towards the pagans or the Jews of Madina, it is clear that it must have been said during this earlier part of his residence in that city. It could not have been delivered after the battle of Badr when its spirit was so completely set aside.

The state of affairs in Madina now is thus described by the historian Ibn Ishaq, 'When Muhammad had found a safe abode in Mecca [Madina], when his friends, the Immigrants, had united round him, and when the concerns of the Ansar had been arranged, Islam became firmly established. Public prayers were performed, fasts and poor-rates were established, penal laws were executed, things lawful and unlawful were determined, and Islam gained strength amongst the tribe of the Ansar.1 It had, in fact, become the chief power now in Madina, ruling over the Muslims in all matters, and powerfully influencing those who as yet held aloof from it.

But all its professors were not equally hearty and sincere. The ancient feuds were professedly forgotten, but it was not so in practice, and many a nominal believer was still influenced by the memory of former strife. Still, there was no actual

[Footnote continued from previous page]
In the Khulasatu't-Tafasir we read:—
جهاد وقتال اسلئى نهين هىكة خواة صخواة لوكث مسلمان بنائى جائين بلكة اسلام نة لائين تو صطيع بنين
'Jihad and killing are not for this purpose that, willingly or unwillingly, people may be made Muslims, but if they do not embrace Islam they must be made submissive.'
كافر اسير يا مرتد كا قتل كرنا عقوبةُ هى
—'To imprison an infidel or to kill an apostate (from Islam) is by way of punishment. Khulasatu't-Tafasir, vol. i, p. 202.
Thus in no sense at all does this verse teach religious liberty, or establish freedom of thought; all that is gained by it is that certain classes may escape death by payment of a poll-tax and by abject submission to the terms of the established religion of the country.
1 Quoted by Koelle in Mohammed and Mohammedanism, p. 124.

open opposition, but in the hearts of many men there were doubt and misgiving. They are described by Ibn Ishaq as men 'who were in reality little removed from the idolatry of their fathers and the rejection of the true faith; only that Islam had by its prevalence overpowered them, the mass having already gone over to it. They, to save themselves from death, were compelled to accept Islam, at least in appearance; but in secret they were traitors, and their hearts were with the Jews in the rejection of the Prophet.1 Thus early was force employed and a profession of Islam used as a 'shield from death.' These men were called the Munafiqun, or Hypocrites, and continued for a while to exercise an adverse influence. A few years later on, when Muhammad's power increased, he openly denounced them. Sura Al-Munafiqun (lxiii), which is said to have been delivered about the year A.H. 6, contains the Prophet's final sentence against them:—

When the Hypocrites come to thee, they say, 'we bear witness that thou art the sent one of God.' God knoweth that thou art His sent one, but God beareth witness that the Hypocrites do lie.
Their faith have they used as a cloak and they turn aside others from the way of God! Evil are all their doings. 1-2.
These are they who say to you of Madina, ' Spend not aught upon those who are with the Apostle of God, and they will be forced to quit him.' Yet the treasures of the heavens and of the earth are God's. But the Hypocrites have no understanding.
They say, 'If we return to the city, the mightier will assuredly drive out the weaker from it.' But might

1 See Koelle, Mohammed and Mohammedanism, p. 127.