D. 744)

14. Marwan, A.H. 127 (A.D. 744).
(Defeated by the Abbasides, pursued to Egypt, and slain on the banks of the Nile.)

The end of the Umayah dynasty, A.H. 132 (A.D. 749).

3. The Abbaside dynasty. Ad-Daulatu 'l-'Abbasiyah (at Baghdad and Saumara).

1. Abu 'l-'Abbas as-Saffah, A.H. 132 (A.D. 750).
(Resides at al-Kufah.)

2. Al-Mansur, A.H. 136 (A.D. 754).
(Abdu 'r-Rahman, the Umaiyah Khalifah seizes Spain; Baghdad founded.)


3. Al-Mahdi, A.H. 158 (A.D. 775).
(Conquers Nicomedia of Sea of Marmors, making the Empress Irene pay tribute.)

4. Al-Hadi, A.H. 169 (A.D. 785).

5. Harunu r-Rashid, A.H. 170 (A.H. 786).
(The hero of Arabian Nights; a flourishing period of Arabian literature.)

6. Al-Amin, A.H. 193 (A.D. 809).

7. Al-Ma'mun, A.H. 198 (A.D. 813).
(The Augustan period of Arabian letters.)

8. Al-Mu'tasim, A.H. 218 (A.D. 833.)
(Makes the city of Saumara his capital; decline of the Khalifate.)

9. Al-Wasiq, A.H. 227 (A.D. 841).

10. Al-Mutawakkil, A.H. 232 (A.D. 847).
(A persecutor of the Jews and Christians; murdered.)

11. Al-Muntasir, A.H. 247 (A.D. 861).

12. Al-Musta'in, A.H. 248 (A.D. 862(.

13. Al-Mu'tazz, A.H. 252 (A.D. 866).

14. Al-Muhtadi, A.H. 255 (A.D. 869).

15. Al-Mu'tamid, A.H. 256 (A.D. 870).
(Re-established the capital at Baghdad.)

16. Mu'tazid, A.H. 279 (A.D. 892).
(Conquers Persia; Ismail Samain serizes Turkistan from the Khalifah.)

17. Al-Muktafi I., A.H. 289 (A.D. 902.)
(Ismail Samain seizes Persia from the Khalifah.)

18. Al-Muqtadir, A.H. 296 (A.D. 908).
(The Fatimites in Egypt.)

19. Al-Qahir, A.H. 320 (A.D. 932).
(Blinded and deposed.)

20. Ar-Razi, A.H. 322 (A.D. 934).
(The last of the Khalifahs who ever recited the khutbah.)

21. Al-Muttaqi, A.H. 329 (A.D. 940).
(Decline of the Abbasides.)

22. Al-Mustakfi, A.H. 333 (A.D. 944).

23. Al-Muti', A.H. 334 (A.D. 945).
(The Fatimate Khalifahs seize all North Africa and Egypt.)

24. At-Tai', A.H. 363 (A.D. 974).

25. Al-Qadir, A.H. 381 (A.D. 991).
(Mahmud of Ghazni conquers India.)

26. Al-Qa'im, A.H. 422 (A.D 1031).
(Rise of the Seljukian Turks.)

27. Al-Muqtadi, A.H. 467 (A.D. 1075).
(The first crusade; rise of Hasan Jubah, and his followers the Assassins.)

28. Al-Musta'zir, A.H. 487 (A.D. 1094).
(Jerusalem taken by the Fatimites.)

29. Al-Mustarshid, A.H. 512 (A.D. 1118).
(Murdered by the Assassins.)

30. Ar-Rashid, A.H. 529 (A.D 1185).
(Murdered by the Assassins.)

31. Al-Muktafi II., A.H. 530 (A.D. 1136).
(Defeated by the Turks; second crusade A.D. 1146.)

32. Al-Mustanjid, A.H. 555 (A.D. 1160).
(Disorders in Persia.)

33. Al-Mustahdi, A.H. 566 (A.D. 1170).
(Saladin, the Sultan of Egypt, conquers Syria.)

34. An-Nasir, A.H. 575 (A.D. 1180).
(Conquests of Jengiz Khan; third crusade, A.D. 1189.)

35. Az-Zahir, A.H. 622 (A.D. 1225).

36. Al-Mustansir, A.H. 623 (A.D. 1226).
(Persia subject to the Moghuls.)

37. Al-Musta'sim, A.H. 640 (A.D. 1240).
(Halaku, the Turk, a grandson of Jengiz Khan, takes Baghdad and puts the Khalifah to death, A.H. 656 (A.D. 1258). The uncle of the last Khalifah goes to Egypt, while the Khalifate continues only as a spiritual power.

(4) The 'Usman, or Turk Dynasty (at Constantinople).

1. 'Usman I. (Othman), A.D. 1299.
2. Urkhan, A.D. 1326.
3. Murad (Amurath), A.D. 1360.
4. Bayazid I., A.D. 1389.
5. Sulaiman I., A.D. 1402.
6. Musa, A.D. 1410.
7. Muhammad I., A.D. 1413.
8. Murad II., A.D. 1421.
9. Muhammad II., A.D. 1451.
10. Bayazid II., A.D. 1481.
11. Salim I. (Selim), A.D. 1512.
(Assumes the title of Khalifah.)

12. Sulaiman II., A.D. 1520.
13. Salim II., A.D. 1566.
14. Murad III., A.D. 1574.
15. Muhammad III., A.D. 1574.
16. Ahmad I., A.D. 1603.
17. Mustafa I., A.D. 1617.
(Deposed in favor of his nephew.)

18. 'Usman II., A.D. 1618.
19. Mustafa I., A.D. 1622.
20. Murad IV., A.D. 1623.
21. Ibrahim, A.D. 1640.
22. Muhammad IV., A.D. 1649.
23. Sulaiman III., A.D. 1687.
24. Ahmad II., A.D. 1691.
25. Mustafa II., A.D. 1695.
26. Ahmad III., A.D. 1703.
27. Mahmud I., A.D. 1730.
28. 'Usman III., A.D. 1754.
29. Mustafa III., A.D. 1757.
30. 'Abdu 'l-Hamid I., 1774.
31. Salim III., A.D. 1788.
32. Mustafa IV., A.D. 1807.
33. Mhamud II., 1808.
34. 'Abdu 'l-Majid, A.D. 1839.
35. 'Abdu 'l-Aziz, A.D. 1861.
36. Murad V., A.D. 1876.
37. 'Abdu 'l-Hamid, A.D. 1876.

II. - The Shi'ahs only regard those as rightful Imams (they do not use the word Khalifah) who are descended from 'Ali (the son-in-law of the Prophet) and his wife Fatimah, the Prophet's daughter. According to their traditions, Muhammad distinctly nominated 'Ali as his successor when he was returning from his farewell pilgrimage. They say, that on his way to al-Madinah, the Prophet, with 'Ali and certain other of the Companions stayed at a place called Ghadiri-i-Khum. And that it was here revealed by Gabriel that he should nominate 'Ali as his successor. He is related to have said, "O ye people, I am your Prophet and 'Ali is my successor. From us (i.e. 'Ali and my daughter) shall descend al-Mahdi, the seal


of the Imams." (See Hayatu 'l-Qulub, 334.)

According to the Shi'ahs, there have only been twelve lawful Imams -

1. 'Ali, son-in-law of Muhammad.
2. Al-Hasan eldest son of 'Ali and Fatimah.
3. Al-Husain, the second son of 'Ali and Fatimah.
4. Zainu 'l-Abidin, son of al-Husain.
5. Muhammad al-Baqir, son of Zainu 'l-'Abidin.
6. Ja'faru 's-Sadiq, son of Muhammad al-Baqir.
7. Musa 'l-Kazum, son of Ja'far.
8. 'Ali ar-Raza, son of Mus.
9. Muhammad at-Taqi, son of 'Ali ar-Raza.
10. 'Ali an-Naqi, son of at-Taqi.
11. Al-Hasan al-'Askari, son of 'Ali.
12. Muhammad, son of al-Askari, or the Imam Mahdi, who is supposed to be still alive, although he has withdrawn himself from the world, and that he will appear again as al-Mahdi, the Director, in the last days. [AL-MAHDI.]

The Kings of Persia have never claimed to be in any sense the successors of the Prophet.

Sultan Mahmud 'Abdu'llah (A.H. 706, A.D. 1306), was the first monarch of Persia who proclaimed himself a Shi'ah.

III. -The Fatimide Khalifahs were a dynasty who claimed the Khalifate in the reign of the Abbaside Khalifah Muqtadir, their founder 'Ubadiu 'llah, pretending to be al-Mahid, "The Director," and a descendent of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet. They reigned over Egypt and North Africa from A.D. 910 to A.D. 1171, and were in all fourteen Khalifah.

1. 'Ubaidu 'llah A.D. 910.
(Ravage the coasts of Italy and invaded Egypt several times.)

2. Al-Qa'im, A.D. 933.
3. Al-Mansur, A.D. 946.
4. Al-Mu'izz, A.D. 955
(Established the Khalifate of the Fatimides in Egypt; defeated in Spain; took Sicily; founded Cairo, conquered Syria and Palestine.)

5. Al-'Aziz, A.D. 978.
(Married a Christian woman, whose brothers he made Patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem.)

