Aaron. See Moses.
Abbas, one of Muhammad's uncles, taken at Badr and obliged to ransom himself, viii. 69 n. ; professes Islam, viii. 71 n. remarkable for his loud voice, ix. 25 n.
Abdullah, the father of Muhammad, P.D. 68.
Abdullah Ibn Ubbai Solul, the hypocrite, admired for his person and eloquence, lxiii. 14 n. ; raises a scandalous story of Ayesha, xxiv. II n.; is present at an interview between Muhammad and his adversaries, xxxiii. i n.; occasions a quarrel, xlix. 9 n.; promises to assist the Bani Nadhir, but fails to do so, lix. 12 fl. endeavours to debauch Muhammad's men at Ohod, iii. 122 n. ; excused from going on the expedition to Tabuk, ix. 43. desires Muhammad's prayers in his last sickness, and to be buried in the Prophet's shirt, ix. 81—85n.
Abdullah Ibn Omm Maktum, a blind man, occasions a passage of the Qurán, lxxx. introd.
Abdullah Ibn Saad, one of Muhammad's amanuenses, imagines himself inspired and corrupts the Qurán, vi. 94 n.
Abdullah Ibn Sa1ám, a Jew, intimate with Muhammad: his honesty, iii. 74 ii.; supposed to have assisted in composing the Qurán, xvi. 105 n.
A'bdast. See Purifications.
Abd al Mutallib, the grandfather of Muhammad, P.D. 68.
Abd Manaf, a dispute between his descendants and the Sahmites, cii.I n.
Abd-ul-Rahmán Ibn Auf, one of Muhammad's first converts, P.D. 75; an instance of his charity, ix. 80 n.


Abel, the story of Cain and Abel, v. 30—34; his ram sacrificed by Abraham, xxxviii. 107 n. Abraha, his army destroyed near Makkah, cv. I n.
Abraham, the patriarch, an idolater in his youth, vi. 77—84; rejects the idols of his fathers, vi. 76—84 n., xliii. 25—27; demolishes the Chaldean idols, xxi. 59; disputes with Nimrod, ii. 258 n.; escapes the fire into which he was thrown by order of Nimrod, xxi. 69 n.; prays for his father, viii. ii 5; entertains angels, xi. 69, ii. 24—30; called the friend of God, iv. 124 n. ; his sacrifice of his son, xxxvii. 101 n.; his religion was that of Islam, ii. 130—132 n.; builder of the Kaabah, ii. 125; his scriptures attest the Quran, lxxxvii. 18, 19; legend concerning "the place of Abraham," ii. 125 n.; is compared with Muhammad, xxi. introd., xxix. 17—23 n.
Abraham's place, the stone in it, P.D. 185. See also Kaabah.
Abrogation, stated and defined, v. 47—50 notes, xvii. 35 n., xxiv. 2 n., xiii. 39, lxxxvii. introd. and notes, P.D. 110, 111; the number of abrogated verses, ii. 105 IL, xvl. 69 n., and 103.
Abu Baqr, is converted to Islam, P.D. 75.
Abu Lahab, Muhammad's uncle and bitter enemy, P.D. 76; his and his wife's punishment, cxi. i, &c.
Abu Tálib, protects Muhammad against his enemies, P.D. 77; his death, P.D. 79; Muhammad refuses to pray for him on his deathbed, ix. i 14 n.
Abul Qasim. See Mahdi.
Adam, traditions concerning his creation, ii. 30 n., and xvii. 12; his likeness the likeness of Jesus, iii. 58 n.; worshipped by angels, ii. 34. n., vii. II ; his fall, ii. 35 n., vii. 11—26; meets Eve at Mount Arafat, and retires with her to Ceylon, ii. 35 n.; his posterity extracted from his loins by God to acknowledge him for their Lord, VII. 173; names his eldest son as directed by the devil, vii. 190 n.
Adites, their progenitors, P.D. 20; their prodigious stature, P.D. 22, vii. 70; destroyed on account of their idolatry, P.D. 21, 22, xlvi. 20—27, vii. 73—86 notes. See also Hud.
Adoption, creates no matrimonial impediment, xxkiii. 4 n.
Adulterers, Muhammad's sentence against them, iii. 23 n.
Adultery, laws concerning, P.D. 209, iii 23 n., and xxiv. 2—13 notes; its punishment, iv. 4, 15, 24, and xxiv. 2 and 3.
Affliction, meritorious, ii. 157 n.
Ahl-i-Kitab, who are so called in the Qurán, ii. 61 n.
Ahmad. See Muhammad.
Ahqáf, its people destroyed, xlvi. 20—27.
Al Aika. See Midianites.


Aila or Elath, the Sabbath-breakers there changed into apes, ii. 64, 65 notes.
Al Aswad, the record of the two liars, P.D. 27 T, 272, V. 59 n.
Alexander the Great, a prophet of Islam, xviii. 82 n.
Ali, is adopted by Muhammad and becomes his disciple, P.D. 75; veneration of the Shiahs for him, p.n. 226; sent to Makkah to publish part of the Quran, ix. 63 1L the charity and abstinence of him and his family, lxxvi. 10 n.
Almsgiving (Ziqát), regulation concerning, P.D. 172, 173 ii. 109 n.; a condition of salvation, lxiii. 10, and iii. 92; comparison between Muslim and Jewish almsgiving, P.D. 174, 175; charity begins at home, ii. 214 n.; motives to give liberally, iv. 37 n., and ix. 104 n.; what should be given, ii. 219, 220 liberal givers rewarded, ii. 261—280.
Amalakites, the tribe, its descent, conquests, and destruction, P.D. 24.
Amar and Arbad, attempt to kill Muhammad, and their punishment, xiii. 14 n.
Amar (Abu), a Christian monk and violent enemy to Muhammad, ix. 108 n.
Amar (Banu), their abstinence on the pilgrimage, vii. 32 n.
Amina, Muhammad's mother, he is not permitted to pray for her, ix. 114 n.
Ainmar Ibn Yásar, tortured by the Quraish because of his faith, xvi. 108 n.
Ainrán. See Imran.
Amru Banu, build a mosque at Quba, ix.- 108 n.
Amru Ibn Luhai, the great introducer of idolatry among the Arabs, vi. 143 and 144 n.
Anachronisms, in the Qurán, II. 48, 49, V. - 23 n. and 47—50 notes, vii. 64, 128 and 131 notes, xiii. 39, xvii. 35 n., xxiv. 2 n., and lxx. 23.
Anam, the name of Luqman's son, xxxi. 12 n.
Angel, of death. See Azrail.
Angels, their original, vii. i 2 n.; impeccable, xviii. 48; of different forms and orders, xxxv. I n.; believed by the Arabs to be daughters of God, xvi. 59 n.; they worship Adam, ii. 34; assist the Muslims, iii. 13 n. and 125 n., viii. 9 n., ix. 26 and 40 n.; appear to Abraham and Lot, iv. 116 n.; intercede for sinners, xlii. 3; brought down the Qurán from heaven, xvi. 104; record the deeds] of men, x. 22 n., 1. 16, 17, lxxxii. 10—12; guard the precincts of hell, lxxiv. 31 n.; Munkir and Nákir, iv. 96 n.; belief in angels necessary, P.D. 118; principal angels, P.D. 119; Muslim. doctrine of angels borrowed from the Jews, P.D. 120.


Animals, irrational, will be raised at the resurrection and judged, vi. 37 n.
Ansárs, term defined, viii. 73 n.; are honoured of God, ix. 20; three excommunicated, ix. 119 n.
Ants, their queen's speech to them on the approach of Solomon's army, xxvii. 18.
Anushirwan, destroys Mazdak and the Manicheans, P.D. 66.
Apostles, were not believed who wrought miracles, iii. 184 n.; were, like Muhammad, called impostors, iii. 185 n., and vi. 33.
Apostles of Jesus, described, v. 111 n. ; an example to Musurns, lxi. 14 their faithfulness to Jesus, iii. 51, 52 n.; did not forge their scriptures, xxxvi. 16 n.; ask a table to be sent down from heaven, v. 112 n.; two of them sent to Antioch, xxxvi. 12 n.
Apparel, what kind ought to be worn by those who approach the divine presence, vii. 28—34 notes.
Aqabah, first pledge of, P.D. 81; second pledge of, P.D. 82.
Arabia, its name, P.D. 13; boundaries, P.D. 14; its fabled riches not its own, P.D. 15; productions, P.D. 16; government in pre-Islamic times, P.D. 14—30; how governed after Muhammad's time, P.D. 30—33; never conquered, P.D. 35; accepts Islam, P.D. 94, 95; its political power consolidated by Muhammad, P.D. 67, 68; a refuge for heretics, P.D. 64. Arabians, ancient tribes, P.D. 20; no reliable history of ancient inhabitants, P.D. 25 n.; modern Arabs descended from Qabtan and Adnán, P.D. 28; the al A'riba and al Mustariba, P.D. 24, 25; the Cushite Arabs, P.D. 26; their love of liberty, P.D. 33 ; their religion in pre-Islámic times, P.D. 34—48; two classes of Arabs, P.D. 49; their language, P.D. 49, 50; their learning and accomplishments, P.D. 50—60; their hospitality, P.D. 54—56; national defects, P.D. 56—58; become the chosen people of God, ii. 1 52 n. ; their customs in relation to divorce and adoption, xxxiii. 4 n.; custom of burying daughters alive, vi. 137 n; their superstitions in respect to eating, vi. 109 n., xxiv. 60; in respect to cattle, iv. 118; used to worship naked, and why, vii. 2 8—34 n.; their injustice to orphans and women, iv. 18—20 notes.
Arabs of the desert, more obstinate, ix. 91 n.
Aráf, the wall of, p.n. 152, vii. 47—50 notes.
Arafat, the mount, P.D. 186; why so called, ii. 35 and 198 notes.
Aram, the inundation of, P.D. 26, 27, xxxiv. 15 n.
Ark, Noah's ark, traditions of, liv. 15 n., xi. 41 n.; the ark of Israel taken by the Amalekites, ii. 248 n.


