Revealed at Makkah.


THIS chapter, which is evidently merely a fragment of a longer Sura, deals with those who fail to make their religious practice conform to their profession. The title is taken from the seventh verse. It is also sometimes entitled DIN (Religion), which name is found in the first verse.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

The first part of this chapter is probably Makkan, though Zamakhshari, Baidhawi, &c. (Itqn 30) classify the whole chapter as Madinic. Noldeke places it very early in the first period. Muir fixes it, with more probability, at about the fifth year of Muhammad's public ministry. Verses 47 may also be Makkan, but there is much in favour of their being regarded as Madinic.

Principal Subjects.

Denunciation of the infidels, who deny the Quran and oppress the orphan . . .1, 2
Hypocrites rebuked for neglect of prayer and charity ... 37


R 1/33.

(1) What thinkest thou of him who denieth the future judgment as a falsehood? (2) It is he who pusheth away

(1) Judgment as a falsehood. Rodwell translates, "who treateth our religion as a lie."

(2) He who pusheth away the orphan. "The person here intended,


the orphan; (3) and stirreth not up others to feed the poor. (4) Woe be unto those who pray, (5) and who are negligent at their prayer: (6) who play the hypocrites, (7) and deny necessaries to the needy.

according to some, was Abu Jahl, who turned away an orphan, to whom he was guardian, and who came to him naked, and asked for some relief out of his own money. Some say it was Abu Sufian, who, having killed a camel, when an orphan begged a piece of the flesh, beat him away with his staff; and others think it was al Walid Ibn al Mughaira, &c." Sale.

See notes on chap. xciii.

(7) Necessaries. "The original word, al mn, properly signifies utensils, or whatever is of necessary use, as a hatchet, a pot, a dish, and a needle, to which some add. a bucket and a hand-mill; or, according to a tradition of Ayesha, fire, water, and salt; and this signification it bore in the time of ignorance; but since the establishment of the Muhammadan religion, the word has been used to denote alms, either legal or voluntary; which seems to be the true meaning in this place." Sale.

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