6. Al- Hakim, A.D. 996.
(Persecuted Jews and Christians.)

7. Az-Zahir, A.D. 1021.
(The power of the Fatimide declines.)

8. Al-Mustansir, A.D. 1037.
(The rise of the Turks.)

9. Al-Musta'li, A.D. 1094.
(Defeated by the Crusaders.)

10. Al-Amir, A.D. 1101.
11. Al-Hafiz, A.D. 1129.
12. Az-Zafir, A.D. 1149.
13. Al-Fa'iz, A.D. 1154.

14. Al-Azid, A.D. 1160.
(The last of the Fatimide Khalifahs. His Wazir, Nuru 'd-din, on the death of his master, submits to the Abbaside Khalifah Mustahdi, A.D. 1171.) [FATIMIYAH.]

IV. - The Khalifate of Cordova in Spain was founded by a descendant of the deposed Umaiyah dynasty. 'Abdu 'r-Rahman ibn Mu'awiyah. Muslim Amirs had ruled at Cordova from A.D. 711, when Tarik and Musa came over from Africa and invaded Spain. But 'Abdu 'r-Rahman was the first to assume the title of Khalifah.

The following is a list of the Khalifahs of Cordova and Granada from A.D. 755 to the fall of Granada, A.D. 1493: -

1. 'Abdu 'r-Rahman I., A.D. 755
(Cordova embellished and the Mazquits erected.)

2. Hisham I., A.D. 786.
3. 'Abdu 'r-Rahman II., A.D. 786.

4. Al-Hakam I., A.D. 796.
(Surnamed "The Cruel.")

5. 'Abdu r-Rahman III., A.D. 821.
(Christians persecuted.)

6. Muhammad I., A.D. 852.
(Alfonso the Great obtains victories.)

7. Al-Munayyir, A.D. 886.
8. 'Abdu'llah, A.D. 888.
(Flourishing period of literature and science at Cordova.)

9. 'Abdu 'r-Rahman IV., A.D. 912.
(The heroic age of Spain.)

10. Al-Hakam II., A.D. 961.
11. Hisham II, A.D. 976.
12. Sulaiman, A.D. 1012
(Defeated and executed by 'Ali.)

13. 'Ali, A.D. 1015.
14. 'Abdu r-Rahman V., A.D. 1017.
15. Al-Qasim, A.D. 1018.
16. 'Abdu r-Rahman VI., A.D. 1023.
17. Muhammad II., A.D. 1023.
18. Hisham III., A.D. 1026.
(Esteemed for his equitable and humane government.)

19. Jawahir, A.D. 1031.
20. Muhammad III., A.D. 1044.
21. Muhammad IV., A.D. 1060.
22. Muhammad V., A.D. 1069
(Siege of Toledo, A.D. 1082.)

23. Yusuf I., A.D. 1094.
24. 'Ali, A.D. 1107.
25. Tashfin, A.D. 1144.
26. 'Abdu 'l-Mun'im, A.D. 1147.
27. Yusuf II., A.D. 1163.
28. Ya'qub I., A.D. 1178.
29. Muhammad VI., A.D. 1199.

30. Ya'qub II., A.D. 1213.
31. Abu Ya'qub, A.D. 1213.
32. Abu Malik, A.D. 1223.
33. Al-Ma'nur, A.D. 1225.
(Died in Morocco.)

34. Abu 'Ali, A.D. 1225.
(Cordova surprised by Ferdinand of Leon and Castile, and taken. The fall of the Khalifate of Cordova, A.D. 1236. A Khalifate established by the Moors at Granada.)

The Khalifahs or Sutlans of Granada.

35. Muhammad I., A.D. 1238.
(Encourages literature.)

36. Muhammad II., A.D. 1273.
37. Muhammad III., A.D. 1302.


38. An-Nasir, A.D. 1309.
39. Isma'il A.D. 1313.
40. Muhammad IV., A.D. 1354.
41. Yusuf I., A.D. 1333.
42. Muhammad V., A.D. 1354.
43. Isma'il II., A.D. 1359.
44. Abu Sa'id, A.D. 1360.
45. Yusuf II., A.D. 1391.
46. Muhammad VI., A.D. 1396.
47. Yusuf III., A.D. 1408.
48. Muhammad VII., A.D. 1428.
49. Muhammad VIII., A.D. 1427.
50. Muhammad VII., (restored), A.D. 1429.
51. Yusuf IV., A.D. 1432.
52. Muhammad VII., (again restored), A.D. 1432.
53. Muhammad IX., A.D. 1445.
54. Muhammad X., A.D. 1454.
55. 'Ali, A.D. 1463
56. Abu 'Abdi 'llah, A.D. 1483.
57. 'Abdu 'llah az-Zaggal, A.D. 1484.
(The fall of Granada, and the consolidation of the Spanish Monarchy, A.D. 1492.

Thus, amidst the acclamations of Christendom, Ferdinand and Isabella plated the symbol of Christian faith on the walls of Granada, and proclaimed the destruction of Muhammadan rule in Spain.


"The friend of God." A title given to Abraham in the Qur'an, Surah iv. 124: "For God took Abraham as his friend."

With regard to this verse, al-Baizawi says: "Abraham in a time of dearth sent to a friend of his in Egypt for a supply of corn; but the friend denied him, saying, in his excuse, that though there was a famine in their country also, yet, had it been for Abraham's own family, he would have sent what he desired, but he knew he wanted it only to entertain his guests, and give away to the poor, according to his usual hospitality. The servants whom Abraham had sent on this message, being ashamed to return empty, to conceal the matter from their neighbors, filled their sacks with fine white sand, which in the East pretty much resembles meal. Abraham being informed by his servants on their return of their ill success, the concern he was under threw him into a sleep, and in the meantime Sarah, knowing nothing of what had happened, opening one of the sacks, found good flour in it, and immediately set to making bread. Abraham awaking, and smelling the new bread, asked her whence she had the flour. 'Why,' says she, 'from your friend in Egypt.' 'Nay,' replied the patriarch, 'it must have come from no other the my friend, God Almighty.'" [ABRAHAM.]


The word used in the Qur'an for wine or anything that intoxicates.

Surah ii. 216 : "They will ask thee about wine (khamr), and games of chance: say in both is sin and profit to men, but the sin of both is greater than the profit of the same."

By the orthodox, the term khamr is generally held to include not only alcoholic drinks, but opium and other narcotics. Some understand it to include tobacco pipes in the streets of Makkah by the Wahhabis. [WAHHABI.]


Persian. "A ruler; a chief." A term used for the supreme ruler of small countries of provinces. The Khan of the Tartars. It is also one of the titles of the Sultan of Turkey. It is also used for a caravansary or inn, being a corruption of the Persian khanah, 'a home'.


A demon mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah cxiv. (the last chapter):-

"SAY: I betake me for refuge to the Lord of men,
The God of men,
Against the mischief of the stealthily withdrawing whisperer (al-khannas),
Who wispereth in man's breast -
Against genii and men."


A demon who casts doubt at the time of prayer. 'Usman ibn Abi 'l-Asi relates that he came to the Prophet and complained that he was disturbed by the devil during prayers. The Prophet said, "This is a demon called Khanzab who disturbs prayer. When you are aware of any such disturbances, seek protection of God and spit over your left shoulder three times." 'Usman did so, and all doubt and perplexity was dispelled.


"A wine shop or tavern." A mystic term for the society of Murshid, or inspired teacher. See Diwan-i-Hafiz (Bicknell's edition, p. 212):-

"Within the Magian's house of wine our Maker's light I see."
"Behold this marvel, what a light and where that sight I see."


A tax, or tribute on land. This was originally applied to a land tribute from non-Muslim tribes (Hidayah, vol. ii. p. 204), but it is now used for a tax, or land-rent due to the State. La-kharaj is a term used for lands exempt from any such payment.


Lit. "The splitting of Nature." That which is contrary to the usual course of nature. A term used for miracles. Either (1) Mu'jizah, miracles worked by Prophets; or (2) Karamah, wonders performed by walis or saints; or (3) Istidraj, wonders worked by the power of Satan. [MIRACLES.]


"Fear." Khashyatu 'llah, "The fear of God," is an expression which occurs in the Qur'an.

Surah ii. 69 : "There are some that fall down for fear of God."

Surah iv. 79: "A portion of them fear men as with the fear of God, or with a yet greater fear."



Lit. "The middle of waist." An act forbidden in prayer as related by Abu Hurairah, who said: "The Prophet forbade Khasr in prayer." (Mishkat, book iv. ch. xx.) It is generally held to be the act of holding the waist with the hands to relieve the sensation of fatigue experienced in the position of standing. Some divines believe it to be a prohibition to lean on a mikhsarah, or staff, in prayer, whilst others give to it the sense of cutting short the verbal forms of prayer, or remaining too short a time in the prescribed attitude. (Shaikh 'Abdu 'l-Haqq.)


"Special" as distinguished from 'Amm, "general". A term frequently used by Muhammadan writers and in treatises on exegesis.


"The seal of the Prophets." A title assumed by Muhammad in the Qur'an. Surah xxxiii. 40: "He is the Apostle of God and the seal of the Prophets." By which is meant, that he is the last of the Prophets.


"The seal of prophecy." A term used for the large mole or fleshy protuberance on Muhammad's back, which is said to have been a divine sign of his prophetic office.