Arrows, for divination forbidden, v. 4 n.
Al Aás Ibn Wail, an enemy of Muhammad's, xv. 95 and xix. 80 notes.
Asaf, Solomon's prime minister, xxvii. 40 n.
Asáf and Naila, desecrate the Kaabah, ii 159n.
Ashadd (Abu'l), his extraordinary strength, xc. 5 n.
Ashama, king of Ethiopia, embraces Islam, v. 86 n.; prayed for after his death by Muhammad, iii. 199 n.
Asharians, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 251—257.
Ashura. See Muharram.
Asia, the wife of Pharaoh, martyred by her husband for believing in Moses, lxvi. 11 n.
Asim, his charity, ix. 80 n.
Aslam, xlviii. 11 n.
Astrology, hinted at, iii. 184 n.
Al Aswad Ibn Abd Yaghuth, Al Aswad Ibn al Mutallib, two of Muhammad's enemies, xv. 95 n.
Atonement, salvation by atonement denied, iii. 90 n. and 194 n., v. 49 n., xxii. 36 n. and 39 n.; use of the word. expiate iii. 194 n., v. 13 n., 70 n. and 96 n., xxxvii. 107 n.
Aus and Khazraj, their enmity, iii. 100—109 notes.
A'yat ul Kursi, ii. 255 n.
Ayesha, calumnious report of, xxiv. introd. and 11 n.
Azrail, the angel of death, why appointed to that office, ii. 30 n.; a story of him and Solomon, xxxi. 34 n.
Azar, the name given to Terah, Abraham's father, vi. 75 n.

Baal, the chief idol of the Chaldeans, xxi. 59 n.
Bába, his sect and their doctrine, P.D. 280, 281.
Babel, the tower of, destroyed, xvi. 28 n.
Babik, his sect and their history, F.D. 275—277.
Backbiting. See Slander.
Badr, Muhammad's victory there, iii. 13 and 121 n.; the angels assisted the Muslims there, iii. 124 n.
Bahaira, described, v. 102 n.
Bairam. See Feasts.
Bakhtanasr. See Nebuchadnezzar.
Balaam, his punishment for cursing the Israelites, vii. 176 n.
Balam, the ox to be slain for the feast of God, P.D. 156.
Balance, the great, of judgment, P.D. 144, Vii. 8 n.
Balqis, the Queen of Sheba, xxvii. 42—45 notes.
Baptism, the baptism of God, ii. 138 n.; of the Sabian religion, P.D. 35.
Baqr (Abu), attends Muhammad in his flight from Makkah, ix. 40 n.; bears testimony to the truth by Muhammad's journey


to heaven, xvii. 62 n.; his wager with Ubba Ibn Khalf, xxx. 1 n.; strikes a Jew on the face for speaking irreverently of God, iii 182 n.; gives all he has towards the expedition of Tabák, ix. 80 n.; purchases Bilál, xc. 18 n.; compared to Abraham, viii. 69 n.
Baqr I'd, described, P.D. 232 n.
Barnabas, the Gospel of, iii. 53 n., and P.D. 123 and 124.
Barzakh (Al), opinions of Muslims regarding it, P.D. 128, 129.
Basharians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 247, 248.
Bátinites. See Isma'zlians.
Be, the command, Kun fayakuna, xxvi. 82 n.
Bedouin Arabs, punished for their treachery, xlviii. 15, 16; their hypocrisy rebuked, xlix. 14—18, xcviii. 100 n.
Bees, made use of as a similitude, xvi. 71 n.
Believers, the sincere ones described, viii. 2—5, xxiii. I—10, their works, ix. 72, xxi. 20; heaven their reward, ix. 73, xiii. 28, and xxiii. ii. See Paradise.
Benjamin, son of Jacob, xii. 69 ii.
Birds, omens taken from them, xvii. 14 n.
Bismillah, what it signifies, P.D. 100; of Jewish origin, i. introd. v. 5 n., vi. 118—121 n., xxiii. 101 n.
Blessed, their future happiness described, xxxvi. 55—58, xliv. 51—59. See Paradise.
Blood, forbidden, ii. 174 n.; price of blood, iv. 91 n.; blood-feuds abolished, iv. 92.
Books, account-books given into the hands of men on the judgment-day, P.D. 144, 145, and lxxxiv. 6—15.
Bridge, over hell, P.D. 147; this doctrine borrowed from the Magians, P.D. 147.
Brotherhood, of Muslims, iv. 32 n.
Brutes, in the judgment, P.D. 145, 146.
Buáth, the battle of, iii. 100—109.
Budhail, a dispute concerning his effects occasions a passage of the. Quran, v. 105 n.
Buhaira, the monk, xvi. 105 n.
Burden, every soul to bear its own, xxxv. 20, 21.
Burkai (Al). See Hakim.

Cain. See Abel.
Caleb. See Joshua.
Calf, the golden, worshipped by the Israelites, ii. 50 n.
Calumny, forbidden, iv. 156.
Camels, an instance of God's wisdom, lxxxviii. 17; appointed for sacrifice, xxii. 34; Jacob abstains from their flesh an milk, iii. 93 n.


Canaan, an unbelieving son of Noah, xi. 40 ii.
Caravans, of purveyors sent out by the Quarish, cvi. 1 &c., n.
Carrion, forbidden to be eaten, ii. 174 ii.
Cattle, their use, vi. 138, and xl. 79; superstitions of old Arabians concerning them, v. 102.
Ceylon, the isle of. See Sarandib.
Charity, commended, iv. 3 5—38 notes.
Chastity, commended, v. 6 n.
Chess. See Games.
Children, to inherit their parents' substance, ii. 220 n., and iv. 32 n.
Christ, his gospel attested, lvii. 27; his sonship not understood by Muhammad, ii. 116 n., xxi. 17 n., iii. 5n., v. 21 n.; his divinity rejected by Muhammad, iii. 2 n., v. 19 n., and 110—117 notes, xix. 91—95 notes, xliii. introd. See also Jesus.
Christians, persecuted by Dhu Nawás, P.D. 45, 46, lxxxix. 1—9; dispute among themselves about the Qurán, xcviii. 3, 4; said to worship their priests, ix. 31 n.; called infidels and idolaters, ii 135, and v. 19 n.; exhorted to become Muslims, lvii. p28, 29; Muhammad helped by them, xvi. 105 n., and xviii. 12 n.
Christianity, progress of, in Arabia, P.D. 45—48; state of, at time of Muhammad, P.D. 61—64; Muhammad's estimate of it, ii. 135 n.
Circumcision, Muslim doctrine and practice in regard to, P.D. 168.
Coffee. See Things forbidden.
Collars, to be worn by the unbelievers in the life to come, xiii. 6 n.
Commandments, given to the Jews, xiii. 103 n.
Companions, of God, what, vi. 22 n.
Concubinage, unlimited, lxvi. I note, lxx. 29—31 ; children of concubines legitimate, P.D. 213.
Confession of faith, the earliest, of Islam, cxii. I, &c.; creed of Muhammad in Makkah, X. 104—109.
Congealed blood, the matter of which man is created, xcvi. i, &c.
Contracts, to be performed, v. i.
Covetousness, denounced, xcii. 5—16, cii. introd.
Cow, ordered to be sacrificed by the Israelites, ii. 66 n.
Creation, some account of it, xli. 8—11.
Crime, laws and penalties relating to grave offences, P.D. 210— 216; crimes punished with death, xvii. 35 n.; petty crimes and their penalties, P.D. 217.


Cushites, described, P.D. 26. Customs, relating to Bahaira, Saiba, Wasila, and Hámf. See Things forbidden, Purifications, and Laws.

Daughters, hated by the Arabs, yet ascribed to God by them, xliii. introd. and 15-18.
David, kills Goliah, ii. 249 n. and xvii. 6 n.; his extraordinary devotion, xxxviii. 16; the birds and mountains sing praises with him, xxxiv. 10; his repentance for taking the wife of Uriah, xxxviii. 23; his and Solomon's judgment, xxi. 79 n.; receives the Book of Psalms, xvii. 57.
Days, appointed to commemorate God, xxii. 29 n.
Dead body, raised to life by a part of the sacrificed cow, ii. 72 n.
Death, unavoidable, iii. 155; every soul shall taste it, iii. 186 n.
Debtors, to be mercifully dealt with, ii. 278—280.
Decrees, the doctrine of, P.D. 164; everything written in the books of, lvii. 22, 23, and xi. 7 n. ; God decrees some to be saved and others to be lost, lxiv. 2, and x. 100 n.
Deceivers, their condition in the judgment, iv. 106, &c.
Demons, beset Muhammad, and are the authors of idolatry, vi. 112, 113 notes.
Devil. See Iblis and Satan.
Devils, included under the name of genii, vi. 130 ii. the patrons of unbelievers, vii. 28, xxvi. 223, and xliii. 35—38.
Dhu'l Qifl, the prophet, opinions concerning him, xxi. 85 n. saves a hundred Israelites from slaughter, xxxviii. 48 n.
Dhu'l Nun. See Jonas.
Dhu Nawás, described, P.D. 28 and 45; his persecution of the Christians, P.D. 45, 46 ; his persecutions anathematised, lxxxv. 1—7.
Dhu'l Qarnain, who he was, xviii. 82; builds a wall to prevent incursions of Gog and Magog, xviii. 92—96.
Disputes, to be carried on with mildness, xxix. 45 n.
Ditch, war of the, xxxiii. 9 n.
Divining. See Things forbidden.
Divorce, ancient Arab custom of, abrogated, lviii. 1-9; of female converts to Islam, lx. 10; laws of divorce, iv. 18 n., xxxiii. 40 n., ii. 226—237, and P.D. 207—209; original law of Islam modified, lxv. 1-7; regulations concerning it, ii. 2 26—237 notes, and 241 n. ; efforts to prevent, iv. 34 n.
Doctors, the four great Muslim authorities, P.D. 205.
Doctrine, the two sciences of divinity, P.D. 233; points of faith subject to scholastic discussion, F.D. 235.


