Revealed at Makkah.


I HAVE not been able to find any better reason for the name of this chapter than that given by Sale: that the story of that prophet is repeated in it.

There is much in this chapter of a like character with the seventh chapter. Its several parts are closely connected together, and present what may be called an elaborate vindication of Muhammad's claim to be a prophet. The Quraish had rejected him as an impostor, and had styled his Quran a forgery. Accordingly he falls back upon the example of former prophets, and threatens the infidels with that Divine wrath which had invariably destroyed the unbelievers who had rejected his predecessors in this holy office.

In respect to the histories of the prophets given in this chapter, there is one feature worthy of very special attention, as it bears directly on the question of Muhammad's sincerity and honesty as a religious teacher: it is the Muhammadan colouring of the history of these prophets. They were all, like Muhammad, sent to reclaim their people from idolatry. Like him, they were all rejected by the great majority of the people, only a few poor, despised persons professing faith in their prophet's message. Like him, they were all charged with imposture, and their messages were characterised as forgeries. This conduct was invariably followed by Divine retribution, the prophets and their followers being miraculously delivered from wicked hands.

The whole chapter marks a period of sharp and bitter opposition on the part of Muhammad's townsmen. It is probable that this fact, as well as the sharp epileptic paroxysnis with which these revelations are said to have been accompanied, caused Muhammad to designate "Hud and its Sister" as the "Terrific Suras." "The


'Sisters' are variously given as Suras xi., xxi., lvi, Ixix., lxxvii, lxxviii., lxxxi., and ci.; all Meccan, and some of them very early Suras."- Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. p. 88.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

As to the date of composition, little can be said that is satisfactory beyond the fact that it belongs to a period of Muhammad's prophetic career at Makkah when the opposition of the Quraish was very fierce. A part of the chapter would seem to indicate the period immediately preceding the Ban of the Hushimites, say B.H. 4 (see note on ver. 91), but the greater part iaust be referred to a period succeeding that event (see notes on vers. 37 and 55).

Principal Subjects.

The Quran a revelation from God . . . 1, 2
Muhammad a warner and a preacher of goodness. . . 3-5
Infidels cannot hide their sin from God . . . . 6
God the Creator and Preserver of all creatures . . . 7, 8
The resurrection rejected by the infidels as sorcery . . 8
They scoff at threatened punishment . . . . . 9
Mercy and judgment alike disregarded by infidels . . 10,11
Those who persevere in good works shall be rewarded. . 12
The unbelievers demand a sign from heaven . . . 13
Muhammad charged with forging the Quran . . . 14
He challenges the infidels to produce ten chapters like it, or to become Muslims . . .14, 15
The miserable fate of those who live for this present world... 16, 17
Moses and the Jews attest the truth of the Quran . . 18
The maligners of prophets shall be cursed . . . 19-23
The blessed portion of believers . . . 24
Similitudes of believers and unbelievers . . . 25

The History of Noah: -

He is sent as a public preacher . . . 26, 27
The chiefs of his people reject him as a liar . . . 28
Noah protests his integrity-Refuses to drive away his poor followers-Deprecates being thought a seer or an angel . . . 29-32
His people challenge him to bring on the threatened judgment . . . 33
Noah declares that God destroys and saves whom he pleaseth . . . 34, 35
Noah's people declare his message a forgery . . . 36


God tells Noah that no more of his people will believe on him . . . 37
He is commanded to make an ark . . . 38
Noah builds the ark and is derided by the people ... 39
Embarks with his followers and one pair each of the animals . . .40,41
Noah in vain entreats his unbelieving son to embark .. 42, 43
The waters abate and the ark rests on Al Judi .. . 44
Noah pleads with God for his son. . . . 45
God reproves him for his intercession for his son .. . 46
Noah repents and asks pardon for his fault . . . 47
He descends from the ark . . . 48
This history a secret revealed to Muhammad ... 49

The History of Hud:-

He is sent to called from idolatry . . . 50-52
The Adites reject him as a liar . . . . 53
Hud protests his integrity, and declares his trust in God to save him from their plots . . . 54-57
God delivers Hud and his followers . . .58
The Adites reject their messenger and are destroyed ... 59, 60

The History of Salih:-

He is sent to call the Thamudites from idolatry ...61
They reject his message . . . 62
Salih protests his integrity, and gives them a she-camel as a sign from God. . . .63, 64
They kill the camel, and are threatened with destruction... 65
Salih and his followers are saved from destruction ... 66
The Thamudites are miserably destroyed . . . 67, 68

The History of Abraham and Lot:-

God's messengers sent to Abraham-He entertains them 69
He is filled with fear because they refuse to eat his meat 70
The angels quiet his fears and tell him they are sent to the people of Lot .. . 70, 71
Salih receives the promise of Isaac and Jacob .. . 71-73
Abraham intercedes for the people of Lot .. . 74
The angels refuse his request . . . 75
Lot is anxious for the safety of his angel visitors . .. 76
The Sodomites attack his house . . . 77-79
The angels warn Lot to leave the city and inform him of the destruction impending over his people and his wife . . . 80
The cities are overthrown and the people killed by a shower o fbricks . . .81,82


The History of Shuaib:-

He is sent to call the Midianites from idolatry . .. 83
He reproaches them for dishonest weights and measures... 84-86
The people reject him, refusing to leave their idols ... 87
Shuaib protests his integrity, and exhorts them to flee the fate of the people of Noah, Hud, Salih, and Lot . . . 88-89
The people threaten to stone him . . . 91
Shuaib threatens them with Divine judgment .. . 92-94
God destroys the infidels, but saves Shuaib and his followers . . . 95,96

The History of Moses:-

He is sent with signs to Pharaoh and his princes ... 97
They reject him, and are consigned to hell-fire . . 98-100
Exhortation and warning drawn from the fate of these cities . . . 101-105
The condition of the righteous and wicked in judgment ... 106-109
Muhammad not to doubt about the religion of the Quarish... 110
The Quarish doubt the Quran as the Jews did the Pentateuch. . . . 111
God will punish their evil deeds . . . 112
Muhammad exhorted to be steadfast. . . . . 113, 114
An exhortation to prayer . . . 115
God just in destroying the unbelieving cities . . . 116-118
The unbelievers predestinated to damnation . . . 119
The whole history of the prophets related to Muhammad ... 120
Unbelievers threatened . . . 121, 122
Muhammad exhorted to put his trust in God . . . 123


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(1) A. L. R. (2) This book, the verses whereof are guarded against corruption, and are also distinctly ex-

(1) A.L.R. See Prelim. Disc., pp. 100-102.

