1 Those accepted by the Sunnis are (1) The Muwatta of Malik ibn Ans, (2) the Jami'us Sahih of Bukhari, (3) the Sahih of Muslim, (4) the Sunan of Abu Daud Sulaiman, (5) the Jami of Tirmidhi, and (6) the Kitabu's Sunan of Muhammad ibn Yazid ibn Majah at Qazwini. The Shi'ahs, on the other hand, accept no traditions as authoritative except those contained in (1) the Kafi of Abu Ja'far Muhammad (A.H. 329), (2) the Man la yastahdirahu'l Faqih of Shaikh 'Ali (A.H. 381), (3) the Tahdhib of Shaikh Abu Ja'far Muhammad (A.H. 466), (4) the Istibsar of the same author, and (5) the Nahju'l Balaghah of Sayyid Radi (A.H. 406). The student will find in the Introduction to the third edition of Sir W. Muir's Life of Mahomet an admirable investigation of the sources at our disposal for information regarding Muhammad's life, and also an account of the way in which the Qur'an assumed its present form, together with a discussion of the value and reliability of Tradition. It is therefore, unnecessary to deal with the matter here as fully as it would otherwise have had to be treated. I may, however, add that what is said in the present chapter is drawn at first hand from the original authorities.

2 Vide pp. 119, sqq.

3 This word is generally, but wrongly, spelt Caliph. It is applied to Muhammad's successors, and means ''Vicegerent (of the Apostle of God)."

4 Mishkatu'l Masabih, pp. 185 sqq., from Bukhari.

5 The Surahs are arranged as nearly as possible in chronological order in Rodwell's translation of the Qur'an, though doubtless certain early Surahs had verses of later date inserted into them long after they were written. See Canon Sell's "Historical Development of the Qur'an."

6 Mishkatu'l Masabih, pp. 185, 186.


8 See the objections stated in Al Kindi's Apology, Sir W. Muir's translation, pp. 72-8.

9 A few examples of such various readings occur in Surah VI., Al An'am, 91.

10 Called the "Night of Power".



13 Cf. Surahs IV., 84; XVII., 107; XLVI., 7; LIII., 4; &c, &c.

14 Vide pp. 275 sqq.