Dogs, &c., allowed to be trained up for hunting, v. 5 n.
Drink, of the damned, vi. 71.
Duráh (Al), the celestial mode of the Kaabah, li. 4 n.

Earth, its creation, xli. 8-11 n.; remonstrates against the creation of man, ii. 30 n. is kept steady by the mountains, xvi. 15 n., xxxi. 9 n.
Earthquake, a sign of the approach of the last day, xcix. i.
Eden, the meaning of the word in Arabic, ix. 73 n.
Education, makes a man an infidel, xxx. 29 n.
Egypt, the plagues on, vii. 134—136.
Elephant, war of the, cv. introd. and i, &c.
Elias, denounces the worship of Baal, xxxvii. 123—125. See Al Khidr.
Elisha, the prophet, vi. 87 n.
Emigration, to Abyssinia, P.D. 77, 78, and xxxix. 13 n.; to Madina, P.D. 85.
Enemy, admissible to slay an, ii. 191—194.
Enoch. See Idris.
Entering, into houses abruptly, forbidden, xxiv. 27 and 57 notes.
Esop. See Luqman.
Eucharist, seems to have occasioned a fable in the Quran, v. 112 n.
Eve. See Adam. Evil, allowable in self-defence, viii. 60 n., xvi. 108 n. See also Good.
Examination, of the sepulchre, viii. 52 n.
Exegesis, rules for, P.D. 113, 114.
Expiation. See Atonement.
Ezekiel, raises the dry bones, ii. 243 n.
Ezra, and his ass restored to life after they had been dead a hundred years, ii. 259 n. ; called by the Jews the son of God, and why, 1X. 30 n.

Faith, defined, ii. 3-32; its evidence in new converts, lx. i 2; assurance of faith presumptuous, ii. 4 n.; must accompany good works, xi. 24; the reward of those who fight for it, iii. 140 n. and 170; apostates from it to be put to death, xvii. 35 n.
Famine, afflicts the inhabitants of Makkah, xxiii. 76 n.; ceases at Muhammad's intercession, xliv. 9—15.
Fast, of Ramadhán instituted, ii. 184, 185 n., and P.D. 176—178. Fasting, the duty required, P.n. 175, and ii. 183, &c. ; voluntary fasting, P.D. 178; ordinary customs relating to, vii. 142.


Fatalism, Muhammad's belief in, iii. 145 and 155 notes.
Fátihat, the first chapter of the Qurán, chap. i.
Fátimah, Muhammad's daughter, one of the four perfect women, lxvi. 12 n.
Fatra, defined, v. 22 n., lxxiv. introd.
Feasts, the I'd-ul-Fitr and I'd.ul-Qurban, P.D. 231; feast of God, P.D. 156.
Fidelity, recommended, ix. 7.
Figs, their virtues, xcv. I n.
Fire, the manner of striking it in the East, xxxvi. 180 n.
Fishing, allowed during the pilgrimage, V. 97 n.
Flood. See Noah.
Food, what kinds are forbidden. See Things forbidden.
Forbidden fruit, what, ii. 35 n.
Forgiveness, to whom it belongs, xxxiii. 36; enemies to be forgiven, why, ii. 108 n. ; story of Hassan, 111. 134 n.
Fornication, forbidden, and its punishment, iv. 14 and 23 ii, xvii. 35 n. See also Adultery.
Fountain, of molten brass flows for Solomon, xxxiv. 100 n.
Fountains, of Paradise, lxxvi. 5, and lxxxiii. 27.
Free-will, man's free-will recognised, iii 145 n., vi. 12 n.; freewill denied, x. 100 n.
Friendship, with unbelievers forbidden, v. 57 n.
Fugitives. See Muhajjirin.
Furqán, one of the names of the Qurán, xxv. I n.; applied to inspired writings generally, ii. 52 n.

Gabriel, assists the Muslims at Badr, iii 13; appears to Zacharias, iii. 38; appears twice to Muhammad in his proper form, liii. 6 n.; appears to the Virgin Mary, and causes her to conceive, xix. 17—22 n.; the dust of his horse's feet animates the golden calf, xx. 91 ; commanded to assist Muhammad against the Quraish, xv. 95 n.; orders Muhammad to go against the Bani Quraiciha, xxxiii. 26 n.; Muhammad receives the Qurán through him, ii. 96 n., liii. 6, xcvi. introd.; generally he reveals himself in human form, vi. 9 n, xix. 17 n.
Games, of chance, forbidden, P.D. 193; the game of chess, P.D. 194—196.
Gaming, forbidden. See Things forbidden.
Ganim (Banu), build a mosque with an ill design, which is burnt, ix. 108 n.
Garden, the parable of a garden, lxviii. 17—34; Garden of Eden, see Paradise.
Genii, Muslim belief concerning them, P.D. 121, vi. 101 n.;

created of fire, lv. 14 some of them converted to Islam, xlvi. 28—31, lxxii. introd.; fate in the judgment-day, P.D. 146.
Ghassán, the kingdom of, and how founded, P.D. 27, 28; its last Christian king, Jabalah, becomes a Muslim, and afterwards apostatises, P. D. 29.
Gházi, the true fanatic, ix. 20 n.
Ghulites, a sect of the Shiahs, P.D. 266.
Girls, black-eyed, of Paradise, xxxvii. 47.
God, the God of Islam, P.D. 118,119; he is one God, cxii. 1—4, ii. 22 n., and 164 n.; manifested by his works, xli. 8—11 and 37—39, xlii. 28—33, xlvi. 2—5, li. 20—22; Creator and source of life, xliv. 7; is able to raise the dead, ii. i 117, vi. 96—102, xvi. 42 n., xxxvi. 82 n., xlv. 23—25; Sovereign, lxiv. I i and i 8; is eternal, lv. 26—30; his laws and word unalterable, vi. 115 n., xxx. 29; is all-powerful, lvii. 1—6, and lxxviii. 8—29; is everywhere present, lviii. 8; is omniscient, ii. 94 n., iv. 107, and lvii. i—6; five things known only to him, xxxi. 34 n.; his goodness and love, ii. i66 n., iii. 31 n.; the Author of all good, iv. 78 ii.; the Author of evil as well as of good, vii. 179, 180 n., xvu. 14 n.,xxxv. 9 n.; a refuge against Satan, cxiv. 1—6; his ninety-nine names, vii. 181 n.; his throne, ii. 255 n.; the Trinity denied, iv. 169 n.; cannot have sons, vi. 102. Goddesses, called the daughters of God, iv. u 6.
Gog and Magog, described, xviii. 92—99 n.; they shall punish the infidels, xxix. 96.
Goliah. See Jalut.
Good works, who shall be redeemed by them. See Salvation.
Gospel attested by Muhammad and the Qurán, PD. I 26, and xlviii. 29; Muslim use of spurious Gospels, P.D. 124, 125.
Gospel of Barnabas, Muslim use of, P.D. 123 and 124, iii. 53 n.
Greaves (Mr.), a mistake of his, lxxxix. 8 n.
Greeks, overcome by the Persians, xxx. I n.
Gudarz, the name of Nebuchadnezzar, xvii. 7 n.

Habib, his martyrdom, xxxvi. 12 n.
Háfidha, an idol of Ad, vii. 66 n.
Hajj. See Pilgrimage.
Hakim Ibn Hásham, his prophetic career, P.D. 273—275.
Haman, Pharaoh's chief minister, xxviii. 5 and 38 n.
Hami, described, v. 102 n.
Hamza, his conversion, p. D. 78; is killed at Ohod, iii.121 n. his body mutilated, xvi. 127 11.
Hanbalites, their founder and their doctrines, P.D. 240, 241.


Handha Ibn Safwan, a prophet, xxii. 46 11., xxv. 40 n.
Hanif. See Orthodox.
Hanifites, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 23, 238.
Hárith (Abu), a Christian bishop, disputes with Muhammad, iii. 60 n.
Hárát and Márut, their story, ii. 101 n.
Háshamians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 245.
Háshimites, the Ban of, P.D. 78.
Hatib, Ibn Abi Baltaa, sends a letter discovering Muhammad's design against Makkah, which is intercepted, lx. I n.
Háwfat (Al), the name of an apartment in hell, ci. 9 n.
Hayatians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 246.
Heavens, Muslim belief concerning them, xxiii. i 7; adorned with stars, lxvii. 5; seven in number, ii. 29, and xli. II created in six days, vii. 55, and x. 3 guarded by angels, lxxii. 8; will fall at the last day, xxii. 66 n.
Hell, Muhammad's notions of, borrowed from the Magians, P.D. 150, 151 ; punishments of, P.D. 149, ii. 38 n., iii. 197 n., xxiii. 105 n., xliv. 43—50, lvi. 40—56, lxxxviii. 4—7; the inmates of hell shall vainly seek for annihilation, xliii. 74—78; no repentance there, xxvi. 91—105; it shall not harm true believers, xix. 72 n. ; Muslim culprits finally escape, P. D. 149 and 150, xix. 41 n., xxxii. 14 n.; guarded by nineteen angels, lxxiv. 30—34; its various apartments, ci. 10, 11 n., civ. 4 n.; it shall be filled with men and genii, 1. 29, xviii. 102 n. ; the sufferings of hell corporeal, xiv. 20; in the judgment-day it shall be dragged towards God's tribunal, lxxxix. 24 n.
Heresy, it finds a refuge in Arabia, P.D. 63.
Higgins (Godfrey), quoted, ii. 174 n., xi. 13 n.
Hujáz, its name and boundaries, P.D. 16; chief cities of, P.D. 16—19; the founder of the kingdom, P.D. 26; phylarchical government of, inaugurated, P.D. 30.
Hijra, the era of, P.D. 87 ii. See also Emigration.
Hira, the kingdom and its history, P.D. 27—29.
Himyárites. See Yaman.
Hobal, the chief idol of the Kaabah, P.D. 42.
Holy Spirit. See Spirit.
Honey, an excellent medicine, xvi. 71 n.
Houris. See Hur al Oyun.
Hud, the prophet of A'd, P.D. 21 ; his story, see A'd.
Hudailians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 244.
Hudaibiyah, the treaty of, xlviii. 26 n.; Muhammad's dream there, xlviii. 27 n.
Huliil (Al), the doctrine of, P.D. 266.
Hunain, the battle of, ix. 25 11.