(2) Guarded against corruption. "According to the various senses which the verb uhkimat in the original may bear, the commentators suggest as many different interpretations. Some suppose the meaning to be, according to our version, that the Quran is not liable to be corrupted, as the law and the gospel have been in the opinion of the Muhammadans others, that every verse in this particular chapter


plained, is a revelation from the wise, the knowing God:(3) that ye serve not any other GOD (verily I am a denouncer of threats, and a bearer of good tidings unto you from him); (4) and that ye ask pardon of your LORD, and then be turned unto him. He will cause you to enjoy a plentiful provision, until a prefixed time; and unto every one that hath merit by good works will he give his abundant reward. But if ye turn back, verily I fear for you the punishment of the great day: (5) unto GOD shall ye return; and he is almighty. (6) Do they not double the folds of their breasts, that they may conceal their designs from him? When they cover themselves with their garments, doth not he know that which they conceal and that which they discover? For he knoweth the inner most parts of the breasts of men.

is in full force, and not one of them abrogated ; others, that the verses of the Quran are disposed in a clear and perspicuous method, or contain evident and demonstrative arguments ; and others, that they comprise judicial declarations to regulate both faith and practice."- Sale, Baidhawi, Jalaluddin, Zaimakhshari. See also Prelim. Disc., sect. iii.

Distinctly explained. "The signification of the verb fussilat, which is here used, being also ambiguous, the meaning of this passage is supposed to be, either that the verses are distinctly proposed or expressed in a clear manner; or that the subject-matter of the whole may be distinguished or divided into laws, monitions, and examples; or else that the verses were revealed by parcels."- Sale.

(3) A denouncer, &c. The usual title claimed at Makkah, and probably assumed along with the prophetic office.

(4) The condition of salvation is here declared to be repentance and good works. See notes on chap. iii. 31.

(6) Double . .. their breasts. "Or, as it may be translated, 'Do they not turn away their breasts?' "- Sale. Rodwell has it, "Do they not doubly fold up their breasts?"

He knoweth the innermost parts. "This passage was occasioned by the words of the idolaters, who said to one another, 'When we let down our curtains (such as the women use in the East to screen themselves from the sight of the men, when they happen to be in the room), and wrap ourselves up in our garments, and fold up our breasts, to conceal our malice against Muhammad, how should he come to the knowledge of it?' Some suppose this passage relates to certain hypocritical Muslims ; but this opinion is generally rejected, because this verse was revealed at Makkah, and the birth of hypocrisy among the Muhammadans happened not till after the Hijra"- Sale.



(7) There is no creature which creepeth on the earth but GOD provideth its food; and he knoweth the place of its retreat, and where it is laid up. The whole is written in the perspicuous book of his decrees. (8) It is he who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days (but his throne was above the waters before the creation thereof), that he might prove you, and see which of you would excel in works. If thou say, Ye shall surely be raised again after death; the unbelievers will say, This is nothing but manifest sorcery. (9) And verily if we defer their punishment unto a determined season, they will say, What hindereth it from falling on us? Will it not come upon them on a day, wherein there shall be none to avert it from them; and that which they scoffed at shall encompass them?

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(10) Verily, if we cause man to taste mercy from us, and afterwards take it away from him, he will surely become desperate and ungrateful. (11) And if we cause him to taste favour after an affliction had befallen him, he will surely say, The evils which I suffered are passed from me, and he will become joyful and insolent: (12) except those who persevere with patience and do that which is right; they shall receive pardon and a great reward. (13) Per-

(7) This passage also teaches the omniscience of God, and also the doctrine of a particular providence. Everything is a matter of eternal decree.

(8) Six days. See chaps. vii. 55, and x. 3.

His throne was &c. "For the Muhammadans suppose this throne, and the waters whereon it stands, which waters they imagine are supported by a spirit or wind, were, with some other things, created before the heavens and earth. This fancy they borrowed from the Jews, who also say that the throne of glory then stood in the air, and was borne on the face of the waters by the breath of God's mouth" (Rashi ad Gen. i. 2).- Sale.

Manifest sorcery. See note on chap. x. 77.

(11) After an affliction. The allusion is to the famine which befell Makkah, see chap. x. 22 and note. The effect of the withdrawal of mercy is to make the unbeliever "cast aside all hope of Divine favour, for want of patience and God" (Sale); but the restoration of Divine favour has no other effect than to make them "joyful and insolent."


adventure thou wilt omit to publish part of that which hath been revealed unto thee, and thy breast will become straitened, lest they say, Unless a treasure be sent down unto him, or an angel come with him, to bear witness unto him, we will not believe. Verily thou art a preacher only; and GOD is the governor of all things. (14) Will they say, He hath forged the Quran? Answer, Bring therefore ten chapters like unto it, forged by yourselves; and call on whomsoever ye may to assist you except GOD, if ye speak truth. (15) But if they whom ye call to your assistance hear you not; know that this book hath been revealed by the knowledge of GOD only, and that there is no GOD but he. Will ye therefore become Muslims? (16) Whoso chooseth the present life and the pomp thereof, unto them will we give the recompense of their works therein, and the same shall not be diminished unto them. (17) These are they for whom no other reward is prepared in the next life except the fire of hell: that which they have done in this life shall perish, and that which they have wrought shall be vain. (18) Shall he therefore be compared with them who followeth the evident declaration of his LORD,

(13) That which hath been revealed unto thee. Godfrey Higgins, whom our Indian Mussalmans are so fond of quoting since his apology has become known through Sayad Ahmad's garbled translation, thinks Muhammad imagined himself to be inspired, as did Johanna Southcote, Baron Swedenborg, &c. "- Apology for Mohammed, p.83.

Unless a treasure &c. See notes on chap. vi. 34-36.A preacher only. See notes on chaps. ii. 119, iii. 184, and vi. 109.

(14) He hath forged. See chap. x. 39.

"This was the number which he first challenged them to compose; but they not being able to do it, he made the matter still easier, challenging them to produce a single chapter only, comparable to the Quran in doctrine and eloquence."- Sale.

See also on chap. ii. 23.