'Abdu 'llah ibn Sarjis describes it as being as large as his closed fist, with moles round about it. Abu Ramsah wanted to remove it, but Muhammad refused saying, "The Physician thereof is He who place it there."


"Mind; conscience." A term used by mystic teachers. Khatir is said to be of four kinds: Al-Khatiru 'r-Rabbani, "conscience inspired by God"; al-Khatiru 'l-Malaki, "conscience inspired by angels"; al-Khatiru 'n-Nafsani; "a conscience inspired by the flesh"; al-Khatiru 'sh-Shaitani, " a conscience inspired by the devil." (Kitabu 't-Ta'rifat, in loco.)


An epilogue, but more generally a recitation of the whole of the Qur'an. (Kharm, "concluding.")

Mr. Lane in his Arabian Nights (vol. i. p. 382), says the most approved and common mode of entertaining guests at modern private festivities, is by a khatmah, which is the recitation of the whole of the Qur'an. Their mode of recitation is a peculiar chanting.


A legal term for the husbands of female relations withing the prohibited degrees. It likewise includes all the relations of these husbands. (Hidayah, vol. iv. p. 518.)




A line; a letter of the alphabet; an epistle. (1) A figure drawn by exorcists making an incantation. (2) Khatt-i-Sharif, "royal letters; a diploma." (3) 'Abdu 'llah ibn 'Abbas says a khatt, or "letter," is the language of the hand, and its divine origin is stated in the Qur'an, Surah xcvi. 4: "Who hath taught us the use of the pen." It is said Adam first wrote with his finger in the dust, but others say it was Idris. The same traditionist says the first who invented the Arabic character, were three persons of the tribe of Bulan of the race of Banu Taiy.

Ibn Ishaq says there are four classes of Arabic writing : the Makki, and Madani, the Basri, and the Kufi; and the first who wrote the Qur'an in a clear and elegant writing, was Khalid ibn Abi 'l-Haiyaj, and that he was set to the sork by Sa'd who employed him as a calligraphist for the Khalifah Walid ibn 'Abdi 'l-Malik, A.H. 86, and the Khalid wrote it in what is now called the Kufic character. (Khashfu 'z-Zunun, Flügel's ed., vol. iii. p. 149.)


"Fear." Generally used for the fear of God. 'Abdu 'llah ibn Mas'ud relates that Muhammad said: "There is no Muslim whose eyes shed tears, although they be as small as the head of a fly, from fear of God, but shall escape hell fire." (Mishkat, book xxii. ch. xxix. pt. 3.)


Lit. "The Revolters." A sect of Muslims who affirm that any man may be promoted to the dignity of Khalifah, even though he be not of the Quraish tribe, provided he be elected by the Muhammadan nation. The first who were so-called were the 12,000 men who revolted from 'Ali after they had fought under him at the battle of Siffin, and took offence at his submitting the decision of his right to the Khalifate to the arbitration of men when, in their opinion, it ought to have been submitted to the judgement of God. They affirmed that a man might be appointed Khalifah, no matter of what tribe or nation, provided he were a just and pious person, and that if the Khalifah turned away from the truth, he might be put to death or deposed. They also held that there was no absolute necessity for a Khalifah at all. In A.H. 38, large numbers of this sect were killed, but a few escaped, and propagated their schism in different parts of the world. [KHALIFAH.]


An Arabic tribe who, at an early period of Muhammad's mission, submitted to his authority. They are supposed to have settled in al-Madinah early in the fourth century.


A proof; an experiment. Practical knowledge. Ahlu 'l-Khibrah persons practically acquainted with any subject.


The office of Khalifah. [KHALIFAH.]


A dress of honor presented by a ruler to an inferior, as a mark of distinction. A complete khil'ah may include arms, or a horse, or an elephant.



"Privacy; retirement." A term used by the Sufis for retirement from the world for the purposes of worship and meditation.


The robe of the faqir or ascetic. A religious habit made of shreds and patches, worn by dervishes.


"Betrothal." Called in Hindustani mangni. No religious ceremony is enjoined by Muhammadan law, but it is usual for the Maulai or Qazi to be invited to be present to offer up a prayer for a bless on the proceeding.

The ceremony is usually accompanied with great rejoicings. The following is Mrs. Meer Hassan Ali's account of a betrothal in the neighborhood of Lucknow:-

"A very intimate friend of mine was seeking for a suitable match for her son, and, being much in her confidence, I was initiated in all the mysteries and arrangements (according to Musalman rule) of the affair, pending the marriage of her son.

The young lady to be sought (wooed we have it), had been described as amiable and pretty - advantages as much esteemed as her rank; fortune she had none worth mentioning, but it was what is termed in Indian society a good and equal match. The overture was, therefore, to be made from the youth's family in the following manner:-

On a silver tray covered with gold brocade, and fringed with silver, was laid the youth's pedigree, traced by a neat writer in the Persian character, on richly embossed paper, ornamented and emblazoned with gold figures. The youth being a Saiyid, his pedigree was traced up to Muhammad, in both paternal and maternal lines, and many a hero and begum of their noble blood filled up the space from the Prophet down to the youthful Mir Muhammad, my friend's son.

On the tray, with the pedigree, was laid a nazr, or offering of five gold mohurs, and twenty-one (the lucky number) rupees; a brocaded cover, fringed with sliver, was spread over the whole, and this was conveyed by the male agent to the young begum's father. The tray and its contents are retained for ever, if the proposal is accepted; if rejected, the parties return the whole without delay, which is received as a tacit proof that the suitor is rejected: no further explanation is ever given or required.

In the present instance the tray was detained, and in a few days after a female from their family was sent to my friend's house, to make a general scrutiny of the zananah and its inmates. This female was pressed to stay a day or two, and in that time many important subjects underwent discussion. The youth was introduced, and everything according with the views entertained by both parties, the fathers met, and the marriage, it was decided, should take place within a twelve-month, when the young lady would have accomplished her thirteenth year.

'Do you decide on having mangni performed?' is the question proposed by the father of the youth to the father of the young maiden. In the present case it was chosen and great were the preparations of my friend to do all possible honor to the future bride of her son.

Mangni is the first contract, by which the parties are bound to fulfil their engagement at an appointed time.

The dress for a bride differs in one material point from the general style of Hindustani costume: a sort of gown is worn, made of silver tissue, or some equally expensive article, about the walking length of an English dress; the skirt is open in front, and contains about twenty breadths of the material, a tight body, and long sleeves. The whole dress is trimmed very richly with embroidered trimming and silver riband; the deputtah (drapery) is made to correspond. This style of dress is the original Hindoo fashion, and was worn at the Court of Delhi for many centuries; but of late years it has been used only on marriage festivals amongst the better sort of people in Hindustan, except kings or nawabs sending khillauts to females, when this dress, called a jhammah, is invariably one of the articles.

The costly dresses for the present mangni my friend prepared at great expense, and with much good taste; to which were added a ruby ring of great value, large gold earrings, offerings of money, the flower-garlands for the head, neck, wrists, and ankles, formed of the sweet-scented jasmine; choice confectionery set out in trays with the pawns and fruits; the whole conveyed under an escort of soldiers and servants, with a band of music, from the residence of Mir Muhammad to that of his bride elect, accompanied by many friends of the family. These offerings from the youth bind the contract with the young lady, who wears his ring from that day to the end of her life.

The poorer sort of people perform mangni by the youth simply sending a rupee in a silk band, to be tied on the girl's arm.

Being curious to know the whole business of a wedding ceremony amongst the Musalamn people, I was allowed to perform the part of 'officiating friend' on this occasion of celebrating the mangni. The parents of the young lady having been consulted, my visit was a source of solicitude to the whole family, who made every possible preparation to receive me with becoming respect. I went just in time to reach the gate at the moment the parade arrived. I was handed to the door of the zananah by the girl's father, and was soon surrounded by the young members of the family, together with many lady-visitors, slaves, and women servants of the establishment. They had never before seen an English woman, and the novelty, I fancy, surprised the whole group; they examined my dress, my complexion, hair, hands, &c., and looked the wonder they could not express in words. The young begum was not amongst the gazing throng; some preliminary customs detained her behind the purdah, where it


may be supposed she endured all the agony of suspense and curiosity by her compliance with the presscribed forms.

The lady of the mansion waited my approach to the great hall, with all due etiquette, standing to receive and embrace me on my advancing towards her. This ceremony performed, I was invited to take a seat on the carpet with her on the ground; a chair had been provided for me, but I chose to respect the lady's preference, and the seat on the floor suited me for the time without much inconvenience.

After some time had been passed in conversation on such subjects as suited the tastes of the lady of the house, I was surprised at the servants entering with trays, which they place immediately before me, containing a full-dress suit in the costume of Hindustan. The hostess told me she had prepared this dress for me, and I must condescend to wear it. I would have declined the gandy array, but one of her friends whispered me 'The custom is of long standing, when the face of a stranger is first seen, a dress is always presented; I should displease Sumdun Begum by my refusal; besides, it would be deemed an ill omen at the mangni of the young Bohur Begum if I did not put on the native dress before I saw the face of the bride-elect.' These I found to be weighty arguments, and felt constrained to quiet their apprehensions of ill-luck by compliance; I therefore forced the gold dress and the glittering drapery over my other clothes, at the expense of some suffering from the heat, for it was at the very hottest season of the year, and the hall was crowded with visitors.