Hur al Oyán, or girls of Paradise, earliest mention of, lii. 20; number allowed to each of the true believers, P. D. 157.
Husband. See Divorce, Wives, and Marriage.
Hypocrites, described, lxiii. 1—4; their perfidy, xli. 49—51, and lix. 11—17; threatened, ix. 52—65 notes, xxxiii. 60—62, lxiii. 1—3, lxvi. 9.
Iblis, refuses to worship Adam, and why, ii. 34, vii. 11—18, vii. 63—65; is accursed, vi. 13, 18, xv. 34, 35; respited till the judgment-day, vi. 14, 15, xv. 36—38; has no power to injure God's people, xv. 42, xvii. 67. See also Satan.

I'd. See Feasts.
Idolaters, acknowledge God yet worship the creature, xl. 8—14; choose Satan for their friend instead of God, xviii. 48; will be deserted by their own gods in the judgment-day, x. 29, &c., xli. 47, 48; to be treated harshly, ix. 36, lxvi. 9; not to be prayed for while such, ix. ii 4; shall be cast into hellfire, iv. 120, vii. 49 n., xxi. 98—101; not permitted to enter Muslim places of worship, ix. 28; the Arab idolaters slay their daughters, xvi. 6r; idolatrous practices among modern Muslims, P.D. 37 n. See Idols and Idolatry.
Idolatry, Arab idolatry and star-worship, P.D. 36—38; to be restored before the judgment-day, P.D. 134; the heinousness of the sin of idolatry, ii. 216; Muslim idea of, iii. 151 n.
Idols, their insignificancy, xxx. 39; will appear as witnesses against their worshippers, x. 29; famous idols of Makkah, Lat, Uzzah, Mináh, Wadd, &c., described, P.D. 38—43; stones worshipped, P.D. 43, and v. 4 n.
Idris, supposed to be the same with Enoch, xix. 57 n.; a model of patience, xxi. 85.
Ifrits, how they differ from the genii, xxvii. 39 n.
Ilhiz, a sort of food used by the Arabs in times of scarcity, xxiii. 76 n.
Illiyun, the meaning of the word, lxxxiii. 18—21.
Ilyasin, who, xxiii. 130 n.
I'mám, the meaning of the word, ii. 124 n.
Immodesty, condemned, xxiv. 31.
Immunity, declared to the idolaters for four months, ix. 1—5.
Imposture, charged on all the prophets, xxiii. 35—43; charged on Muhammad, see Muhammad.
Imran, father of the Virgin Mary, and whether confounded with the father of Moses, iii. 33 n.; the wife of Imran, iii. 35n.
Infanticide prohibited by Muhammad, P.D. 202—204, xvi. 61 n., vii. 33 n.


Infidels, why the Quran was sent to them, ii. 6 n. ; prospered to secure destruction, ii. 211; would not be convinced by miracles, vi. 7—9, 34 and 109 notes; how they will appear at the last day, vi. 30 n.; will drink boiling water, vi. 71; no friendship with them allowed to Muslims, iv. 88 n. and 139 n.; to be made war upon, ii. 191—193; forbidden to approach Makkah, ix. 28 n.; who die such, not to be prayed for, ix. 114 n.; to be forgiven on conversion to Islam, iv. 85, viii. 40, &C.
Inheritance, laws regarding, P.D. 212, 213; legacies to poor, &c., ii. 180 n.; legacies to wives, ii. 240 n. ; inheritance of idiots, &c., iv. 4 n.; old rules affecting women and children abolished, iv. 6 n.; law relating to portions, iv. 10—13 n.
Injury, to forgive the same is meritorious, xlii. 38.
Inspiration, why God reveals his word by inspiration, xlii. 50, 51; who are inspired, iv. 162; as applied to Muslim tradition, iv. 57 n.; claimed by Muhammad, iv. 162, and xi. 13; Muhammad's inspiration, iv. 162, Xvi. introd., xvii. 88 n., xx. 112, 113 notes; a bee inspired, xvi. 70. Intercalation, of a month, forbidden, ix. 36 n.
Intercession, Muhammad no intercessor, ii. 152 n., vii. 188 n.; efficiency of Muhammad's intercession in the judgment-day, vi. 50, ix. 81 n., xx. 108 n., lxxi. 29 n.; none admissible on the judgment-day, v. 108 n., xi. 46 11., xvi. 39 n., xxxix. 45 n., lxxxii. 17—19; angels permitted to intercede, xxi. 29n.; angels called intercessors by Arab idolaters, P.D. 38; Christian doctrine of intercession inconsistent with Islam, xx. 108 n.
Iram, the city of A'd, lxxxix. 6 n.; the garden of, P.D. 20, 21.
Iron, its usefulness, lvii. 29.
Isaac, promised, xi. 71; his faith, xi. 74; represented in the Qurán as Jacob's brother, xi. 71 n.
Isháqians, their doctrines, P.D. 267.
Ismail, his posterity accounted to be Arabs, P. D. 25; nowhere called the child of promise, xi. 71 n.; is offered up as a sacrifice, xxxvii. 99 n.; numbered among the prophets of Islam, ii. 133, xix. 55. See also Abraham.
Ismailians, their enmity to Muhammadans, P.D. 279.
Islam, the religion of all the prophets, ii. 136 n., iii. 83 n., vii. 104, 127 11., xvi. 91 fl., xxi. 92 fl., xlii. 11—13, and P. D. I 16 seq.; the five fundamental points of, P.D. 117; to be exalted above all religions, 190-193 n., ix. 33 n., xlviii. 28 n.; its various sects, P.D. 236—290; succeeds as a religion through political weakness of Rome and Persia, P.D. 65; propagated by the sword, P.Do. 84, ii. 190—193 n., ix. 1 and 124 notes;


what it owes to Judaism, see Judaism; some reasons for its success, ii. 85 n. and 94 n., x.. 32—37 li.; its antagonism to Christianity denied, and reply, ii. 89 n., v. 72 n., xxv. 35 n.; why said to be further removed from Christianity than heathenism, iii. 31 n.; incapable of elevating the human race, xxii. 61; never changed, xxx. 29 n.
Israelites, pass the Red Sea, vii. 138; miraculously fed in the wilderness, vii. 161; lust for the herbs of Egypt, ii. 60; worship golden calf, ii. 50; word put into their mouth at Jericho, ii. 58; command to sacrifice a red cow, ii. 66 n.; refuse to enter the Holy Land, and their punishment, v. 25; their transgression, xvii. 4 n.; desire a king, ii. 246; cursed by David and Jesus, v. 82; they inherit the eastern and western shores of the Red Sea, vii. 137 11., xvii. 106 n. See also Jews.
Jabarians, their name and creed, P.D. 259—261.
Jacob, bequeaths the religion of Islam to his children, iii. 132; grows blind by weeping for the loss of Joseph, xii. 84; recovers his sight by means of Joseph's garment and goes into Egypt, xii. 93.
Jadd Ibn Qals, his excuse for remaining behind in time of war, ix. 49 n.
Jadis, the tribe destroyed by the Tasmians, P.D. 23.
Jahidhians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 246.
Jahl (Abu), a great enemy of Muhammad, xxii. 8; his injustice to an orphan, cvii. 2 n.; his advice concerning Muhammad, viii. 30 n.; slain at Badr, viii., 49 n.
Jallas (Al), Ibn Suwaid, ix. 75 n.
Jálut, or Goliah, sent against the Israelites, xvii. 5, n.; slain by David, ii. 251. See also Saul.
Jannat. See Paradise.
Jasusa (Al), the beast which will appear at the approach of the last day, xxvii. 84.
Jawádh (Abu'l), the hypocrite, ix. 58 n.
Jawwas Ibn Omaiya, mentioned, xlviii. 18.
Jesus, promised to Mary, his miraculous birth, he is compared to Adam, iii. 58 n.; speaks in infancy, iii. 46; when a child he animates a bird of clay, iii. 48 n.; is called the Spirit of God, iv. 169 n.; his worship compared to the worship of heathen idols, xliii. 57 and 58; not God, v. 19 n., ix. 30 n.; yet called "the word of God," ii. 84 11., iii. 39—45 notes; his miracles, ii. 86 a., iii. 46—53; his miraculous birth, ii. 253 n., iii. 45—50, V. 109, xix. 22 n., xxi. 91 n.; his sinlessness, ii 253 n., xix. 19 n.; causes a table with provisions