Rodwell thinks the challenge in such passages is not to produce a book which shall equal the Quran in point of poetry or rhetoric, but "in the importance of its subject-matter, with reference to the Divine unity, the future retribution," &c. All Muslim authorities, so far as I know, include the rhetoric and poetry among the incomparable excellences.


and whom a witness from him attendeth, preceded by the book of Moses, which was revealed for a guide, and out of mercy to mankind? These believe in the Quran; but whosoever of the confederate infidels believeth not therein, is threatened the fire of hell, which threat shall certainly be executed: be not therefore in a doubt concerning it; for it is the truth from thy LORD: but the greater part of men will not believe. (19) Who is more unjust than he who imagineth a lie concerning GOD? They shall be set before the LORD at the day of judgment, and the witnesses shall say, These are they who devised lies against their LORD. Shall not the curse of GOD fall on the unjust; (20) who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who believe not in the life to come? (21) These were not able to prevail against God on earth, so as to escape punishment; neither had they any protectors besides GOD: their punishment shall be doubled unto them. They could not hear, neither did they see. (22) These are they who have lost their souls; and the idols which they falsely imagined have abandoned them. (23) There is no doubt but they shall be most miserable in the world to come. (24) But as for those who believe and do good works, and humble themselves before their LORD,

(18) A witness. Various opinions obtain as to who this witness was. Some say the Quran is meant. Others say Gabriel or an angel. Others will have it to be the Light of Muhammad, which impartial spectators always beheld in the countenance of the prophet. - Tafsir-i-Raufi.

The book of Moses. The Pentateuch is here again referred to in such a way as to show that Muhammad regarded the copies current in his day as genuine.

These believe, i.e., those who possess the book of Moses. No doubt Muhammad was confirmed in his prophetic claims by the flattery of some Jewish followers. His own doubts seem to be expressed in what follows: "Be not therefore in doubt concerning it;" and yet they are only expressed to be refuted by this testimony.

It is the truth from thy Lord. This passage with verse below, if it may be applied to Muhammad, assert his sincerity in his own claims as strongly as any in the Quran.

(19) The witnesses. "That is, the angels and prophets, and their own members."- Sale.


they shall be the inhabitants of Paradise; they shall remain therein for ever. (25) The similitude of the two parties is as the blind and the deaf, and as he who seeth and heareth: shall they be Compared as equal? Will ye not therefore consider?

R 3/3.

(26) We formerly sent Noah unto his people; and he said, verily I am a public preacher unto you; (27) that ye worship GOD alone; verily I fear for you the punishment of the terrible day. (28) But the chiefs of the people, who believed not, answered, We see thee to be no other than a man, like unto us; and we do not see that any follow thee, except those who are the most abject among us, who have believed on thee by a rash judgment; neither do we perceive any excellence in you above us: but we esteem you to be liars. (29) Noah said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself, which is hidden from you, do we compel you to receive the same, in case ye be averse thereto? (30) O my people, I ask not of you riches, for my preaching unto you: my reward is with GOD alone. I will not drive away those who have believed: verily they shall meet their LORD at the resurrection; but I perceive that ye are

(25) The two parties. "Believers and unbelievers."- Sale. Muir thinks there is in allusion to the confederates of Makkah and the believers of Madina. See Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. p.225 note.

(26) We sent Noah, &c. See notes on chap. vii. 60.

(28) We see thee, &c. This is what the chiefs of the Quraish said to Muhammad. See note on chap. x. 77.

A rash judgment. "For want of mature consideration, and moved by the first impulse of their fancy."- Sale.

(29) Do we compel you, &c. Muhammad had not yet conceived the idea of using the force of the sword to make converts. Moral suasion is the instrument now used. If the infidels choose the fire of hell, it is no concern of the prophets. He is not responsible. He is only a preacher of good news and a warner.

(30) I will not drive away, &c. "For this they asked him to do, because they were poor mean people. The same thing the Quraish demanded of Muhammad, but he was forbidden to comply with their request" (see chap. vi. 51).- Sale.


ignorant men. (31) O my people, who shall assist me against GOD, if I drive them away? Will ye not therefore consider? (32) I say not unto you, The treasures of GOD are in my power; neither do I say, I know the secrets of God: neither do I say, Verily I am an angel; neither do I say of those whom your eyes do condemn, GOD will by no means bestow good on them: (GOD best knoweth that which is in their souls;) for then should I certainly be one of the unjust. (33) They answered, O Noah, thou hast already disputed with us, and hast multiplied disputes with us; now therefore do thou bring that punishment upon us wherewith thou hast threatened us, if thou speakest truth. (34) Noah said, Verily GOD alone shall bring it upon you, if he pleaseth; and ye shall not prevail against him, so as to escape the same. (35) Neither shall my counsel profit you, although I endeavour to counsel you aright, if GOD shall please to lead you into error. He is your LORD, and unto him shall ye return. (36) Will the Makkans say, Muhammad hath forged the Quran? Answer, If I have forged it, on me be my guilt; and let me be clear of that which ye are guilty of.

R 4/4.

(37) And it was revealed unto Noah, saying, Verily none of thy people shall believe, except he who hath

(31) See notes on chap. vi. 51.

(32) See notes on chap. vi. 49. A comparison of these two passages shows with what facility Muhammad placed the account of his own persecutions in the mouths of former prophets. Here Noah utters the very words Muhammad utters!

(35) If God shall please to lead you into error. See notes on chap. x. 99, 100.

(36) The italics of the text seem to me certainly to be misplaced. Rodwell and Palmer have fallen into the same error. The passage is identical in meaning with that of ver. 14 and x. 39. But here these words are put in the mouths of the chiefs of the people of Noah, and the reply protesting sincerity is that of Noah himself. Both the preceding and succeeding contexts require this interpretation.

Understood in this light, the passage is most damaging to the claims of Muhammad for sincerity.

(37) None . . . shall believe &c. If this statement reflects the feeling of Muhammad, as I believe it does, the chapter must be referred to that period of Muhammad's career at Makkah when he


already believed; be not therefore grieved for that which they are doing. (38) But make an ark in our presence, according to the form and dimensions which we have revealed unto thee; and speak not unto me in behalf of those who have acted unjustly, for they are doomed to be drowned. (39) And he built the ark; and so often as a company of his people passed by him they derided him; but he said, Though ye scoff at us now, we will scoff at you

despaired of his people believing on him, probably some time after the ban against the Hashimites.

(39) They derided him. "For building a vessel in an inland country, and so far from the sea; and for that he was turned carpenter, after he had set up for a prophet."- Sale, Baidhawi.