This important point conceded to them, I was led to a side hall, where the little girl was seated on her carpet of rich embroidery, her face resting on her knee in apparent bashfulness. I could not directly ascertain whether she was plain, or pretty, as the female agent had represented. I was allowed the privilege of decorating the young lady with the sweet jessamine guinahs, and placing the ring on the fore-finger of the right hand; after which, the ear-rings, the gold-tissue dress, the deputtah, were all in their turn put on, the offering of money presented, and then I had the first embrace before her mother. She looked very pretty, just turned twelve. If I could have prevailed on her to be cheerful, I should have been much gratified to have extended my visit in her apartment, but the poor child seemed ready to sink with timidity; and out of compassion to the dear girl, I hurried away from the hall, to relieve her from the burden of my presence seemed toinflict, the moment I had accomplished my last duty, which was to feed her with my own hands, giving her seven pieces of sugar-candy; seven, on this occasion, is the lucky number, I presume, as I was particularly cautioned to feed her with exactly that number of pieces.

Returning to the assembly in the dalhama; I would have gladly taken leave, but there was yet one other custom to be observed to secure a happy omen to the young people's union. Once again seated on the musund with Sumdun Begum, the female slave entered with sherbert in silver basins. Each person taking sherbert is expected to deposit gold or silver coins in the tray; the sherbert-money at this house is collected for the bride; and when, during the three days' performance of the marriage ceremony at the bridegroom's house, sherbert is presented to the guests, the money collected there is reserved for him. The produce of the two houses is afterwards compared, and conclusion drawn as to the greater portion of respect paid by the friend on either side. The poor people find the sherbert-money a useful fund to help them to keep house; but with the rich it is a mere matter to boast of, that so much money was collected in consequence of the number of visitors who attended the nuptials." (Mrs. Meer Hasan Ali's Indian Musalmans, vol. i. p. 362.)


Breach of trust. Amputation is not incurred by a breach of trust, as in the case of ordinary theft, according to a saying of the Prophet recorded in the Hidayah (vol. ii. p. 93).


"Option." A term used to express a certain period after the conclusion of a bargain, during which either of the parties may cancel it. According to 'Abdu 'l-Haqq, it is of five kinds: (1) Khiyaru 'sh-Shart, optional condition; where one of the parties stipulates for a period of three days or less. (2) Khiyaru 'l-A'ib option from defect; the option of dissolving the contract on discovery of defect. (3) Khiyaru 'r-Ru'yah, option of inspection; the option of rejecting the thing purchased after sight. (4) Khiyaru 't-Ta'yin, option of determination; where a person, having purchased two of three things of the same kind, stipulates a period to make his selection. (5) Kiyaru 'l-Majlis, the option of withdrawing from the contract as long as the meeting of the parties continues. The Hanafiyah doctors do not accept the last, but it is allowed by the other sects.


"Abandonment." The abandonment of a Muslim by God. The word occurs once in the Qur'an, Surah iii. 154 "If then God help you, none shall overcome you, but if He abandon you, who is he that shall help you."

Used by a Christian, it would imply the state of a person fallen from grace.


Lit., "The green one." The Maulawi Muhammad Tahir says the learned are not agreed as to whether he a prophet or not. His real name is, according to al-Baizawi, Balya ibn Malkan. Some say he lived in the time of Abraham, and that he is still alive in the flesh, and most of the religious and Sufi mystics are agreed upon this point, and some have declared that they have seen him and they say he is still to be seen in sacred places, such as Makkah


or Jerusalem. Some few traditionists dent his existence. Others say he is of the family of Noah, and the son of a king. (Majma'u 'l Bihar, p. 250.)

His name does not occur in the Qur'an, but Husain, Jalalu 'd-din, al-Baizawi, and nearly all the commentators, believe that al-Khizr is the mysterious individual referred to in the following narrative in the Qur'an:-

Surah xviii. 58-81: "Remember when Moses said to his servant, 'I will not stop till I reach the confluence of the two seas (i.e. the sea of Greece and the sea of Persian), or for years will I journey on. But when they reached their confluence, they forgot their fish, and it took its way in the sea at will. And when they had passed on, said Moses to his servant, 'Bring us our morning meal; for now have we incurred weariness from this journey.' He said, 'What thinkest thou? When we repaired to the rock for rest I forgot it, so as not to mention it; and it hath taken its way in the sea in a wondrous sort.' He said, 'It is this we were in quest of.' And they both went back retracing their footsteps. Then found they one of our servants to whom we had vouchsafed our mercy, and whom we had instructed with our knowledge. And Moses said to him, 'Shall I follow thee that thou teach me, for guidance of that which thou too hast been taught?' He said, 'Verily, thou canst not have patience with me; how canst thou be patient in matters whose meaning thou comprehendest not?' He said, 'Thou shalt find me patient if God please nor will I disobey thy bidding.' He said, 'Then, if thou follow me, ask me not of aught until I have given thee an account thereof.' So they both went on till they embarked in a ship, and he (the unknown) staved it in. 'What!' said Moses, 'hast thou staved it in that thou gayest drown its crew? A strange thing now hast thou done!' He said, 'Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not have patience with me?' He said, 'Chide me not that I forgat, nor lay on me a hard command.' Then went they on till they met a youth, and he slew him. Said Moses, 'Hast thou slain him who is free from guilt of blood? Now hast thou wrought a grievous thing!' He said, "Did I not tell thee that thou couldst not have patience with me? Moses said, 'If after this I ask thee aught, then let me be thy comrade no longer; but now hast thou my excuse.' They went on till they came to the people of a city. Of this people they asked food, but they refused them for guests. And they found in it a wall that was about to fall, and he set it upright. Said Moses, 'If thou hast wished, for this thou mightest have obtained pay.' He said, 'This is the parting point between me and thee. But I will first tell three the meaning of that which thou couldst not await with patience. As to the vessel, it belonged to poor men who toiled upon the sea, and I was minded to damage it, for in their rears was a king who seized every ship by force. As to the youth, his parents were believers, and we feared lest he should trouble them by error and infidelity. And we desired that their Lord might give them in his place a child, better than he in virtue, and nearer to filial piety. And as to the wall, it belonged to two orphan youths in the city, and beneath it was their treasure; and their father was a righteous man; and thy Lord desired that they should reach the age of strength, and take forth their treasure through the mercy of thy Lord. And not of mine own will have I done this. This is the interpretation of that which thou couldst not bear with patience."

In some Muslim books he seems to be confounded with Elias, and in others with St. George, the patron saint of England. In the above quotation he is represented as the companion of Moses, and the commentator Husain says he was a general in the army of Zu 'l-Qarnain (Alexander the Great). But as al-Khizr is supposed to have discovered and drunk of the fountain of life, he may be contemporary with any age!


The son of al-Arass, the blacksmith. A slave converted to Islam, and one who suffered much persecution from the Quraish on account of his religious opinions.

When 'Umar was Khalifah, Khubab ibn al-Arass showed him the scars of the stripes he had received from the unbelieving Makkans twenty or thirty years before, 'Umar seated him upon has maenad, saying that there was bot one man who was more worthy of this favor than Khubab, namely, Bilal, who had also been sorely persecuted by the unbelievers. But Khubah replied: "Why is he more worthy than I am? He had his friends among the idolators, whom the Lord raised up to help him. But I had none to help me. And I well remember one day they took me and kindled a fire for me, and threw me therein upon my back, and a man stamped with his foot upon my chest, my back being towards the ground. And when they uncovered my abck, lo! It was blistered and white." (Katibu 'l-Waqidi, quoted by Sir W. Muir.)


Son of 'Ada. One of the early martyrs of Islam. Being perfidiously sold to the Quraish, he was by them put to death in a most cruel manner, being mutilated and impaled. When at the stake and in the midst of his tortures, he was asked whether he did not wish Muhammad was in his place, and he answered, "I would not wish to be with my family, my substance, and my children, on condition that Muhammad was only pricked by a thorn." When bound to the stake, his enemies said, "Now abjure Islam, and we will let you go." He replied, "Not for the whole world."

Sir William Muir says: "I see no reason to doubt the main facts of the story." (Life of Mahomet, new ed. p, 286.)


Also KHUDA . From the Persian khud,


"self," and ai "coming." The Supreme Being; the Self-Existing God. [GOD.] Khauda-paras, "a God fearer"' Khuda-shinas, "a God knower"; Khuda-faroshan, "God sellers," i.e. hypocrites.


A Persian word, signifying, "lord," "prince," "master." A possessor: a man of authority. It is used as a title of the Deity, and by Christian missionaries in India it is generally employed as a translation of the Greek "Lord." In the Ghiyasu 'l-Lughah, it is derived from Khuda, "God"; and wand, "like", i.e. one like unto God.


An agreement entered into for the purpose of dissolving marriage. The release from the marriage tie obtained by a wife upon payment of a compensation or consideration. In the Hidayah it is said: "Whenever enmity takes place between husband and wife, and they both see reason to apprehend the ends of marriage are not likely to be answered by a continuance of their union, the woman need not scruple to release herself from the power of her husband, by offering such a compensation as may induce him to liberate her." In the event of a woman desiring this form of divorce, she is not entitled to the repayment of her dower. This law is laid down in the Qur'an: "If ye fear that they cannot observe the ordinances of God, then no blame shall attach to either of you for what the wife shall herself give for her redemption." (Surah ii. 229.)