to descend from heaven, v. 112 n. ; rejected by the Jews, iii. 53; sends two of his disciples to Antioch, who work miracles, xxxvi. 12 receives the gospel, v. 50; the Jews lay a plot for his life, but are disappointed, and whether he died or riot, iii. 53, 54 notes; was not crucified, iii. 53 n., iv. 154 n. ; yet was to die, in. 54 n., v. 117 n.; he died and rose again, iii. 54 n., v. 117 n., xix. 34; only an apostle, ii. 253, v. 79 a sign of the resurrection, xliii. 61 ; various opinions concerning him, xix. 38, his descent from heaven, P.D. 133. See also Christ.
Jethro. See Shuaib.
Jews, particularly appealed to, ii. 39 n.; accused of having corrupted the Scriptures and of stifling passages, ii. 39, 40 notes, iii. 77; they accuse the Virgin Mary of fornication, iv. 156; plot against Jesus, iii. 53 n. ; proof required by them of a prophet's mission, iii. 184; metamorphosed into swine and apes for their infidelity, v. 65; their law confirmed by Jesus and the Qurán, v. 50; dispute with Muhammadans concerning God's favour, xxii. 19 their power in Arabia, P.D. 64; had revealed to them the law and the prophets, xlv. 15, 16; reject Muhammad through envy, ii. 89 n., iii. 19 n.; certain Jews confirm the Quran, ii. 18 n., xxvi. 197 n., xlvi. 9 dispute among themselves about the Quran, xcviii. 3, 4; unfit for Muslim companionship, lviii. 16, 21 hated by Muhammad, ii. 137 n. to 146 n., iii. 118 n., lviii. 16—2 1 ; cursed by Jesus, v. 82 n. ; they boast of their crime in slaying Jesus, iv. 156; Jews and Christians accused of condemning one another, ii. 112; accused of corrupting their Scriptures, ii. 41 and 160 notes; to be protected on payment of tribute, ix. 29 n. See also Israelites.
Jihad, primary use of the word, ii. 217 n.; commanded, ix. 13, 14 notes. See War.
Job, his story, vi. 85, xxi. 83 n, xxxviii. 43 n.
John, the son of Zacharias, his birth, iii. 38—41 ; his character, iii. 39 n., xix. 14; his murder revenged on the Jews by Nebuchadnezzar, xvii. 5—7 notes.
Jonas, his story, x. 98; is impatient, lxviii. 48—50.
Jorhamites, their origin and fate, P.D. 23, 24, and 29; their alliance with the Ishmaelites, P.D. 25 and 29.
Joseph, his story, xii. 1—102, xxxvii. 139—147 notes; the prophet of the Egyptians, xl. 36 n.
Joshua and Caleb, sent as spies into the land of Canaan, v. 26.
Journey, Muhammad's journey to heaven, xvii. 1 n.
Jubbaians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 245.
Judaism, how introduced into Arabia, P.D. what Islam


owes to it, P.D. 120, 121, 127, 150, 160, 165, 171, 174, 177, 210, and 218; Muhammad's estimate of it, ii. 135 n.
Judgment-day, the Muslim tradition concerning it, iii. 25; described, xxv. 24, &c., lii. 1—16; signs of its approach, xxii. I, xliv. 9, and xlvii. 20 n.; the hour only known to God, xli. 47, xlii. 16, 17 none shall escape it, 1. 18—20, lxix. ,1—3 the wicked shall be speechless therein, xxxvi. 65 n.; its terrors, lvi. 1—11 ; judgment shall be according to works, iv. 171, vi. 132, vii. 8, 9 that day shall reveal secret thoughts, lxxxvi. 9, 10 n.; length of the day, P.D. 137, xvi. 79 n., lxx. 4; place of judgment, P.D. 140; time of trial, P.D. 143, 144; great day of assizes, P.D. 142—147; books, balance of judgment, P.D. 144, 145; no intercessor therein, xliv. 41, ii. 47, 123, and 254.
Junada, first practises the intercalation of a month among the Arabs, ix. 37 n.

Kaabah, described, P.D. 179—186; its antiquity, P.D. 182; built by Abraham, xxii. 27; the idols of, P.D. 42; made the Muslim Qibla, P.D. 172, ii. 142—146 notes, xxii. 31 n. ; defiled, ii.159 n. ; infidels forbidden to enter it, ix. 28; compassing it (Tawáf), and the import of the same, P.D. 187 and 189; keys of it delivered to Othmán Ibn Taiha, iv. 56 n.
Káb, Ibn Malik, he is punished, ix. 107 n.
Káfur, that of Paradise, lxxvi. 5.
Kail, sent to Makkah to obtain rain for A'd, vii. 73 n.
Kalizna, the creed of Adam, ii. 36 n.
Karamians, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 258, 259.
Karmatians, their founder, doctrine, and practice, P.D. 277—279; their disorders, P.D. 30.
Kauthar, its refreshing waters, P.D. 153, 154, cviii. 1 n.
Keys, of knowledge (the five), iii. 34 n.
Khaibar, the expedition thither, xlviii. 15 n.
Khaitana, a story of- him, ix. 14 n.
Khadijah, the first convert to Islam, P.D. 74; her death, P.D. 79; one of the four perfect women, lxvi. 12 n.
Khálid Ibn al Walid, puts Muhammad's horse to flight at the battle of Ohod, iii. 152 n.; demolishes the idol of al Uzza, xxxix., 37 n.; drives Akrima and his men into Makkah, xlviii. 24.
Khalifah, Adam a Khilifah, ii. 36 n.
Khantala, see xxii. 46 n. and xxv. 40 B.
Khárijites, the first of Muslim heretics, P.D. 242, 263, 264.
Khaula bint Thalaba, her case alluded to in Quran, lviii. introd.
Khidr, the prophet, his adventures with Moses, xviii. 64 n.


Khubaib, his martyrdom, xvi. 108 n.
Khudhaa (the tribe of), held the angels to be the daughters of God, xxi. 26 n.
Kindah, a tribe who used to bury their daughters, vi. 137.
Khurram-ud-din. See Bábik.
Kussai, names his son after four idols, vii. 190 n.; Quraish ask Muhammad to raise him to life, viii. 23 n.

Lailat-ul-Qadr, the Quran sent down during that night, xliv. 1—6 notes, and liii. 6; Muir's opinion, xcvii. introd.
Lapwing, gives Solomon an account of the city of Saba carries a letter from him to the queen, xxvii. 20 n.
Last day. See Judgment.
Lát (Al), the idol of the Thakifites, P.D. 39; of the Quraish also, iv. 116 n.
Law. See Pentateuch.
Laws, on laws in general, P.D. chap. vi.; distinction bel civil and ecclesiastical law, P.D. 217; moral laws enjoined xlix. 9—13; concerning marriage, see Marriage; concerning meats, drinks, games, &c., see Things forbidden; concerning polygamy, see Polygamy; concerning divorce see Divorce; concerning adultery, see Adultery; - concerning inheritance, see Inheritance; concerning wills, see Wills concerning private contracts, P.D. 214; concerning manslaughter and murder, P.D. 214—216; concerning war 220—222; concerning spoils, see Spoils.
Letters of the alphabet in the beginning of certain chapters P.D. 101—102, ii. 1 a., vii. 1 n., xix. 1 n., and xx. i n.
Light, the, of prophecy, v. 17 n., xi. 18 n.
Lord's Supper, probably alluded to, v. ii 2.
Lot, the patriarch, his wife a warning to Muslim women 10—12 ; his story, vii. 81—85, xi. 69—82.
Lote-tree, in heaven, liii. 14 n.
Lots, forbidden, P.D. 193, ii. 218 n., v. 4 and 92 notes.
Love, proved by obedience, iii. 31, 32.
Lubába (Abu), his treachery, viii. 27 n.
Luqmán, his history, and whether the same as Æsop, xxxi. 11n.
Lying, sometimes allowable, xvi. 108 n.

Madian, a city of the Hajáz, vii. 86 n.; its inhabitants destroyed for their unbelief, xxvi. 189 n. See Midianites.
Madina, its ancient name and situation, P.D. 18; description of, P. D. 19; its modern governors, P.D. 31-32; its first converts to Islam, P.D. 80; the pledge of Aqabah, P.D.. 81; Islam


spreads there, po. So, SI; the second pledge of Aqabah, P.D. 82; its inhabitants reproved, ix. 118 n.
Magian, religion, its influence on Arabia, P.D. 44, 147 and 160.
Magog. See Gog and Magog.
Mahdi, his coming, P.D. 134; Shiites believe him to be Abu'l Qásim, P.D. 135.
Mahmud, pretends to be Moses, P.D. 277.
Makkah, description of, P.D. 16—18; employment of its inhabitants, P.D. 18; how watered, P.O. 17; visited by famine, x. 22 n., xi. I I n., xxiii. 77 a., xxxii. 21 n.; its destruction foretold, xlvii. 14; spared through compassion, xlviii. 25, 26; captured by Muhammad, P.D. 93, 94; its conquest an attestation of Islam, xlviii. 27—29; its ancient rulers, see Hijáz and Quraish; its government under Islam, P.D. 31, 32 notes.
Makkans, their idolatry condemned, vi. 135—137; reproached for their ingratitude, xiv. 33 ; threatened with destruction, xli. 12 hold a council and conspire Muhammad's destruction, viii. 30; chastised with famine and sword, xxiii. 78 n., xxxix. 52.
Malik, the principal angel - who has the charge of hell, xliii. 77.
Málik Ibn Ans, his sect and their doctrines, P.D. 238, 239.
Man, his wonderful formation, xxxix. 8; created various ways, xxii. 5; shall be rewarded according to his deserts, iv. 53—55; his ingratitude to God, xxx, 32, 33; why destroyed, xi. 117.
Manicheans, destroyed by Auaushirwán, P.D. 66.
Manna, given to the Israelites, ii. 56.
Manslaughter, laws relating to, P.D. 215.
Marriage, four lawful wives allowed to Muslims besides concubines, iv. 3 n., lxx. 29—31 ; prohibited degrees, P.D., 211, iv. 21—24 notes; peculiar privileges of Muhammad, P.D. 211, 212, v. 6 n., xxxiii. 6 and 49 notes; Muslims not to marry idolaters, ii. 221 ; law relating to non-Muslim wives, v. 6 n.; dowry required by Muslim law, iv. 3 and 23 notes.
Martyrs, who they are, P.D. 218; martyrs of Ohod, iii. 140 n., 170 n.; they are not dead but living, ii. 155 n.; the sufferings of two Muslims, xvi.108 n.
Márut. See Harut.
Mary, the Virgin, descended from Imrán, iii. 35 a.; her birth and nurture, iii. 35—38 notes, xix. 1—34; the Angel Gabriel visits her, iii. 42—50 notes; miraculous conception, xix. 22 n., and xxi. 91 n.; calumniated by the Jews, iv. 156; one of the four perfect women, lxvi. N 2. See also Jesus. Mary, the Copt, a slave girl given to Muhammad, lxvi. 1—5.