(40) Heaven poured forth. "Or, as the original literally signifies, boiled over; which is consonant to what the Rabbins say, that the waters of the deluge were boiling hot.

This oven was, as some say, at Kufa, in a spot whereon a mosque now stands; or, as others rather think, in a certain place in India, or else at Ain Warda, in Mesopotamia ; and its exudation was the sign by which Noah knew the flood was coming. Some pretend that it was the same oven which Eve made use of to bake her bread in, being of a form different from those we use, having the mouth in the upper part. and that it descended from patriarch to patriarch, till it came to Noah (vide D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient. art. Noah). It is remarkable that Muhammad, in all probability, borrowed this circumstance from the Persian Magi who also fancied that the first waters of the deluge gushed out of the oven of a certain old woman named Zala Kufa (vide Hyde, De Rel. Vet. Persar., and Lord's Account of the Relig. of the Persees, p.9).

"But the word tannur, which is here translated oven, also signify mg the superficies of the earth, or a place whence waters spring forth, or where they are collected, some suppose it means no more in this passage than the spot or fissure whence the first eruption of waters brake forth."- Sale, Baidhawi, Jalaluddin.

One pair. "Or, as the words may also be rendered, and some commentators think they ought, two pair, that is, two males and two females of each species ; wherin they partly agree with divers Jewish and Christian writers (Aben Ezra, Origen, &c.), who from the Hebrew expression, seven and seven, and two and two, the male and his female (Gen. vii. 2), suppose there went into the ark fourteen pair of every clean, and two pair of every unclean species. There is a tradition that God gathered together unto Noah all sorts of beasts, birds, and other animals (it being indeed difficult to conceive how he should come by them all without some supernatural assistance), and that, as he laid hold on them, his right hand constantly fell on the male and his left on the female."- Sale, Jalaluddin.

Except him, &c. "This was an unbelieving son of Noah, named Canaan or Yam; though others say he was not the son of Noah) but


hereafter as ye scoff at us; (40) and ye shall surely know on whom a punishment shall be inflicted, which shall cover him with shame, and on whom a lasting punishment shall fall. Thus were they employed until our sentence was put in execution and the oven poured forth water. And we said unto Noah, Carry into the ark of every species of animals one pair; and thy family (except him on whom a previous sentence of destruction. hath passed), and those who believe. But there believed not with him except a few. (41) And Noah said, Embark thereon, in the name of GOD while it moveth forward and while it standeth

his grandson by his son Ham, or his wife's son by another husband; some pretend he was related to him no farther than by having been educated and brought up in his house. The best commentators add that Noah's wife, name if Waila, who was an infidel, was also comprehended in this exception, and perished with her son."- Sale, Baidhawi, Jalalunddin, Zamakhshari.

Much of this is Muslim invention, a kind of improvement on the Jewish tradition alluded to in the text. The whole passage is a clear contradiction of the Bible, which the Quran professes to attest.

Those who believe. "Noah's family being mentioned before, it is supposed that by these words are intended the other believers, who were his proselytes, but not of his family; whence the common opinion among Muhammadans of a greater number than eight being saved in the ark seems to have taken its rise."- Sale, Baidhawi.

See also notes on chap. vii. 60.

Except a few, viz., "his other wife, who was a true believer, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and their wives, and seventy-two persons more."

See note on chap. vii. 65.

(41) While it standeth still. "That is, omit no opportunity of getting on board. According to a different reading, the latter words may be rendered, who shall cause it to move forward and to stop, as there shall be occasion. The commentators tell us that the ark moved forwards or stood still as Noah would have it, on his pronouncing only the words, In the name of God.

It is to be observed that the more judicious commentators make the dimensions of the ark to be the same with those assigned by Moses, notwithstanding others have enlarged them extravagantly, as some Christian writers (Origen, Cont. Cels. lib. 4) have also done. They likewise tell us that Noah was two years in building the ark, which was framed of Indian plane-trees ; that it was divided into three stories, of which the lower was designed for the beasts, the middle one for the men and women, and the upper for the birds; and that the men were separated from the women by the body of Adam, which Noah had taken into the Ark. This last is a tradition of the


still; for my LORD is gracious and merciful. (42) And the ark swam with them between waves like mountains; and Noah called unto his son, who was separated from him, saying, Embark with us, my son, and stay not with the unbelievers. (43) He answered, I will get on a mountain, which will secure me from the water. Noah replied, There is no security this day from the decree of GOD, except for him on whom he shall have mercy. And a wave passed between them, and he became one of those who were drowned. (44) And it was said, O earth, swallow up thy waters, and thou, O heaven, withhold thy rain. And immediately the water abated, and the decree was fulfilled, and the ark rested on the mountain Al Judi; and it was said, Away with the ungodly people!

Eastern Christians (Jacob. Edesseuus, apud Barcepham de Parad., part I. chap. 14. Vide etiam Eliezer, pirke chap. 23), some of whom pretended that the matrimonial duty was superseded and suspended during the time Noah and his family were in the ark (Ambros, De Noa et Arca, chap. 21), though Ham has been accused of not observing continency on that occasion, his wife, it seems, bringing forth Canaan in the very ark (vide Heidegger, Hist. Patriarchar., vol. i. p. 409)."- Sale Baidhawi, Yahya.

(42) Noah called unto his son. See note above on ver. 40.

(44) Al Judi. "This mountain is one of those which divide Armenia on the south from Mesopotamia and that part of Assyria which is inhabited by the Kurds, from whom the mountains took the name of Kardu, or Gardu, by the Greeks turned into Gordyaei, and other names (see Bochart, Phaleg., I. i. c. 3). Mount al Iudi (which name seems to be a corruption, though it be constantly so written by the Arabs, for Jordi or Giordi) is also called Thamanin, probably from a town at the foot of it (D'Herbelot, Bibl. Orient., pp. 404, ), so named from the number of persons saved in the ark, the word thamanin signifying eighty, and overlooks the country of Diyar Rabiah, near the cities of Mausal, Furda, and Jazirat Ibn Omar, which last place one affirms to be but four miles from the place of the ark, and says that a Muhammadan temple was built there with the remains of that vessel by the Khalifah Omar Ibn Abdulaziz, whom he by mistake calls Qmar Ibn al Khattab.