"The well-directed Khalifahs." A title given to the first four successors of Muhammad - Abu Bakr, 'Umar (Omar), 'Usman, and 'Ali. It is generally held by the Sunnis that after these four reigns, Islam became corrupted, and the succession in the office of Khalifah uncertain. [KHALIFAH.]


"Disposition; temper; nature." Qur'an, Surah lxviii. 4: "Verily thou art of a noble nature."


An infusion of dates and raisins, boiled together until they ferment and become spiritous, but of which a Muslim can drink without impropriety or sin. This is grounded on a circumstance relative to Ibn Ziyad, which is thus related by himself: "Abdu 'llah, the son of 'Umra, having given me some sherbet to drink, I became intoxicated to such a degree that I knew not my own house. I went to him next morning, and, having informed him of the circumstances, he acquainted me that he had given me nothing but a drink composed of dates and raisins. Now this was certainly khultin, which had undergone the operation of boiling; because it is elsewhere related by 'Umar that it is unlawful in its crude state." (Hidayah, vol. iv. p. 161.)




"A fifth." The fifth of property which is given to the Baitu 'l-Mal, or public treasury.






The sermon or oration delivered on Fridays at the time of zuhr, or meridian prayer. It is also recited on the two great festivals in the morning after sunrise. ['IDU 'L-FITR, 'IDU 'L-AZHA.] The Friday prayer and sermon are established by an injunction in the Qur'an, Surah lxii. 9: "O ye who believe! When the call to prayer is made upon the congregation day yaumu 'l-jum'ah), then hasten to the remembrance of God, and leave off traffic." By the words " remembrance of God," most commentators understand the khutbah or sermon.

From the Traditions, it appears that Muhammad used frequently to deliver a khutbah, and that it was not the studied and formal oration which it has become in more recent times.

Jabir says: When the Prophet delivered the khutbah, his eyes used to be red, and his voice high, and his anger raged so that you would say he was warning a tribe of the approach of a hostile army, and frightening them with apprehensions of its arrival thus: It is at hand! In the evening or morning it will come down upon you and plunder you! And the Prophet would say, I have been sent, and the Resurrection is like these two fingers, and he used to join his fore-finger with the next to it, as an explanation of the semblance that the Resurrection was not farther off than the difference of length in the two fingers." (Mishkat, book iv. ch. xlvi.)

On Fridays, after the usual ablutions, the four Sunnah prayers are recited, and the preacher, or khatib, then seats himself on the pulpit, or minbar, whilst the Mu'azzin proclaims azan; after which he stands up on the second step and delivers the khutbah. It must be in Arabic, and must include prayers for Muhammad, the Companions, and the king, but its composition and general structure is left to the discretion of the preacher. In some countries, Egypt for example (Lane's Egyptians, vol. i. p. 107), the khatib holds a wooden sword in his hand, whilst he delivers the exhortation. The khutbah is divided into two sections, the khutbatu 'l-wa'z, and the khutbatu 'n-na'i, supplications being made between the two sections. The following is a translation of a khutbah, as delivered in India in the present day, from which the name a titles of the reigning monarch are omitted. It is the third of a series of sermons published at Lucknow in a volume entitle Majma'u Khutab:-


"In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Praised be God. Praised be that God who hath shown us the way in this religion. If He had not guided us into the path we should not have found it.

I bear witness that there is no deity but God. He is one. He has no associate. I bear witness that Muhammad is, of a truth, His servant and His Apostle. May God have mercy upon him, and upon his descendants, and upon his companions, and give them peace.

Fear God, O ye people, and fear that day, the Day of Judgment, when a father will not be able to answer for his son, nor the son for the father. Of a truth God's promises are true. Let not this present life make you proud. Let not the deceiver (Satan) lead you astray.

O ye people who have believed, tarn ye to God, as Nasuh* did turn to God. Verily God doth forgive all sin, verily, He is the merciful the forgiver of sins. Verily He is the most munificent, and bountiful, the King, the Holy One, the Clement, the Most Merciful."

(The preacher then descends from the pulpit, and sitting on the floor of the mosque, offers up a silent prayer. He then again ascends the mimbar, as before, and proceeds.

"In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Praised be God. We praise Him. We seek help from Him. We ask forgiveness of sins. We trust in Him. We seek refuge in Him from evil desires and from former sinful actions. He who has God for His guide is never lost; and whosoever He leadeth aside none can guide into the right path.

We bear witness that there is no deity but God. He is one. He hath no partner.

Verily we bear witness that Muhammad is the servant and apostle of God, and may God have mercy upon him, who is more exalted that any being. May God have mercy upon his descendants, and upon his companions! May God give them peace! Especially upon Amiru 'l-Mu'minin Abu Bake as-Siddiq (may God be please with him). And upon him who was the most temperate of the 'friends,' Amriu 'l-Mu'minin 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab (may God be please with him). And upon him whose modesty and faith were perfect, Amiru 'l-Mu'minin 'Usman (may God be please with him). And upon the Lion of the powerful God, Amiru 'l- Mu'minin, 'Ali ibn Abi-Talilb (may God be please with him). And upon the two Imams, the holy ones, the two martyrs, Amiru ;l-Mu'minin Abu Muhammad al-Hasan and Abu 'Abdi 'llah al-Husain (may God be please with both of them). And upon the mother of these two persons, the chief of women, Fatimatu 'z-Zuhra' (may God be pleased with her). And upon his (Muhammad's) two uncles, Hamzah and al-'Abbas (may God be pleased with them). And upon the rest of the 'companions,' and upon the 'followers' (may God be pleased with all of them). Of Thy mercy, O most merciful of all merciful ones, O God, forgive all Muslim men and Muslim women, all male believers and all female believers. Of a truth Thou art He who wilt receive our prayers.

O God, help those who help the religion of Muhammad. May we also exert ourselves to help those who help Islam. Make those weak, who weaken the religion of Muhammad.

O God, bless the ruler of the age, and make him kind and favorable to the people.

O servants of God, may God have mercy upon you. Verily, God enjoineth justice and the doing of good, and gifts to kindred; and He forbiddeth wickedness, and wrong, and oppression. He warneth you that haply ye may be mindful. (Surah cxvi. 92.)

O ye people, remember the great and exalted God. He will also remember you. He will answer your prayers. The remembrance of God is great, and good, and honorable, and noble, and meritorious, and worthy, and sublime."

A more eloquent and strikingly characteristic khutbah has been translated by Mr. Lane in his Modern Egyptians (vol. i. p. 107): It is a New Year's Day sermon, delivered in the great mosque at Cairo, on the first Friday in the year, on the occasion of Mr. Lane's first visit, and is as follows:-

"In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

Praise be to God, the Renewer of Years, and the Multiplier of favors, and the Creator of months and days, according to the most perfect wisdom and most admirable regulation; who hath dignified the months of the Arabs above all other months, and hath pronounced that among the more excellent of them is al-Muharram the Sacred, and hath commenced with it the year, as He hath closed it with Zu 'l-Hijjah. How propitious is the beginning, and how good is the end! I extol His perfection, exempting Him from the association of any other deity with Him. He hath well considered what He hath formed and established what He hath contrived, and He alone hath the power to create and to annihilate. I praise Him, extolling His perfection, and exalting His name, for the knowledge and inspiration which He hath graciously vouchsafed; and I testify that there is no deity but God alone; He hath no companion; He is the Most Holy King; the God of Peace; and I testify that our lord and our Prophet and our friend Muhammad is His servant and His Apostle, and His elect, and His friend, the Guide of Way, and the lamp of the dark. O God, bless and save and beautify this noble Prophet, and chief and excellent apostle, the merciful-hearted, or Lord Muhammad, and his family and his companions, and his wives, and his posterity, and the people of his house, the

* Nasuh, is a word which occurs in the eighth verse of the Suratu 't-Tahrim (lxvi.) in the Qur'an; it is translated "true repentance" by Sale and Rodwell, but it is supposed to be a person's name by several commentators.


noble persons, and grant them ample salvation.

O servants of God, your lives have been gradually curtailed, and year after year hath passed away, and ye are sleeping on the bed of indolence, and on the pillow of iniquity. Ye pass the tombs of your predecessors, and fear not the assault of destiny and destruction, as if others departed from the world and ye must of necessity remain in it. Ye rejoice at the arrival of new years, as if they brought an increase of the term of life, and swim in the seas of desires, and enlarge your hopes, and in every way exceed other people in presumption; and ye are sluggish in doing good. O how great a calamity is this! God teacheth by an allegory. Know ye not that in the curtailment of time by indolence and sleep there is very great trouble? Know ye not that in the cutting short of lives by the termination of years is a very great warning? Know ye not that the night and day divide the lives of numerous souls? Know ye not that health and capacity are two blessing coveted by many men? But the truth hath become manifest to him who hath eyes. Ye are now between two years: one year hath passed away, and come to an end, with its evils; and ye have entered upon another year, in which, if it please God, mankind shall be relieved. Is any of you determining upon diligence in doing good in the year to come? Or repenting of his failing in the times that are passed? The happy one is he who taketh amends for the time past in the time to come; and the miserable one is he whose days pass away and he is careless of his time. This new year hath arrived, and the sacred month of God hath come with blessings to you, the first of the months of the year, and of the four sacred months, as hath been said, and the most worthy of preference and honor and reverence. Its fast is the most excellent of fasts after that which is obligatory, and the doing of good in it is among the most excellent of the objects of desire. Whosoever desireth of the objects of desire. Whosoever desireth to reap the advantage from it, let him fast the ninth and tenth days, looking for aid. Abstain not from the fast through indolence, and esteeming it a hardship; but comply with it, in the best manner, and honor it with the best of honors, and improve your time by the worship of God with repentance, before the assault of death: He is the God who acceptheth repentance of His servants, and pardoneth sins. The Apostle of God (God bless and save him) hath said, 'The most excellent prayer, after the prescribed, is the prayer that is said in the last third of the night; and the most excellent fast, after Ramazan, is that of the month of God al-Muharram.'"