Marwa. See Safa and Marwa.
Mashar al Harám (Al), ii. 198.
Masih al Dajjal, his appearing, P.D. 132.
Masjid, the use of the term, vii. 30 n. who may enter, ix. 18.
Masjid al Harám. See Kaabah.
Mastah, one of the accusers of Ayesha, xxiv. 11 n.
Masud (Ibn), a tradition of, in relation to Pharaoh, xl. 49 n.
Mazdak, his communism, P.D. 66.
Measure, ought to be just, vii. 86 n.
Messiah, prophecies concerning him applied to Muhammad, iii. 188, 189 notes.
Metempsychosis, the doctrine believed by some ancient Arabs, P.D. 44.
Michael, the friend of the Jews, ii. 96 n.
Midian. See Madian.
Midianites, called the inhabitants of Al Aika, xv. 78 n.
Mina, the valley of, ii. 202 ; stones thrown there, P.D. 187, 188.
Mináh, an Arab idol, P.D. 40.
Miracles, of the Qurán and of Muhammad, ii. 98 n., iii. 69, iv. 78 n., viii. 64 n. ; at Badr, iii. 13 n.; of Jesus wrought in childhood, v. 109, 110; Muhammad wrought no miracles, vi. 10 and 109—111 notes, xi. 111 n., xiii. 8 n., xiv. 13 n., xvi. 37 n., xvii. 61 and 92—95 notes, xxi. 5 and 6 notes, xxxiv. 27 n., xl. 78 n.
Miráj. See Night journey.
Months, the sacred months of ancient Arabs, P.D. 227, 228; their observance by Muslims, P.D. 228—230, ii. 194 and 216 n.
Moon, split in sunder, liv. 111.
Moses, his story, vii. 104, &c., xx. 8, &c., xxvi. 9, &c., xxviii. 29, &c. ; miraculously preserved, xx. 59; adopted by Pharaoh's wife, ii. 48 n.; the first true believer, vii. 143 n.; at first rejected by his people, xli. 45; asks pardon for his sins, vii. 151 n.; an impediment in his speech, how occasioned, xx. 28 n.; kills an Egyptian and flees to Midian, xxviii. 14—16 notes; entertained by Shuaib and receives his rod from him, xxviii. 25; sees the fire in the bush, xxvii. 7; sent a prophet to the Egyptians, and receives power to work miracles, vii. 133 n., xvii. 116, &c., xxv. 38, and xl. 24—28; his transactions in Egypt, vii. 116, &c.; brings water from the rock, ii. 59; cleared from an unjust aspersion, xxxiii. 69 n.; receives the tables of the law, is wroth with Aaron on account of the golden calf and breaks the tables, vii. 150; he goes in search of Al Khidr, xviii. 4 n.


Muadhdhin or Muazzin, the Muslim crier who calls the faithful to prayers, P.D. 169.
Mubaiyadites, their origin and faith, P.D. 275.
Muhajjirin, defined and described, viii. 73 n., xvi. 43 and 111 notes; to be provided for, iv. 99 n.
Muhammad, promised to Adam, ii. 37, 38; foretold by Jesust lxi. 6; expected by the Jews and Christians, xcviii. 1; sea, at forty years of age, x. 17 n.; commanded to ‘preach Islam, lxxiv. 1—7, lxxxi. introd. ; has visions, liii. 11, and xcvi. introd. ; complained of by the Quraish to his uncle Abu Tãlib, xxxviii. 5 n.; charged with being a madman, lxviii. 1—8, lxxxi. 15—25; claims to be a prophet of God, iv. 67 n., v. 69 n., xxvii. 93 n., xli. 5, xlviii. 29, lxix. 42—52 n., and introductions to chaps. lxxxi. and xcvi. ; likens himself to Abraham, xxi. introd.; likens himself to all the former prophets, ii. 70 n. and 125 n., iii. ii and 146 notes, vii. introd. and notes on vers. 60, 66, 74, and 104, X. 40 and 77 notes, xi. 32 fl., xiv. 7 and 14 notes, xxi. 77 n., xxiii. 35—43 n., xxvi. 26 n., xxvii. 24—26, xxxiv. 46 n., xl. 41—47 n., xli. 45 a., xlvi. 8 n., liv. introd., and lxx. introd.; at first declares himself to be only a preacher, ii. 119 n., iii. 144 n., xlii. 47, 1. 44 and 45, lxxxviii. 21 and 22 ; is called the Illiterate Prophet, vii. 158 n., x. 17 n.; at first ignorant of Islam, xlii. 52, 53.; receives the Quran, xlv. 17—19, liii. 6, and xcvi. introd.; repudiates the charge of being a poet, xxvi. 228 n., lxix. 41 n.; claims to have been inspired, xxxix. 1—3 notes (see also Inspiration) ; his early teachings, lxxxiii. 1—6 n., xciii. 9, l0; was subject to Satanic suggestions, iv. 116 n., xvi. 100 n., xxvi. 222 n., cxiv. 5, 6 n. ; charged with being an impostor, iii. 137 and 185 notes, vi. 24 and 48 notes, vii. 203 a., x. 3,9 n., xxvi. introd., xlii. 23, xlvi. 6 and 7, lxviii. 1—8, lxxvii. 8, &c. ; reasons for believing him to have been an impostor, ii. 86, 125, 216 and 246 notes, iii. 93 and 121 notes, v. 26 n., vi.148, 77—84 notes, vii. 2 and 53 notes, viii. 14, 15 n., ix. 63, 64, 74, 9-5 and 129 notes, xi. 53 n., xii. introd. vers. 3 and 103 notes, xlviii. 15 n.; his sincerity vindicated, reply, ix. 74 n. ; his self-assertion no proof of sincerity, vi. 48 n., xxvii. introd.; his policy, iii. 126 n. and 160 n.; his temporary lapse, iv. 116 n., vi. 55., xvii. 75 n., xxii. 53 n., xl. 7 n.; exhorted to be patient, xlvi. 35 and lxviii. 48—50; his patience due to policy, P.D. 83; disclaims all knowledge of future events, vi. 49, and xi. 32; wrought no miracles, ii. 98 and 118 notes, iii. 184 n, vi. 109—111 notes (see Miracles); his superstition, chaps. cxiii. and cxlv., introd. and notes; is declared to be a sinner,


ii. 199 n.; iv. 105 n. ix. 43 and 118 notes, xl. introd., and notes on vers. 7 and 57, lxxx. 1—1l; his personal influence, iii. 100—109 n.; to be implicitly obeyed, iv. 62 a.; to be treated with respect, xlix. 1—5, lviii. 12—14; his charity, lxxx. I—11 n., xciii. 9, l0; his fondness for women, xxxiii. 36—39 notes, lxxix. 40 n.; his cruelty to enemies, viii. 66—69 n., ix. 129, 130 n., xxv. 29 n.; his journey to heaven, xvii. I n.; enters into a league with those of Madina, viii. 30 gains proselytes of the genii by reading the Quran, xlvi. 28—31; accused of injustice in dividing the spoils, xxxi. 62; foretells the victory at Badr, liv. 45; an account of that victory, iii. 13, and viii. 5 n., &c. ; loses the battle of Ohod, where he is in danger of his life, iii. 121; his men swear fidelity to him at Hudhaibiyah, xlviii. 18 n.; his courage at the battle of Hunain, ix. 25 n.; conspiracy to kill him, ix. 75 n., and xxxvi. 8 n.; another attempt on his life, from which he is miraculously preserved, iii. 12 n. ; his wives demand a better allowance, on which he offers to divorce them, hut they chose to stay with him, and he lays down some rules for their behaviour, xxxiii. 28 a.; his privileges in that and other respects, xxxiii. 6, &c. n. ; his divorced wives or widows not to marry again, xxxiii. 53; his amour with Mary, the Egyptian slave, lxvi. introd., and vers. 3—5; he changes the Qibla from Jerusalem to Makkah, ii. 142—145 notes; he is pledged to preserve the Jewish and Christian Scriptures from corruption, xl. 56 n.; commands the sword to be drawn against the enemies of Islam, P.D. 84; sends letters inviting foreign princes to embrace Islam, P.D. 90; he consolidates the political power of Arabia, P.D. 67, 68; he is not allowed to pray for reprobate idolaters, ix. I 14 n.; utters blasphemy through inadvertence, xxii. 53 n.; no revelation vouchsafed him for several days, xviii. 23 n.; challenges his opponents to produce a chapter like the Quran, ii. 23 n.; ignorant of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, ii. 52, 57, 66, 75, 116, 246, and 252 notes, iii. 66 n., iv. 162 a., vi. 85 fl., xvi. 105 n., xvii. i n., xviii. introd,, and vers. 21—23 n., xix. 31 n., and xxviii. 44—46 n.; refuses to eat with an infidel, xxv. 29 n.; prophesies the defeat of the Persians by the Greeks, xxx. 1 n.; his doctrine compared with that of other prophets, xlvi. 8; demolishes the idols of Makkah, xvii. 83 n.; warned to prepare for death, cx. introd.; curses his enemies, lxxx. 16, civ. introd. and notes, ix. 35 n.; a brief history of his life, P.D. 68—95.
Muhaqqimites, a sect of the Kharijites, P.D. 263.