"The tradition which affirms the ark to have rested on these mountains must have been very ancient, since it is the tradition of the Chaldeans themselves (Berosus, apud Joseph. Antiq., l xiv. p. 135); the Chaldee paraphrasrs consent to their opinion (Onkelos et Jonathan in Gen. viii. 4), which obtained very much formerly, especially among the Eastern Christians. To confirm it, we are told that the remainders of the ark were to be seen on the Gordyaean moun-



(45) And Noah called upon his LORD, and said, O LORD, verily my son is of my family, and thy promise is true, for thou art the most just of those who exercise judgment. (46) God answered, O Noah, verily he is not of thy family; this intercession of thine for him is not a righteous work. Ask not of me therefore that wherein thou hast no knowledge; I admonish thee that thou become not one of the ignorant. (47) Noah said, O LORD, I have recourse unto thee for the assistance of thy grace, that I ask not of thee that wherein I have no knowledge; and unless thou for-

tains. Berosus and Abydenus both declare there was such a report in their time, the first observing that several of the inhabitants thereabouts scraped the pitch off the planks as a rarity, and carried it about them for an amulet; and the latter saying that they used the wood of the vessel against many diseases with wonderful success. The relics of the ark were also to be seen here in the time of Epiphanius, if we may believe him (Epiph., Hoeres. 18); and we are told the Emperor Heraclius went from the town of Thamanin up to the mountain al Judi, and saw the place of the ark (Elmacin, 1.i. c. 1). There was also formerly a famous monastery, called the Monastery of the Ark, upon some of these mountains, where the Nestorians used to celebrate a feast-day on the spot where they supposed the ark rested; but in the year of Christ 776 that monastery was destroyed by lightning, with the church and a numerous congregation in it. Since which time it seems the credit of this tradition hath declined, and given place to another, which obtains at present, and according to which the ark rested on Mount Masis in Armenia, called by the Turks Aghir-dagh, or the heavy or great mountain, and situate about twelve leagues south-east of Erivan.- Sale.

(45) Thy promise is true. "Noah here challenges God's promise that he would save his family."- Sale.

(46) He is not of thy family. "Being cut off on account of his infidelity."- Sale.

The Tafsir-i-Raufi expresses the opinion of some that Noah did not know his son was an infidel, and that had he known it, he would not have interceded for him.

This is quite in accordance with the intercession claimed for the prophets; they may intercede for their true followers only. Their intercession is of no avail to save the unbelieving, as illustrated by the case mentioned in the text.

This whole story is contrary to the teaching of the Bible.

A righteous work. "According to a different reading, this passage may be rendered, for he hath acted unrighteously."- Sale. The reading of the text is certainly correct, as is evident from the succeeding context.


give me and be merciful unto me, I shall be one of those who perish. (48) It was said unto him, O Noah, come down from the ark, with peace from us, and blessings upon thee, and upon a part of those who are with thee; but as for a part of them, we will suffer them to enjoy the provision of this world, and afterwards shall a grievous punishment from us be inflicted on them in the life to come. (49) This is a secret history which we reveal unto thee; thou didst not know it, neither did thy people before this. Wherefore persevere with patience, for the prosperous issue shall attend the pious.

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(50) And unto the tribe of Ad we sent their brother Hud. He said, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him; ye only imagine falsehood in setting up idols and intercessors of your own making. (51) O my people, I ask not of you for this my preaching any recompense; my recompense do I expect from him only who hath created me. Will ye not therefore understand? (52) O my people, ask pardon of your LORD, and be turned unto him;

(47) Unless thou forgive me. This is another passage proving that the prophets are not sinless, as is claimed by Muslims.

(48) Come down from the ark. "The Muhammadans say that Noah went into the ark on the tenth of Rajab, and came out of it the tenth of al Muharram, which therefore became a fast. So that the whole time of Noah's being in the ark according to them was six months."- Sale, Baidhawi.

A part . . . with thee, i.e., those who continued in the faith of Noah.

A part of them. "That is, such of his posterity as should depart from the true faith and fall into idolatry."- Sale. This is hardly satisfactory. Those with Noah are here divided into two parts - one of which is to receive a blessing, the other a curse. The allusion is no doubt to Canaan. See Gen. ix. 20-25.

(49) A secret history. Of this passage Arnold (Islam and Christianity, p. 331) says: "The Koran, in describing the Flood, professes to reveal an unheard-of secret." But the purport of the passage is that this secret has been revealed to Muhammad and his people, the Arabs. As yet Muhammad regards himself as the Apostle of God to the Arabs, as Moses had been to the Egyptians. The idea of a universal Islam had not yet been conceived.

(50) See notes on chap. vii. 66.


he will send the heaven to pour forth rain plentifully upon you, and he will increase your strength by giving unto you further strength; therefore turn not aside to commit evil. (53) They answered, O Hud, thou bast brought us no proof of what thou sayest; therefore we will not leave our gods for thy saying, neither do we believe thee. (54) We say no other than that some of our gods have afflicted thee with evil. He replied, Verily I call GOD to witness, and do ye also bear witness that I am clear of that which ye associate with God besides him. (55) Do ye all therefore join to devise a plot against me, and tarry not; (56) for I put my confidence in GOD, my LORD and your LORD. There is no beast but lie holdeth it by its forelock; verily my LORD proceedeth in the right way. (57) But if ye turn back, I have already declared unto you that with which I was sent unto you; and my LORD shall substitute another nation in your stead, and ye shall not hurt him at all, for my LORD is guardian over all things. (58) And when our sentence came to be put in execution, we delivered Hud and those who had believed with him through our mercy; and we delivered them from a grievous punishment. (59)

(52) He will send the heaven, &c. "For the Adites were grievously distressed by a drouth for three years."- Sale. See chap. vii. 71, and note there.

(53) The Adites present the same objections to their prophet that the Quraish offered to Muhammad, and the answers of Hud are verbatim the answers of Muhammad. This remark applies to the whole catalogue of prophets and peoples given in the Quran. It is hard to believe that Muhammad was unconscious of manipulation here.

(54) With evil. "Or madness having deprived thee of thy reason, for the indignities thou hast offered them." - Sale.

(55) Do ye . . . devise a plot. Taking this language with that in ver. 57, My Lord shall substitute another nation in your stead, as expressive of Muhammad's own saying to the Quraish (see note on ver. 53), it would be a fair inference to fix the date of this revelation at the period when Muhammad began to court the favonr of the inhabitants of Madina, i.e., about one year previous to the Hijra.