(The khatib, having concluded his exhortation, says to the congregation, "Supplicate God." He then sits down and prays privately; and each member of the congregation at the same time offers up some private petition, as after the ordinary prayers, holding his hands before him (looking at the palms), and then drawing them down his face. The khatib then rises again, and recites the following):-

"Praise be to God, abundant praise, as he hath commanded. I testify that there is no deity but God alone; He hath no companion; affirming His supremacy, and condemning him who disbelieveth: and I testify that our Lord and our Prophet Muhammad is His servant and His apostle, the lord of mankind, the intercessor, the accepted intercessor, on the Day of Assembling: God bless him and his family as long as the eye teeth and the ear hearth. O people, reverence God by doing what He hath commanded, and abstain from that which He hath forbidden and prohibited. The happy one is he who obeyeth, and the miserable one is he who opposeth and sinneth. Know that the present world is a transitory abode, and that the world to come is a lasting abode. Make provision, therefore, in your transitory state for your lasting state, and prepare for your reckoning and standing before your Lord: for know that ye shall tomorrow be placed before God, and reckoned with according to your deeds; and before the Lord of Might ye shall be present, 'and those who acted unjustly shall know with what an overthrowal they shall be overthrown.' Know that God, whose perfection I extol, and whose name be exalted, hath said and ceaseth not to say wisely, and to command judiciously, warning you, and teaching and honoring the dignity of your Prophet, extolling and magnifying him. Verily God and His angel bless the Propeht: 'O ye who believe, bless him, and greet him with a salutation.' O God bless Muhammad, as Thou blessedst Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim among all creature, for Thou art praiseworthy and glorious. O God, do Thou also be well pleased with the four Khalifahs, the orthodox lords, of high diginity and illustrious honor, Abu Bakr, as-Siddiq, and 'Umar, and 'Usman, and 'Ali; and be Thou well pleased, O God, with the six who remained of the ten noble and just persons who swore allegiance to Thy Prophet Muhammad (God bless him and save him) under the tree (for Thou art the Lord of piety and the Lord of pardon); those persons of excellence and clemency, and rectitude and prosperity, Talhah, and Zubair, and Sa'd, and Sa'id, and 'Abdu r-Rahman ibn 'Auf, and Abu 'Ubaidah Amir ibn al-Jarrah: and with all the Companions of the Apostle of God (God bless and save him): and be Thou well pleased, O God, with the two martyred descendants, the youths of the people of Paradise in Paradise, the two sweet-smelling flowers of the Prophet of this nation. Abu Muhammad al-Hasan and Abu 'Abdi 'llah al-Husain; and be Thou well pleased, O God, with their mother, the daughter of the Apostle of God (God bless and save him), Fatimatu 'z-Zahra', and with their grandmother Khadijah al-Kubra, and with 'Ayishah, the mother of the faithful, and with the rest of the pure wives,


and with the generation which succeeded the Companions and with the generation which succeeded that with beneficence to the Day of Judgment. O God, pardon the believing men and the believing women, and the Muslim men and the Muslim women, those who are living, and the dead; for Thou art a hearer near, an answerer of prayers, O Lord, of the beings of the whole world. O God, aid Islam, and strengthen its pillars, and make infidelity to tremble, and destroy its might, by the preservation of Thy servant, and the son of Thy servant, the submissive to the Might of Thy Majesty and Glory, whom God hath aided, by the care of the Adored King, our master the Sultan, the Sultan Mahmud Khan; may God assist him, and prolong [his reign]. O God, assist him, and assist his armies, O Thou Lord of the religion, and the world present, and the world to come, O Lord of the beings of the whole world.

O God, assist the forces of the Muslims, and the armies of the Unitarians. O God, frustrate the infidels and polytheist, thine enemies, the enemies of the religion. O God, invert their banners, and ruin their habitations, and give them and their wealth as booty to the Muslims. O God, unloose the capacity of the captives, and annul the debts of the debtors; and make this town to be safe and secure, and blessed with wealth and plenty, and all the towns of the Muslims, O Lord of the beings of the whole world. And decree safety and health to us and to all travelers, upon Thy earth, and upon Thy sea, such as are Muslims, O Lord of the beings of the whole world.

'O Lord, we have acted unjustly towards our own souls, and if Thou do not forgive us and be merciful unto us, we shall surely be of those who perish' I beg of God, the Great, that He may forgive me and you, and all the people of Muhammad, the servants of God. 'Verily God commandeth justice, and the doing of good, and giving what is due to kindred; and forbidden wickedness, and iniquity, and oppression: He admonisheth you that ye may reflect. Remember God; He will remember you: and thank Him; He will increase to you your blessings. Praise be to God, the Lord of the beings of the whole world!"

The khutbah being ended, the khatib then descends from the pulpit, and, if he officiate as Imam, takes his position and leads the people in a two-rak'ah prayer. The khatib, however, does not always officiate as Imam. The Prophet is related to have said that the length of a man's prayers and the shortness of his sermon, are signs of a man's common sense.

According to the best authorities, the name of the reigning Khalifah ought to be recited in the khutbah, and the fact that it is not so recited in independent Muhammadan kingdoms, but the name of the Sultan or Amir is substituted for the Khalifah, has its significance, for it is a question whether the Sultan of Turkey, has any real claim to the spiritual leadership of Islam. [KHALIFAH.] In India the name of the king is omitted and the expression "Rulers of the Age" is used.

In India, the recital of the khutbah serves to remind every Muhammadan priest, at least one a week, that he is in a Caru 'l-Harb, "a land of enmity." Still the fact that he can recite his khutbah at all in a country not under Muslim rule, must also assure him that he is in a Daru 'l-Aman, or "land of protection."


The "sermon of standing." The sermon or oration recited on Mount 'Arafat at the mid-day prayer on the ninth day of the pilgrimage. (Burton's Pilgrimage, vol. ii. p. 219.) [KHUTBAH.]


Lit. "A remnant." A part of the Banu 'l-Azd who were left behind when the tribe migrated, and who settled down permanently near Makkah. They were from the first friendly to Muhammad, and made a treaty with him soon after that of al Hudaibiyah. They were an important portion of the army which marched to Makkah with the Prophet.


An Arabian tribe were expelled by the Yaman tribes and afterwards settled in the Hijaz, where they bore a prominent part in opposing the army of Muhammad.


A Companion of some renown. He was present at the battle of bade. He was killed at the same time as the Khalifah 'Ali, A.H. 37.


Persian. A rich or respectable man; a gentleman. An opulent merchant.


"Pride, haughtiness." With regard to mortal man, it is considered a vice, but with regard to the Infinite God, it is held to be one of His attributes. Al-Kabir, "the Great One."


"Alchemy." The word is supposed to be derived from the Greek , which signifies "juice," and to be properly confined to the study of extracts and essences of plants. It is now, however, applied more especially to a pretended science, which had for its object the transmutation of the baser materials into gold or silver, or the discovery of a panacea or universal remedy for diseases. Although this so-called science has now fallen into deserved contempt, it was held in high repute, and much cultivated from the 13th to the 17th century, especially amongst the Saracens. The first Muslim of reputation who is said to have given his attention to the subject, was Khalid, a son of the Khalifah Yazid (A.D. 683), and the first who wrote on the subject was Jabir ibn Abban as-Sufi, who was a disciple of Khalid.


Haji Khalfah, the celebrated author of the Kashfu 'z-Zunun, says "the word Kiniyah comes from the Hebrew, kim and yah and means 'from God.' There is some discussion regarding this science. Many people do not believe in its existence, amongst others the celebrated philosopher Shaikh 'Ali ibn Sina', who wrote against it in his book, the Kitabu 'sh-Shafa': also Ya'qub al-Kindi, and many others. But, on the other hand, many learned men have believed in its existence; for example, Imam Fakhru 'd-din ar-Razi, and Shaikh Najmu 'd-din al-Baghdadi." (Kashfu 'z-Zunun, in loco.)

'Ahlu Kimiya', is a term used not only for an alchemist, but for a deceiver, and also a lover.

Al-Kiniya'u 'l-Akbar, the philosopher's stone, or some celebrated tincture.

Kimiyau 'l-Ma'ani, the chemistry of meanings, that is, the study of truth.

II. - Amonst the Sufi mystics, the term al-Kimiya, is used for being satisfied with the things in possession, and not yearning after things which we do not possess. Kimiya'u 'l-'Awam, the alchymistry of the ordinary people, is the exchange of spiritual things for the things which perish. Kimiya'u 'l-Khawass, emptying of the heart of everything except God. Kimiya'u 's-Sa'adah, the alchymistry of felicity, is the purification of one's heart from all things that are evil by the attainment of special graces. ('Abdu r-Razzaq's Dict. Of Suf i Terms.)