Muharram, regulations concerning it, P.D. 229; the days of Ashura, P.D. 178, and ii. 183 n.
Muhrims, described, v. 96 n.
Mukanna (Al). See Hakim.
Mukaukas, presents slave girls to Muhammad, P.D. 91.
Munkir and Nákir, described, P.D. 127, iv. 96 n.
Murder, laws concerning, P.D. 214, ii. 178, iv. 91, v. 35 n.
Murjians, their doctrine and sects, P.D. 261—263.
Musailama, claims to be a prophet, but is destroyed, P.D. 270, 271, v. 59 n.
Mushábbihites, their doctrines, P.D. 257, 258.
Muslims, described, ii. 177, ix. 53, 54 n., xlii. 34-41, li. 17-19, xcviii. 6—8; directions in relation to their manners, xxiv. 27—60, xxx. 37, xxxiii. 53 to forgive unbelievers xlv. 13, 14; their duty to proclaim Islam, ii. 195 n., xli. 33; to avoid near relations if not Muslims, iii. 118, 119 n. ix. 14, 15 and 23, lviii 22, lx. 1-6 and 13; should have no friendship with Jews and Christians, v. 56 n.; they should fight for Islam, ii. 190—193 and 215 n, iv. 69 n.; they may feign friendship towards infidels, iii. 28, 29 n. ; allowed to eat and drink with Jews and Christians, v. 6 n.; bound to establish the religion of Islam in all their dominions, xxii. 43 they obey God through fear, xxiii. 61 n.; they are the chosen of God, iii. 110 n. (see also Arabians); shall be joyful in the judgment-day, lxxx. 8—16; all Muslims to be finally saved, iii. 24 n.; the reward of the sincere believers, xxxviii. 54 n.; bound to accept the Old and New Testament Scriptures as well as the Quran, ii. 136 n.; iii. 119 n., and v. 70 n.
Mutannabi (Al), his prophetic career, P.D. 279, 280.
Mutazilites, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 242—251; they reject the doctrine of the examination of the sepulchre, P.D. 127; they disbelieve the doctrine of the bridge over hell, P.D. 147; their belief about Paradise, P.D. 153.
Muzdalifah, the oratory between Safá and Marwá, P.D. 187.
Muzdarians, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 247.

Nadhir, the tribe, expelled, lix. 2—5.
Naila. See Asaf.
Najáshi, the king of Ethiopia, receives the refugee Muslims kindly, P.D. 78.
Najd, the province, described, P.D. 19.
Nakir, See Munkir and Nakir.
Nazarines, Christians so called, v. 19; their kindness, v. 85 n.;


they recognise the Qurán to be God's word, v. 86 n. See also Christians.
Nebuchadnezzar, takes Jerusalem, xvii. 5 n.
Night, part of, spent in prayer, lxxiii. 6.
Night journey, of Muhammad from Jerusalem to heaven, P.D. 80; was only a dream, xvii. i n., 95 n.
Nimrod, disputes with Abraham, ii. 258 a.; his tower, xvi. 28 n.; attempts to ascend to heaven and. persecutes Abraham, his punishment, xxi. 70 n.
Noah, his story, vii. 60—65, x. 72—75, xxvi. 105—122 ; his prayer, liv. 10; his wife's unbelief, lxvi. 10; lived 950 years, xxix. 13 was a sinner, xi. 47, lxxi. 29.
Nudhár (Al), one of Muhammad's adversaries, his opinion of the Qurán, vi. 24 n. ; introduces a Persian romance as preferable to it, xxxi. 5 n.
Nudhámians, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 246.
Nun, the fish to be slain for the feast of God, P.D.156.
Nusairians, their doctrine, P.D. 267.

Oaths, by various objects, iv. 63, xv. 72, 92, xxxvi. i, xxxviii. i, &c., ii. 1—11 and 23; to prove the Qurán to be inspired, lvi. 74—81, lxix. 38—52 ; uttered after careful deliberation, lxxxix. introd.; they should not be in God's name, ii. 224, 225 notes; yet see iv. 63 ; when they may be violated, ii. 225, 226 n., v. 91, lxvi. 2 ; how inconsiderate oaths may be expiated, V. 91 n. ; not to be violated, xvi. 93 the penalty of perjury, iii. 76, and v. 91.
Oda Ibn Qais, an enemy of Muhammad, xv. 95 n.
Offerings, to God, recommended, xxii. 34 ii.
Ohod, defeat at, alluded to, iii. 121 seq. notes.
Okail (Abu), his charity, ix. 80 n.
Okatz, the fair, suppressed by Muhammad, P.D. 53.
Omar, his conversion, P.D. 78 ; decides a dispute between a Jew and a Muslim, iv. 18 n.
Omm Salma, one of Muhammad's wives, xviii. 131 n.
Orphans, the oppression of them denounced, lxxxix. 18, &c. to be treated kindly, ii. 220 n., xciii. 9, 10 n. ; their rights to be maintained, iv. 2—8 notes.
Orthodox, the sect of that name, iii. 95 a., xvi. 121 n. ; who are orthodox Muslims, ix. 85 n.
Othma.n Ibn Affan, sent by Muhammad to the Quraish, is imprisoned, xlviii. 18; contributes largely to the expedition to Tabuk, ix. 80 n.
Othmá,n Ibn Matun, his conversion occasioned by a passage of the Qurán, xvi. 92 n.


Othman Ibn Talha, the keys of the Kaabah returned to him by Muhammad, iv. 56.
Oven, whence the first waters of the Deluge poured forth, xi. 40 n.

Parables, of the Quran, ii. 261, &c., xi. 25, xiv. 29 n., xvi. 77, 78, xviii. 31 n., xxi. 19—31, xxiv. 35, xxix. 40, xxxviii. 23, lvii. 13.
Paraclete, Muhammad's claim to be the, lxi. 6 n. Paradise, created before the world, P.D. 153; described, P.D. 153—160, xiii. 35, xlvii. 16, &c.; various names, P.D. 155; where situated, ii. 35 n. ; its fruits described, ii.. 25; Muslim notions obtained from Magians, P.D. 160; inherited by Muslims and their wives, xliii. 68—73; the rewards of, P.D. 154—160, xliv. 51—57, lv. 46—78, lvi. 12—39; different kinds of happiness, lv. 56—68 notes; the pleasures of Paradise carnal and not spiritual, ii. 25 n., iii. 15 n., 196 and 197 notes, ix. 73 n., xv. 47 n., xxxii. 17 n., xxxix. 74 n., lxxviii. 31—3 7 and P.D. 158—163; Muslim and Christian Paradise compared, P.D. ,61.
Pardon, will be granted to the penitent, ix.. 5 God only pardons sin, xiii. 7; obtained by repentance and good works, iv. 30, viii. 29; received on the ground of faith, xxiii. 73.
Parents to be honoured, xvii. 24, &c.,'and xlvi. 14.
Patience, recommended, iii. 200; the sign of a true believer, ix. 109 n.
Patriarchs, before Moses, neither Jews nor Christians, ii. 140.
Pen, with which God's decrees are written, lxviii. 1 n.
Penitent, their reward, ix. 113.
Pentateuch, given to Moses, vi. 92; sent down to guide mankind, iii. 3 n. ; attested by Muhammad as genuine, P.D. 122 and 126, iii. 93 n., vi. 154 n., xlviii. 70—72 ; preserved Uncorrupted in the days of Muhammad, x. 94, 95, and xi. 18.
Perjury, Muslim opinion, v. 91 n.
Persians, overcome by the Greeks, xxx. i n. ; their influence in Arabia, P.D. 28; the decline of their empire, P.D. 66, 67.
Peter, the Apostle, his stratagem at Antioch, xxxvi. 12 n.
Pharaoh, his story, vii. 104, &c., x. 76, &c., xxvii. 3; a punishment used by him, xxxviii. 11 n.; his presumption, xliii. 50 &c. ; destroyed for rejecting Moses, xliv. 16—32.
Pico de Adam. See Serendib.
Pilgrimage, to Makkah, necessary, P.D. 178, 179, ii. 196 n., xxii. 25 n. ; fame of, and ceremonies connected with it, P.D. 185— 188, v. 2—5, and 96—98; the practice borrowed from heathenism, P.D. 188—190; object of pilgrimage, P.D. 189; trading