(56) By its forelock. "That is, he exerciseth an abtsolute power over it, a creature held in this manner being supposed to be reduced to the lowest subjection."- Sale.

(58) Those who believed. Baidhawi says, ' they were in number four thousand."- Sale.


And this tribe of Ad wittingly rejected the signs of their LORD, and were disobedient unto his messengers, and they followed the command of every rebellious perverse person. (60) Wherefore they were followed in this world by a curse, and they shall be followed by the same on the day of resurrection. Did not Ad disbelieve in their LORD? Was it not said, Away with Ad, the people of Hud?

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(61) And unto the tribe of Thamud we sent their brother Salih. He said unto them, O my people, worship GOD; ye have no GOD besides him. It is he who hath produced you out of the earth, and hath given you an habitation therein. Ask pardon of him, therefore, and be turned unto him; for my LORD is near and ready to answer. (62) They answered, O Salih, thou wast a person on whom we placed our hopes before this. Dost thou forbid us to worship that which our fathers worshipped? But we are certainly in doubt concerning the religion to which thou dost invite us, as justly to be suspected. (63) Salih said, O my people, tell me; if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me mercy from himself; who will protect me from the vengeance of GOD if I be disobedient unto him? For ye shall not add unto me other than loss. (64) And he said, O my people, this she-camel of GOD is a sigh unto you; therefore dismiss her freely, that she may feed in GOD'S earth, and do her no harm, lest a swift punishment seize you. (65) Yet they killed her; and Salih said, Enjoy yourselves in your dwellings for three days, after which ye shall be destroyed. This is an infallible prediction. (66) And when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Salih and those who believed with him, through our

(61) Thamud. See note on chap. vii. 14.

(62) On whom we placed our hopes. "Designing to have made thee our prince, because of the singular prudence and other good qualities which we observed in thee; but thy dissenting from us in point of religious worship has frustrated those hopes."- Sale, Baidhawi.

(65) Three days, viz., " Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday."- Sale, see also note on chap. vii. 79.


mercy, from the disgrace of that day; for thy LORD is the strong, the mighty God. (67) But a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses lying dead and prostrate, (68) as though they had never dwelt therein. Did not Thamud disbelieve in their LORD? Was not Thamud cast far away?

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(69) Our messengers also came formerly unto Abraham with good tidings: they said, Peace be upon thee. And he answered, And on you be peace! And he tarried not, but brought a roasted calf. (70) And when he saw that their hands did not touch the meat, he misliked them, and entertained a fear of them. But they said, Fear not; for we are sent unto the people of Lot. (71) And his wife Sarah was standing by, and she laughed; and we promised her Isaac, and after Isaac, Jacob. (72) She said, Alas!

(69) Our messengers. "These were the angels who were sent to acquaint Abraham with the promise of Isaac, and to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah. Some of the commentators pretend they were twelve, or nine, or ten in number; but others, agreeable to Scripture, say they were but three, viz., Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil."- Sale, Jalaluddin. See Gen. xviii.

(70) When he saw that their hands, &c. Their refusal to eat was regarded by Abraham as a declaration of want of friendship, custom requiring guests to eat in token of friendship.- Tafsir-i-Raufi.

Entertained a fear, &c. "Apprehending that they had some ill design against him because they would not eat with him."- Sale.

Fear not. "Being angels, whose nature needs not the support of food." This passage is a direct contradiction of Gen. xviii. 8. The Rabbins say the angels pretended to eat. See Rodwell in loco.

(71) And she laughed. "The commentators are so little acquainted with Scripture, that, not knowing the true occasion of Sarah's laughter, they strain their inventions to give some reason for it. One says that she laughed at the angels discovering themselves, and ridding Abraham and herself of their apprehensions; and another, that it was at the approaching destruction of the Sodomites (a very probable motive in one of her sex). Some, however, interpret the original word differently, and will have it that she did not laugh, but that her courses, which had stopped for several years, came upon her at this time, as a previous sign of her future conception." - Sale, Baidhawi, Jalauddin, &c.

Isaac and Jacob. The references to this promised child are frequently connected with Jacob in such a way as to leave the impression that in Muhammad's mind Isaac an a Jacob were brother;


shall I bear a son, who am old; this my husband also being advanced in years? Verily this would be a wonderful thing. (73) The angels answered, Dost thou wonder at the effect of the command of GOD? The mercy of God and his blessings be upon you, the family of the house: for he is praiseworthy, and to be glorified. (74) And when his apprehension had departed from Abraham, and the good tidings of Isaac's birth had come unto him, he disputed with us concerning the people of Lot; for Abraham was a pitiful, compassionate, and devout person. (75) The angels said unto him, O Abraham, abstain from this; for now is the command of thy LORD come to put their sentence in execution, and an inevitable punishment is ready to fall upon them. (76) And when our messengers came unto Lot, he was troubled for them, and his arm was straightened concerning them; and he said, This is a grievous day. (77) And his people came unto him, rush-

born of Sarah. See chaps. xix. 50 and xxi 72. Ishmael is nowhere mentioned as the child of promise. Every reference to him in the Quran speaks of him as simply a prophet. The explanation doubtless is that these references, occuring in Makkan or very early Madina Suras, the spirit of inspiration derived us knowledge mostly from Jewish tradition. The Jews had not yet been rejected. The Arabs were not yet regarded as the chosen people of God.

(72) Advanced in years. "Al Baidhawi writes that Sarah was ninety or ninety-nine years old, and Abraham a hundred and twenty."- Sale.

(73) The house. "Or the stock whence all the prophets were to proceed for the future. Or the expression may perhaps refer to Abraham and Ishmael's building the Kaabah, which is often called by way of excellence the house."- Sale.

(74) He disputed with us. "That is, he interceded with us for them. Jalaluddin instead of the numbers mentioned by Moses, says that Abraham first asked whether God would destroy those cities if three hundred righteous persons were found therein, and so fell successively to two hundred, forty, fourteen, and at last came to one; but there was not one righteous person to be found among them, except only Lot and his family."- Sale.

Cf. Gen. xviii. 23-33.