(1) The name of the ancestor and founder of the Arabian tribe, the Banu Kinanah, the father of an-Nazr, the grandfather of Fihr, who was surnamed Quraish. [QURAISH.]

(2) The name of the Jewish chief of Khaibar who defended the fortress of Qamus against Muhammad. He was slain by order of the Prophet, who afterwards took Kinanah's bride, Safiyah, to his home and married her. [SAFIYAH.]


"A metaphor." A word used in the science of exegesis, e.g. "Thou are separated," by which may be meant, "Thou are divorced," which is called Talaqu 'l-Kinayah, or a divorce in metaphor.


A tribe of al-Yaman, and the descendants of Himyar. They are admitted to be one of the noblest of the Arab tribes. One of the remarkable descendants of this tribe was al-Kindi the philosopher. [KINDI.]


The philosopher. Abu Yusuf Ya'qub ibn Ishaq ibn as-Sabbah al-Kindi, who flourished at the court of the Khalifah Ma'mum, A.D. 833, and who translated numerous classical and philosophical works for the Abbaside Government. De Slane says his father Ishaq was Amir of al-Kufah, and his great great grandfather was one of the Prophet's Companions. It was at one time supposed he was a Jew or a convert to the Jewish religion, while others tried to identify him with the author of an Apology for Christianity, entitled Risalatu 'Abdi 'l-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, in which the writer explains to a Muslim friend his reasons for holding the Christian faith, in preference to Islam, whose acceptance the latter had pressed upon him. But it has been proved that al-Kindi, the philosopher, and al-Kindi the author of the said treatise, are two distinct persons, although both living at the court of al-Ma'mun and belonging to the same tribe.

Dr. J.M. Arnold, in his Islam and Christianity, p. 372, says the Risalah, or treatise of al-Kindi, is quoted as a genuine production by the celebrated historian, Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni (dies A.H. 430), in one of his works in confirmation of his statement that there were human sacrifices offered up in Arabic prior to the time of Muhammad.

The Apology of al-Kindi has been rendered into English by Sir William Muir, from an edition in Arabic published by the Turkish Mission Aid Society.




The term used in the Qur'an for a king is generally malik , Heb. e.g. whem the Israelites "said to a prophet of theirs, 'Raise up for us a king'" (Surah ii. 246.)

(1) The word malik is now merely used in Arabia and in Central Asia for a petty chief.

(2) Sultan occurs in the Qur'an for "authority," or "power," and not for a king. Surah lxix. 29, "My authority had perished from me." But it is now the title assumed by the Emperor of Turkey.

(3) Padshah and Shah are Persian words, the ruler of Persia having assumed the title of Shah or King. The word Padshah is derived from pad, "a throne," and shah, "a lord or possessor," i.e., "the lord of the throne." In Hindustani it is Badshah.

(4) Wali, i a title assumed by Muhammadan rulers, the title being held by the Barakzai rulers of Afghanistan in all legal documents. The word simply means a possessor, or one in authority.

(5) Amir has a similar meaning to Wali, and is a title which is assumed by Muslim rulers, as the Amris of Bukharah and of Kabul. It is derived from 'amr, "to rule."

(6) Saiyid, "a lord," is a title given to the descendants of Muhammad, and is a regal title assumed by the ruler of Zanzibar.

(7) Imam, "a leader," is the legal title of the head of the Muslims, and it is that given to the successors of Muhammad, who are so called in the Traditions and in Muhammadan works of law. [IMAM.]

(8) Khalifah, "a vicegerent." Khalifah, or Caliph, is used for the same regal personage as Imam. [KHALIFAH, RULERS.]


The miracles of any saint other than a Prophet, as dis-


tinguished from mu'jizah, which is always used for the miracles of an apostle or prophet. [MIRACLES.]


A sect of Muslim founded by Muhammad ibn Karim, and called also the Mujassiyah, or Corporealists, because they admitted not only a resemblance between God and created beings, but declared him to be corporeal substance.

"The more sober among them, indeed, when they applied the word body to God, would be understood to mean that He is a self-subsisting being, which with them is the definition of body; but yet some of them affirmed him to be finite, and circumscribed either on all sides, or on some only (as beneath, for example), according to different opinions; and others allowed that He might be felt by the hand, and seen by the eye. Nay, one Davide al-Jawari went so far as to say that His deity was a body composed of flesh and blood, and that He had members, as hands, feet, a head, a tongue, eyes, and ears; but that he was a body, however, not like other bodies, neither was he like to any created being. He is also said, further, to have affirmed that from the crown of the head to the breast he was hollow, and from the breast downward solid, and that He had black curled hair. These most blasphemous and monstrous notions were the consequence of the literal acceptation of those passages in the Koran (Surahs xl. 10; xx. 4; ii. 109), which figuratively attribute corporeal actions to God, and of the words of Muhammad, when he said that God created man in His own image, and that he himself had felt the fingers of God, which He laid on his back, to be cold; besides which, this sect are charged with fathering on their Prophet a great number of spurious and forged traditions to support their opinion, the greater part whereof they borrowed from the jews, who are accused as naturally prone to assimilate God to men, so that they describe Him as weeping for Noah's flood till His eyes were sore." (Sale.)


Lit. "Illustrious writers." The two recording angels who are said to be with every man, one on the right hand to record his good deeds, and one on his left to record the evil deeds. They are mentioned in the Qur'an, Suratu 'l-Infitar (lxxxii.) : "Yet truly there are guardians over you, illustrious recorders (kiraman katibin) cognizant of your actions."

It is related that the Prophet enjoined his people not to spit in front, or on the right, but on the left, as on that side stands the recording angel of evil (Mishkat, book iv. ch. viii. pt. 1.)

As these angels are supposed to be changed every day, they are called the mu'aqqibat, or those who succeed each other.


pl. Akasirah. The Chosroes,or Cyrus, a name given to almost every king of Persia of Sassanian dynasty (like Caesar among the Romans and Pharaoh among the Egyptians). The kings of Persian prior to Islam, according to Arab historians, composed four dynasties, namely, the Peshdadians, the chronology of which is unknown, the Kayanians, which ended B.C. 331, when Persia was conquered by Alexander the Great; the Ashkanians, which terminated A.D. 202; and the Sassanian, the last of whom was overcome by the Arabs, A.D. 636.

From the Qur'an, Surah xxx. 1, it appears that after the taking of Jerusalem by Chosroes, the sympathies of Muhammad were all enlisted on the side of the Caesar, and he foretells his ultimate victory over the king of Persina:-

"The Greek have been conquered in the neighboring coast, but is a few years after their defeat they shall again be victorious."

In the sixth year of Hijrah, Muhammad sent a dispatch to Chosroes, inviting him to Islam. Sir William Muir says (Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 384):-

"The despatch for the King of Persia reached the Court probably some months after the accession of Siroes. It was delivered to the Monarch, who, on hearing the contents, tore it to pieces. When this was reported to Mahomet, he prayed and said: 'Even thus, O Lord! Rend Thou his kingdom from him.' Connected with the court of Persia, but of date somewhat earlier than the despatch sent to it, is a remarkable incident, which was followed by results of considerable importance."

"A few months before his overthrow, the Chosroes, receiving strange reports of the prophetical claims of Mahomet, and of the depredations committed on the Syrian border by his marauding bands, sent order to Badzan, the Persian Governor of Yemen, to despatch two trusty men to Medina, and procure for him certain information regarding the Pretender. Badzan obeyed, and with the messengers sent a courteous despatch to Mahomet. By the time they arrived at Medina, tidings had reached the Prophet of the deposition and death of Chosroes. When the despatch, therefore, was read before him, he smiled at its contents, and summoned the ambassadors to embrace Islam. He then apprized them of the murder of the Chosroes and the accession of his son. 'Go,' said he, 'inform your master of this, and require him to tender his submission to the Prophet of the Lord.' The glory of Persia had now departed. She had long ago relaxed her grasp upon Arabia; and the Governor of Yemen was free to choose a protectorate more congenial to his people. Badzan, therefore, gladly recongnised the rising fortunes of Islam, and signified his adhesion to the Prophet. From the distance of this province, its allegiance was at the first little more than nominal; but the accession served as a point for further action, and meanwhile added new prestige to the Prophet's name."


Lit. "A robe." The covering of the Ka'abah, or cube-like building, at Makkah. [KA'BAH.]


When Captain Burton visited Makkah in 1853, he found it to be a coarse tissue of mixed silk and cotton, and of eight pieces, two for each face of the building, the seams being concealed by the broad gilt band called the hizam. It is lined with white calico, and has cotton ropes to secure the covering to metal rings at the basement. But on the occasion of Captain Burton's visit, the kiswah was tucked up by ropes from the roof. The whole is of a brilliant black, with the gold band running round it.

The burqa, or veil; is a curtain hung before the door of the Ka'bah, also of black brocade, embroidered with inscriptions, in letters of gold, of verses from the Qur'an and lined with green silk.

According to Burton, the inscription on the gold band of the kiswah is the ninetieth verse of the third Surah of the Qur'an: "Verily, the first House founded for mankind was surely that at Bakkah, for a blessing and a guidance to the worlds." The whole of the kiswah is covered with seven Surahs of the Qur'an, namely, XVIIIth, XIXth, IIIrd, Ixth, Xxth, XXXIXth, and LXVIIth (i.e. al-Kahf, Maryam, Alu-Imran, at-Taubah, Ta Ha, Ya Sin, and al-Mulk). The character is the ancient Kufic, and legible from a considerable distance.

