Battle and Victory of Badr—Battle of Uhud—Defeat of Uhud—Hopefulness of the Prophet—Zainab and Zaid—Wives and concubines—Siege of Madina—Desire for the Hajj—Treaty of Hudaibiya—Special claims for Islam—The embassies—Attack on Khaibar—The 'Umra or Lesser Pilgrimage—Battle of Muta—Capture of Mecca—Victory of Hunain—Year of the Deputations—Expedition to Tabuq—Compulsion of Jews and Christians—The employment of force—Rebuke of the Hypocrites and the Arabs—The Prophet's war cry—Abu Bakr and the Hajj—Engagements made with Arabs not binding on the Prophet—The Greater Pilgrimage—The influence of the Hajj—God and His Apostle—Style of the Madina Suras—Importance of the chronological Order—Change of style

Passages cited from the Qur'an 196

Table showing the approximate chronological order of the chapters of the Qur'an

Index 205
List of authorities 207

Historical Development of the Qur'an



A COMPARISON of the historical facts in the life of Muhammad with the various portions of the Qur'an connected with them is necessary, if that life is to be intelligently understood. Another and equally important result of such comparison is that it shows the gradual way in which the Qur'an came into existence and how admirably the revelations fitted in to the local circumstances, and gave what was claimed to be divine authority and support to the varied actions of the Prophet. In this way alone could his change of policy be justified and he himself be protected from the charge of time-serving and inconsistency.

The arrangement of the Suras, or chapters in the Qur'an, is not chronological. The longest Suras are placed first in the book. Thus, to take the Qur'an and read it straight through throws no light on the life and work of the Prophet, but simply bewilders the reader. Maulavi Muhammad 'Ali, a Qadiani commentator, asserts that the whole Qur'an was committed to writing during the Prophet's life-time and that the present arrangement of chapters and verses was made under the