(76) He was troubled for them. "Because they appeared in the shape of beautiful young men, which must needs tempt those of Sodom to abuse them. He knew himself unable to protect them against the insults of his townsmen."- Sale, Jalaluddin, Baidhawi.


ing upon him, and they had formerly been guilty of wickedness. Lot said unto them, O my people, these my daughters are more lawful for you: therefore fear GOD, and put me not to shame by wronging my guests. Is there not a man of prudence among you? (78) They answered, Thou knowest that we have no need of thy daughters; and thou well knowest what we would have. (79) He said, If I had strength sufficient to oppose you, or I could have recourse unto a powerful support, I would certainly do it. (80) The angels said, O Lot, verily we are the messengers of thy LORD; they shall by no means come in unto thee. Go forth, therefore, with thy family, in some part of the night, and let not any of you turn back; but as for thy wife, that shall happen unto her which shall happen unto them. Verily the prediction of their punishment shall be fulfilled in the morning: is not the morning near? (81) And when our command came, we turned those cities upside down, and we rained upon them

(80) They shall by no means come in unto thee. "Al Baidhawi says that Lot shut his door, and argued the matter with the riotous assembly from behind it; but at length they endeavoured to get over the wall ; whereupon Gabriel, seeing his distress, struck them on the face with one of his wings and blinded them, so that they moved oil crying out for help, and saying that Lot had magicians in his house."- Sale.

As for thy wife. "This seems to be the true sense of the passage; but according to a different reading of the vowel, some interpret it, Except thy wife; the meaning being that Lot is here commanded to take his family with him except his wife. Wherefore the commentators cannot agree whether Lot's wife went forth with him or not; some denying it, and pretending that she was left behind and perished in the common destruction ; and others affirming it, and saying that when she heard the noise of the storm and overthrow of the cities, she turned back lamenting their fate, and was immediately struck down and killed by one of the stones mentioned a little lower. A punishment she justly merited for her infidelity and disobedience to her husband."- Sale.

For the name of Lot's wife, see note on lxvi. 10. See also note on chap. vii. 84.

(81) We turned those cities upside down. "For they tell us that Gabriel thrust his wing under them, and lifted them up so high, that the inhabitants of the lower heaven heard the barking of the dogs and the crowing of the cocks ; and then, inverting them, threw them down to the earth."- Sale, Jalaluddin, Baidhawi.


stones of baked clay, one following another, (82) and being marked from thy LORD; and they are not far distant from those who act unjustly.


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(83) And unto Madian we sent their brother Shuaib: he said, O my people, worship GOD: ye have no GOD but him: and diminish not measure and weight. Verily I see you to be in a happy condition; but I fear for you the punishment of the day which will encompass the ungodly. (84) O my people, give full measure and just weight; and diminish not unto men aught of their matters; neither commit injustice in the earth, acting corruptly. (85) The residue which shall remain unto yon as the gift of GOD, after ye shall have done justice to others, will be better for you than wealth gotten by fraud, if ye be true believers. (86) I am no guardian over you. (87) They answered, O Shuaib, do thy prayers enjoin thee that we should leave the gods which our fathers worshipped, or that we should not do what we please with our substance? Thou only, it

Stones of baked clay. Some commentators say these bricks were burned in hell.- Sale.

(82) Being marked. "That is, as some suppose, streaked with white and red, or having some other peculiar mark to distinguish them from ordinary stones. But the common opinion is that each stone had the name of the person who was to be killed by it written thereon. The army of Abraha al Ashram was also destroyed by the same kind of stones."- Sale, Jalaluddin, Baidhawi.

Who act unjustly. "This is a kind of threat to other wicked persons, and particularly to the infidels of Makkah, who deserved and might justly apprehend the same punishment."- Sale.

The story of the destruction of Sodom as here given is another instance in which the Quran contradicts the Bible while professing to attest its truth.

(83) Madian. See note on chap. vii. 86.

A happy condition. "That is, enjoying plenty of all things and therefore having the less occasion to defraud one another, and being the more strongly bound to be thankful and obedient unto God."- Sale.

(86) These are the very words used by Muhammad to the Quraish. See chap. x. 108.

(87) That we should not do what we please, &c. "For this liberty,. they imagined, was taken from them by his prohibition of false weights and measures, or to diminish or adulterate there coin."- Baidhawi.


seems, art the wise person, and fit to direct. (88) He said, O my people, tell me: if I have received an evident declaration from my LORD, and he hath bestowed on me an excellent provision, and I will not consent unto you in that which I forbid you; do I seek any other than your reformation, to the utmost of my power? My support is from GOD alone: on him do I trust, and unto him do I turn me. (89) O my people, let not your opposing of me draw on you a vengeance like unto that which fell on the people of Noah, or the people of Hud, or the people of Salih: neither was the people of Lot far distant from you. (90) Ask pardon, therefore, of your LORD; and be turned unto him: for my LORD is merciful and loving. (91) They answered, O Shuaib, we understand not much of what thou sayest, and we see thee to be a man of no power among us: if it had not been for the sake of thy family, we had surely stoned thee, neither couldst thou have prevailed against us. (92) Shuaib said, O my people, is my family more worthy in your opinion than GOD? and do ye cast him behind you with neglect? Verily my LORD comprehendeth that which ye do. (93) O my people, do ye work according to your condition; I will

(89) Far distant from you. "For Sodom and Gomorrah were situate not a great way from you, and their destruction happened not many ages ago; neither did they deserve it on account of their obstinacy and wickedness much more than yourselves."- Sale.

(91) A man of no power. "The Arabic word dhaif, weak, signifying also, in the Himyaritic dialect, blind, some suppose that Shuaib was so, and that the Midianites objected that to him, as a defect which disqualified him for the prophetic office."- Sale.

Thy family, i.e. "For the respect we bear to thy family and relations, whom we honour as being of our religion, and not for any apprehension we have of their power to assist you against us. The original word, here translated family, signifies any number from three to seven or ten, but not more."- Sale, Baidhawi, Jalaluddin.

Muhammad here again puts the words of the Quraish into the mouths of the Midianites. He was under the protection of the Hashimites, or of the household of Abu Talib. The revelation must have been announced before the ban against the Hashimites.

(93) Compare with chap. vi. 135, to see how Muhammad's replies to the Quraish are put into the mouths of other prophets See note on ver. 53 above.


surely work according to my duty. And ye shall certainly know on whom will be inflicted a punishment which shall cover him with shame, and who is a liar. (94) Wait, therefore, the event; for I also will wait it with you. (95) Wherefore, when our decree came to be executed, we delivered Shuaib and those who believed with him, through our mercy; and a terrible noise from heaven assailed those who had acted unjustly; and in the morning they were found in their houses lying dead and prostrate, (96) as though they had never dwelt therein. Was not Madian removed from off the earth, as Thamud had been removed?