Mr. Lane says that the kiswah is made of a mixture of silk and cotton, because the Prophet expressly forbade silk as an article of dress.

The kiswah and burqa' are now manufactured at Cairo, at a manufactory called the Khurunfish, and is made by a family who possess the hereditary right, and who are called the Baitu ‘s-Sa'd. When they are completed, they are taken to the mosque known as the Sultan Hasan, and there kept until they are sent off with a caravan of pilgrims to Makkah. This usually takes places a few days after the ‘Idu ‘l-Fitr, generally about the 6th day of the month of Shawwal, and two or three weeks before the departure of the regal canopy or Mahmal [MAHMAL.] The procession of the kiswah is similar to that of the Mahmal, and therefore requires no separate description.

According to Muslim historians, the Ka'bah was first dressed with a kiswah or robe by a Himyarite chief, named Tubba'u ‘l-Arqan. From the time of Qusaiy it was veiled by subscriptions collected from Pagan Arabs, until Abu Rabiyah ibn al-Mughirah ibn ‘Abdi ‘llah provided the covering whereby he obtained the title of al-‘Adl, "the Just." When Muhammad obtained possession, he ordered it to be covered with fine Yamani cloth, and ordered the expense to be defrayed from the public treasury. The Khalifah ‘Umar chose Egyptian linen, and ordered the robe to be renewed every year. Khalifah ‘Usman, being a man of eminent piety ordered it to be clothed twice a year. For the winter it had a robe of brocade silk, and in the summer a suit of fine linen. Mu'awiyah, the Umaiyah Khalifah, was the first to establish the present kiswah of silk and linen tissue, but being reminded of the Prophet's well-known dislike to silken robes he changed it again to the more orthodox covering of Yamani cloth. The Khalifah Ma'mun (A.D. 813) ordered the dress to be changed three times a year, the fine Yamani cloth on the 1st of Rajah, white brocade on the 1st of Shuwwal, for the pilgrimage two months later, and rich red brocade on the 10th of Muharram. The Khalifah al-Mutawakkil (A.D. 847) sent a new robe every two months. During the Abbaside dynasty, the investing of the Ka'bah with the kiswah was regarded as a sign of sovereignty over the holy places. The later Khalifahs of Baghdad are said to have sent a ksiwah of green and gold. The Fatimide Khalifahs made the kiswah ar Cairo of black brocade of mixed silk and cotton; and when Sultan Salim assumed the power of the Khalifate (A.D. 1512), the kiswah still continued to be supplied from Cairo, as is not the case under the Ottoman rule.

(Burckhardt's Arabia, Lane's Egyptians, Ali Bey's Pilgrimage, Burton's Mecca and Medina.) [KA'BAH, MASJIDU ‘L-HARAM.]


"The Book." A term used for the Qur'an, and extended to all inspired books of the jews and Christians, who are called Ahlu ‘l-Kitab, or believers in the book.


A term used for one of the Ahlu ‘l-Kitab, "the people of the Book," or those in possession of the inspired word of God, as Jews of Christians.


Fem. of Kitabi. A female of the Ahlu ‘l-Kitab, or those who possess an inspired book, Jews or Christians.




A letter transmissible from one Qazi to another when the defendant in a suit resides at a distance. Such letter must be a transcript of real evidence.


Lit. "The Manifest or clear book." The term used in the Qur'an both for the Tablet of Decress (Luahu ‘l-Mahfuz), and for the Qur'an itself.

Surah vi. 59: "No leaf falleth but He knoweth it; neither is there a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor a green thing or sere, but it is noted in the clear book"

Surah iv. 18: "Now hath a light and a clear book come to you from God."


"Concealing; keeping secret." The injunction of the Qur'an is: "Hide not the truth while ye know it"; and yet the art of concealing profane religious belief has been a special characteristic of the Eastern mystics.



The attitude of kneeling amongst Muhammadans consists of placing the two knees on the ground and sitting on the feet behind. Kneeling as practiced by Christians in the present day, does not exist amongst Muslims as an attitude of worship.

The word jasi, which occurs in the Qur'an Surah xlv. 27: "And thou shalt see each nation kneeling (jasiyatan), each nation summoned to the book," expresses an attitude of fear and not of worship.




Arabic Qarun , Heb. . The son of Yashar (Izhar),son of Qahis (Kohath), son of Lawi (Levi). The leader of the rebellion against Moses, Num. xvi. 1; Jude 11 (where he is coupled with Cain and Balaam). He is mentioned three times in the Qur'an.

Surah xl. 24, 25: "Moreover we had sent Moses of old, with our signs and with clear authority, to Pharaoh, and Haman, and Korah; and they said ‘Sorcerer, imposter.'"

Surah xxix. 38: "And Korah and Pharaoh and Haman. With proofs of his mission did Moses come to them, and they behaved proudly on the earth; but us they could not outstrip; for every one of them did we seize in his sin. Against some of them did we send a stone-charged wind; some of them did the terrible cry of Gabriel surprise; for some of them we cleaved the earth; and some of them we drowned."

Surah xxviii. 76-82: "Now Korah was of the people of Moses; but he behaved haughtily toward them; for we had given him such treasure that its keys would have burdened a company of men of strength. When his people said to him, ‘Exalt not, for God loveth not those who result; but seek by means of what God hath given thee, to attain the future Mansion; and neglect not thy part in this world, but be bounteous to others as God hath been bounteous to three, and seek not to commit excesses on the earth; for God loveth not those who commit excesses:' he said, ‘It hath been given me only on account of the knowledge that is in me.' Did he not know that God had destroyed before him generations that were mightier than he in strength and had amassed more abundant wealth? But the wicked shall not be asked of their crimes. And Korah went forth to his people in his pomp. Those who were greedy for this present life said, ‘Oh that we had the like of that which hath been bestowed on Korah! Truly he is possessed of great good fortune. But they to whom knowledge had been given said, ‘Woe to you! The reward of God is better for him who believeth and worketh righteousness, and none shall win it but those who have patiently endured.' And we clave the earth for him and for his palace, and he had no forces, in the place of God, to help him, now was he among those who are succored. And in the morning those who the day before had coveted his lot said, ‘Aha! God enlargeth supplies to who He pleaseth of His servants, or is sparing. Had not God been gracious to us. He had caused it to cleave for us. Aha! The ungrateful can never prosper."

Al-Baizawi says Korah brought a false accusation of immorality against Moses, and Moses complained to God, and God directed him to command the earth what he pleased, and it should obey him; whereupon he said, "O earth, swallow them up"; and immediately the earth opened under Korah and his confederates, and swallowed them up, with his palace and all his riches. - There is a tradition that as Korah sank gradually into the ground, first to his knees, then to his waist, then to his neck, he cried out four several times, "O Moses, have mercy on me!" But that Moses continued to say, "O earth, swallow them up!" Till at last he wholly disappeared; upon which God said to Moses, "Thou hadst no mercy of Korah, though he asked pardon of thee four times; but I would have had compassion on him if he had asked pardon of Me but once."

He is represented by Jalalu ‘d-din as the most beautiful of the Israelites of his time. His opulence and avarice have become a proverb for those who amass wealth without giving away in alms and charity.

In the Talmud it is said that "Joseph concealed three treasures in Egypt, one of which became known to Korah.....the keys of Korah's treasure chambers were a burden for 300 white mules." Midr Jalkut on Eccl. v. 12: "Riches kept for the owners thereof to heir hurt," - which may have furnished Muhammad with the nucleus of this story. Compare also Tract. Psachim, fol. 119a.


A city on the west bank of the river Euphrates, about four days march from Baghdad, but which has now entirely disappeared.

The city of al-Kufah was founded soon after the Arabs conquered Persia, A.D. 636, and in the reign of the Khalifah ‘Umar. It was built opposite the ancient town of Madain, on the other side of the river. The first Abbaside Khalifah, Abu ‘l-Abbas, A.D. 750, made it his capital, and it was then a flourishing city, but when the Khalifah al-Mansur built Baghdad, al-Kufah decreased in importance, and gradually fell into decay. It was much famed for its learned men, and especially for its grammarian. Two sects of rival grammarians were named respectively from al-Basrah and al-Kufah, and the more ancient characters of Arabic writing are called Kufi or Kufic, after this seat of learning. The Kufic-Arabic letters resemble the Syriac, being square and heavy. The ancient copies of the Qur'an are written in Kufic.


Lit. "That which covers the truth." Infidelity, blasphemy. Disbelieving in the Qur'an or in any of the tenets of the Muslim religion. [KAFIR.]



The Persian for a cap, or cowl, especially worn by Muhammadan faqirs or darwashes. The faqirs generally call it their taj or crown, and it is one of the distinguishing marks of their order.

KULAHS (E. Campbell)


Kulsum ibn Hadam, the name of a hospitable but blind chief, with whom Muhammad stayed at Quba upon his arrival in that place after his flight from Makkah. It was whilst he was staying with Kulsum that Muhammad built his first mosque at Quba. Kulsum died soon afterwards.


A Quraish chieftain who committed a raid near al-Madinah, and carried off some of the flocks and herds of the Muslims. He was afterwards converted to Islam and fell under Khalid at the taking of Makkah.



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