as Torāt, Jehannam, and such like.1 To know their meaning, it must be learnt from Hebrew, Chaldaean, and Syriac, for they are not genuine Arabic words.

The following ideas are common to both Jews and Muslims:—

In the Qur'an we are told of there being Seven heavens, and seven storeys to Hell, — which we also find in Jewish writings.2 Similar accounts of the heavens and the earth we have also in Sanskrit sources, and also from Muslim tradition; and also from such stories in Zoroastrian books as that there are seven climes, etc.

In Surah xi. 9, we are told of God's throne being above the waters; and similarly the Jewish Rāshi, commenting on Genesis i. 2, says: "the glorious throne stood in the heavens and moved over the face of the waters." Again, Muslims tell us that the Lord appointed an angel Mālik ruler over Jehannam. Similarly the Jews speak of the Prince of Hell; only the Muslims call him Mālik, following the ancient idolators of Palestine, who worshipped the Ruler of Fire as Molech.

In Surah vii. 44 there is mention of a wall or partition called Aaraf as separating Paradise and Hell, thus:— And between the two a Veil, and upon Al Aarāf (stand) men. So in the Jewish Midrash, when it is asked what the distance is between heaven and hell, the answer of one Rabbi is "a wall," and of another "a span"; and again. "Our leaders tell us that the two are so close that a mere ray glances from one to the other." And so we find similar passages in the Avestic and Pehlavi writings, as, — "the distance is but as that between light and darkness."

In three passages of the Qur'an,3 we are told of Satan listening stealthily, and being driven away with stones; another idea taken from the Jews, in one of whose books we

1 Such as, Garden of Eden, Taghūt, Forcan, Sakīna, Tabūt, Hibr, etc.: all from one or other of the Hebrew, Syriac, or Chaldaean tongues.
2 Surah xv. 44; xvii. 46. Jewish books, Hagīgah, and Zohar.
3 Surah xv. 17 and 34; xxxvii. 7; lxvii. 5.

find it written of the Genii that "they listened behind the curtain" in order to gain knowledge of things to come.

In Surah 1. 29, we read:— On the day we shall say unto hell, Art thou full? and it shall reply, Is there yet any more? Similarly in a Jewish author:— "The Prince of Hell shall say, day by day, Give me food that I may be full."

In Surahs xi. 42 and xxiii. 27, it is said of the Flood, — The oven boiled over; and in a Jewish work we have this: "The people of the Flood were punished with boiling water."

These similarities are interesting as showing the close connection between the Qur'an and Jewish remarks; but enough has been given of them.

Seventh. Religious usages of Islam taken from the Jews. There are many such, but it will suffice to mention two or three. We have seen that keeping the fast of Ramazan has been taken from the Sabaeans and not the Jews; still there is one point certainly coming from the latter, and that regards eating and drinking at night during the month. In Surah ii. 83, we read:— Eat and drink until ye can distinguish a white thread from a black thread by the day-break, then fulfil the fast. In a Jewish book1 we find it similarly laid down that "the beginning of the day is at the moment when one can but distinguish a blue thread from a white thread," — a striking coincidence.

Again, Muslims of all lands, at the fixed time of their five prayers, wherever they happen to be, whether in the house or in the street, perform their devotions on the spot, — especially at places where people are passing by. This strange practice is entirely confined to them, and would be seemly in no other religion. But in the days of the Prophet there were Jews in

1 Mishnah Berākhoth.