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(97) And we formerly sent Moses with our signs and manifest power unto Pharaoh and his princes; (98) but they followed the command of Pharaoh, although the command of Pharaoh did not direct them aright. (99) Pharaoh shall precede his on the day of resurrection, and he shall lead them into hell-fire; an unhappy way shall it be which they shall be led. (100) They were followed in this life by a curse, and on the day of resurrection miserable shall be the gift which shall be given them. (101) This is a part of the histories of the cities, which we rehearse unto thee. Of them there are some standing, and others which are utterly demolished. (102) And we treated them not unjustly, but they dealt unjustly with their own souls; and their gods which they invoked, besides GOD, were of no advantage unto them at all when the decree of thy LORD came to be executed on them, neither were they any other than a detriment unto them. (103) And thus was the punishment of my LORD inflicted, when he punished the cities which were unjust; for his punishment is grievous and severe. (101) Verily herein is a sign unto him who feareth the punishment of the last

(97) Pharaoh and his princes. See notes on chap. vii. 104-136.

(99) Compare with chap. x. 90.

(101) Utterly demolished. "Literally, mown down; the sentence presenting the different images of corn standing and cut down, which is also often used by the sacred writers."- Sale.


day: that shall be a day, whereon all men shall be assembled, and that shall be a day whereon witness shall be borne; (105) we defer it not, but to a determined time. (106) When that day shall come, no soul shall speak to excuse itself or to intercede for another but by the permission of God. Of them, one shall be miserable and another shall be happy. (107) And they who shall be miserable shall be thrown into hell-fire; (108) there shall they wail and bemoan themselves: they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth shall endure, except what thy LORD shall please to remit of their sentence; for thy LORD effecteth that which he pleaseth. (109) But they who shall be happy shall be admitted into Paradise; they shall remain therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure besides what thy LORD shall please to add unto their bliss; a bounty which shall not be interrupted. (110) Be not therefore in doubt concerning that which these men worship: they worship no other than what their fathers worshipped before them; and we will surely give them their full portion, not in the least diminished.

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(111) We formerly gave unto Moses the book of the law, and disputes arose among his people concerning it and unless a previous decree had proceeded from thy

(108) Wail and bemoan. "The two words in the original signify, properly, the vehement drawing in and expiration of one's breath which is usual to persons in great pain and anguish; and particularly; the reciprocation of the voice of an ass when he brays." - Sale.

So long as the heavens and the earth shall endure. "This is not to be strictly understood, as if either the punishment of the damned should have an end or the heavens and the earth should endure forever, the expression being only used by way of image or comparison, which needs not agree in every point with the thing signified. Some, however, think the future heavens and earth, into which the present shall be changed, are here meant." - Sale, Baidhawi.

Except what thy Lord shall please to remit. See Prelim. Disc., pp 149, 150.

(110) We will surely give them their full portion. The logical inference from all that is taught in this chapter, and especially in the examples given, is that the Quraish would reject Muhammad, and be ignominiously destroyed. This verse sets the seal to this threat Muslims are, however, obliged to admit that, with a few exceptions, the "people of Muhammad" are reckoned true believers.


LORD to bear with them during this life, the matter had been surely decided between them. And thy people are also jealous and in doubt concerning the Quran. (112) But unto every one of them will thy LORD render the reward of their works; for he well knoweth that which they do. (113) Be thou steadfast, therefore, as thou hast been commanded; and let him also be steadfast who shall be converted with thee; and transgress not, for he seeth that which ye do. (114) And incline not unto those who act unjustly, lest the fire of hell touch you: for ye have no protectors except GOD; neither shall ye be assisted against him. (115) Pray regularly morning and evening; and in the former part of the night, for good works drive away evil. This is an admonition unto those who consider: (116) wherefore persevere with patience; for GOD suffereth not the reward of the righteous to perish. (117) Were such of the generations before you endued with understanding and virtue who forbade the acting corruptly in the earth, any more than a few only of those whom we delivered; but they who were unjust followed the delights which they enjoyed in this world, and were

(111) Thy people are . . . in doubt, &c. This verse "disproves the miracle of the Quran. A miracle requires to be so convincing that none who see it can doubt that it is a miracle. Christ did miracles; the fact of them was not doubted by those who saw them done, though the unbelievers and jealous said Satan was the doer of them. If the doubts here referred to are regarding the meaning of the Koran, then it is not an easy, light-giving book, as it is said to be." - Brinckman's "Notes on Islam."

(115) Morning and evening. "Literally in the extremities of the day."- Sale.

The former part of the night. "That is, after sunset and before supper, when the Muhammadans say their fourth prayer, called by them Salat al Maghrab, or the evening prayer."- Sale, Baidhawi.

(117) Which they enjoyed. "Making it their sole business to please their luxurious desires and appetites, and placing their whole felicity therein." - Sale.

Were wicked doers. "Al Baidhawi says that this passage gives the reason why the nations were destroyed of old, viz, or their violence and injustice, their following their own lusts, and for their idolatry and unbelief."- Sale.


wicked doers: (118) and thy LORD was not of such a disposition as to destroy the cities unjustly, while their inhabitants behaved themselves uprightly. (119) And if thy LORD pleased, he would have made all men of one religion; but they shall not cease to differ among themselves, unless those on whom thy LORD shall have mercy: and unto this hath he created them; for the word of thy LORD shall be fulfilled when he said, Verily I will fill hell altogether with genii and men. (120) The whole which we have related of the histories of our apostles do we relate unto thee, that we may confirm thy heart thereby; and herein is the truth come unto thee, and an admonition and a warning unto the true believers. (121) Say unto those who believe not, Act ye according to your condition; we surely will act according to our duty: (122) and wait the issue; for we certainly wait it also. (123) Unto GOD is known that which is secret in heaven and earth; and unto him shall the whole matter be referred. Therefore worship him and put thy trust in him; for thy LORD is not regardless of that which ye do.

(118) Unjustly. "Or, as Baidhawi explains it, for their idolatry only, when they observed justice in other respects."- Sale. The meaning, however, is that God never destroys a people without a good reason - and such a good reason is idolatry, as is evident from all the examples given in this chapter.

(119) I will fit hell, &c. See notes on chap. vii. 179-183.

(121) See above on ver. 93.

(123) Thy Lord is not regardless of that which ye do. Muhammad attributed his grey hairs to this chapter and its sisters. See Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. iv. p.255.

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