at Makkah allowable for pilgrims, ii. 198 n.; none excused from the duty except the incapable, iii. 97 n., xxii. 25 n.
Pledges, to be given where no contract in writing, ii. 282.
Poetry, style of ancient Arab, P.D. 52; poets honoured and rewarded, P.D. 52, 53.
Poets, used and censured by Muhammad, xxvi. 228 n.
Polygamy, laws regulating, P.D. 205—207, iv. 3na., xxxiii. 4 n. See Marriage.
Pomp, of this life, of no value, xxviii. 60.
Poor, oppression of the, denounced, lxxxix. 18—22.
Prayer, commanded and enforced, ii. 42 and 109, iv. 102, xx. 132, &c.; not to be entered on by him who is drunk, iv. 46; should pray before reading the Qurán, xvi. 100 ; prayer of the angels for the penitent, xl. 7 n. ; ceremonial cleanliness necessary to, iv. 46, v. 8 in time of war, armour may be worn during prayers, iv. 101 ; a prayer for light, i. 1—7; a prayer for forgiveness, iii. 16; prayer of a believer, ii. 238, iii. 8 and 192—195, x. 10, n, xvii. 82; a prayer of Abraham, xiv. 38—42; prayers accepted by God, iii. 196; Muslim doctrine of prayer described in detail, P.D. 165—171; stated hours of prayer, P.D. 169—171, ii. 109 and 238 notes, V. 105 n., vii. 205 n., xvii. 80, 81 notes; postures in prayer, iii. 192 n. prayer for the dead, ix. 85 and 114 notes.
Predestination, the doctrine of, iii. 145 fl., xvii. 14.
Pre-existence, of souls, a doctrine not unknown to the Muhammadans, vii. 173.
Preserved Table, contains the eternal decrees of God, x. 62 the Qurán copied from it, xliii. 1—3.
Pride, abominable in the sight of God, xvii. 39.
Prodigality, a crime, xvii. 29 n.
Prophecies, concerning Muhammad, iii. 80 and 188 notes, viii. 158 n., lxi. 6; of victory, viii. 36 n., cx. I, &c.; Muhammad said to have prophesied he would rise from the dead within three days, iii. 144 n.; other prophecies of Muhammad, v. 59, ix. 42 and 96 notes, xi. 110 n., xxviii. 85 n., xxx. 1 n.
Prophets, distinction between Nabi and Rusul, xix. 42 n.; their enemy will have God for his, ii. 96; rejected and persecuted before Muhammad, vi. 33, and x. 40, xliii. 4—7; the Nabi-ul-a'zim, ii. 86 n.; they spoke by revelation from God, iv. 162 ; the guardians of God's word, v. 48; Satan their enemy, vi. 112 ; the number of prophets, v. 22 n., xiv. 10 n.; one sent to each nation, iv. 40 n., xxviii. 75 a.; Muhammad conceives of them as descendants or successors one of another, the number mentioned in the Quran, vi. 85 n.; all prophets obliged to make a great slaughter of infidels,


viii. 68 n.; Muslim false prophets, P.D. 270—280, v. 59 n.; those of the Old and New Testaments attested by the Quran, P.D. 125, lvii. 26, 27, ii. 177 n. ; all declared to be sinners by the Quran, iii. 147 n., xiv. 42 n., xxvi. 82 n., lxxi. 29.
Prosperity, or adversity, no mark of God's favour or disfavour, lxxxix. 18 n.
Psalms, the Book of, given to David, xvii. 57; confirmed by the Qurán, P.D. 123.
Punishments, and blessings, of the next life, vii, 36, &c. See Hell and Paradise.
Purifications, ceremonial, P.D. 165—167; whence practice was derived, P.D. 165, 166; based on cleanliness, P.D. 166; sand used instead of water, P.D. 167. See also Prayer.
Purgatory, Muslims only suffer for a short time in, iii. 24 n., ix. 114 n.

Qáb, Ibn Asad, persuades the Jews to desert Muhammad, xxi. 26 n.
Qáb, Ibn al Ashraf, a Jew, Muhammad's inveterate enemy, iii. 71 n.; Muhammad causes him to be slain, lix. 2 n.
Qadarians, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 248—250.
Qarun, his story and fearful end, xxviii. 76 n., xxix. 38.
Qibla, how to find the direction of, P.D. 170; the Jewish Qibla for a time adopted by Muhammad, P.D. 172 ; reason why no Qibla is wanted, ii. 115 n.; the Kaabah in Makkah adopted instead of Jerusalem, ii. 142—145 notes; the Kaabah the true Qibla, ii. 125. See also Kaabah and Makkah.
Quails, given the Israelites, what kind of birds they were, ii. 56 n.
Quarrels, between the true believers to be composed, xlix. 9; to be avoided on the pilgrimages, ii. 294.
Quraidha, their destruction, xxxiii. 26 n.
Quraish, chief tribe of Makkah, P.D. 30; their nobility, iii. 165 n.; not guardians of the Kaabah, viii. 34 n.; their hatred towards Muhammad, vi. 24 n., lxviii. 51, 52; their anger at the flight of Muslims to Madina, P.D. 85; Muhammad commanded to leave them, xliii. 88, 89; they conspire to kill Muhammad, P.D. 85, viii. 30, xxxviii. 10 n.; the claim that they are the children of Abraham, ii. 129 n.; plagued with famine, xxiii. 65 n.; threatened with destruction, xi. 110 a., xvii. 78 n.; demand miracles of Muhammad, Xiii. 30 a.; propound three questions, xvii. 87 n.; make a truce with Muhammad at Hudaibiyah, xlviii. 24 n.; violate truce and lose Makkah, xlviii. 1 n.
Qurán, meaning of the word, P.D. 96; other titles, p.ii 97, xv. 9 n.; divisions of, P.D. 97—100; letters at the beginning of


the chapters, P.O. 100—102; language, style, and composition P.D. 102—104; design, doctrine, and relation to the Scriptures, P.D. 105, 106; declared to be given by revel from God, xli. 1—3 and 41, 42, xlii. 1-2, lxix. 38—52, introd., and iv. 163; why revealed in the Arabic lang xli. 44, xlii. 5,- xliv. 58, xii. 2 a.; copied from the Pres Table, P.D. 108, i. introd., xii. 39, xliii. 1—3, 1. 2 n., lxxxv. 22; believed to be eternal, P.D. 111, 112, xxxvi. 82 other opinions in regard to, P.D. 112, 113; punishment of those who reject it, xlv. 6—10; the author of the Qurán Muhammad, P.D. 106, 107 composed by him during night-time, lxxiii. 20 n.; revealed to Muhammad by God, 17—19, liii. 6; regarded as a forgery by the Jews, v. 11 n.; xvi. 105 n., xlvi. 10 (see also Muhammad); regarded the first as a complete volume, ii. 152 n., vi. 19 n., vii. 53 n., xv. 1 n., lxxv. 16—19 n.; explained by tradition. lxxv. 19 n.; confirms the Pentateuch, iii. 83 n., v. 50., xxviii. 48, 49 n., xlvi. 11 ; confirmed by the for Scriptures, xx. 133 n., lxxxvii. 18, 19 contains everything necessary to be known, xvi. 92 n.; imperfect, ii. 17 n., iii. 26, 27, and 130 notes, viii. 75 n., xv. 9 n., xvii. 2 n., xxx. 1 n., xliii. 88 n. ; twenty-three years in completing, xxv. 34 n.; contrast between Makkan and Madina chapters, xl introd. ; Othman's recension described, P.D. 109; Muslim reverence for tile Quran, P.D. 114; doubt cast on its be from God by its own self-assertion, ii. 2 n. vii. 2 n.; none can write a book like it, ii. 23 n., vi. 94 n., xi. 14 n., xvii. 90; Arabs not convinced of its inimitable style, viii. 31 xxi. 5 n. ; its influence due to its teachings, ii. 45 n. said to be the Word of God, ii. 88 n.; claims to attest former Scriptures, ii. 90 n., xii. ii n.; it attests the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, ii. 40, 91, 96 and 100, iii. 2 80, iv. 45—49, 135 and 161, v. 47—52, 72, vi. 90, 93, 154, ix. 112, x. 38, xi. 18, xii. 111, xxi. 105, xxv. xxviii. 43, xxxv. 23 and 28, xxxvii. 116, xl. 56, xlvi. 11, lvii. 27; Muslim scrules to preserve the text pure, ii. 210 n., xxii. 38 n. ; its contradictions of the teachings of former Scriptures, ii. 243 n., 246—249 n., 259, 271 notes, 2, 35, 148 notes, iv. 169 n., v. 53 a., vii. 81, 85, and notes, ix. 112 n., x. 79 a., xi. 40 and 82 notes, xii. through out, xiv. 13 n., xvi. 95 and 125 notes, xix. 8 and 23 notes; xx. 31—35, xxii. 36 n., xxvii. 23 and 29 notes, xxiv. 13 n.; classification of its revelations, iii. 7 n.; its interpretation known wholly only to God, iii. 7 n., vii. 55 n.; claims to be free from self-contradiction, iv. 81; contradicts itself, iii. 13


n., iv. 81 n., viii. 45, 46 n., ix. 40 n., xvi. 93 n, xx. 91 n., xxv.53 n., xxvi. 94 n., xxvii. 8 and 10 notes, xxxii. 4 a., xxxix. 24 n.; contradicts science, xv. 19 n., xviii. 59 n., xxxi. 9 n.; not eternal, xxxvi. 82 n.; it is pledged to keep the former Scriptures from corruption, xl. 56 n.

Rahun. See Sarandib.
Raina, a word used by the Jews to Muhammad by way of derision, ii. 103.
Raqun (Al), what, xviii. 17 n.
Ramadhan, the month appointed for a fast, P.D. 175—177, ii. 184—187 note.
Ransom, of captives, disapproved, viii. 69 n.
Rass (Al), various opinions concerning it, xxv. 40, 41 n. dwellers at, xi. 26—100 notes, l2.
Rationalism, its relation to Islam, vi. 19 n.
Rázika, an idol of A'd, vii. 66 n.
Relationships, in the order of hereditary rights, iv. 10—13 notes.
Religion, originally but one, ii. 212 n. ; the true religion is Islam, iii. 19 n.; ancestral religion no excuse for idolatry, ii. 171 n., xliii. 19—24; the religion of the ancient Arabians, P.D. 36—43; the character of true religion, ii. 177 n.; not to be propagated by violence, ii. 256 n., iv. 94 n., xi. 29 n.; Islam to be propagated by the sword, ii. 190—193, viii. 40 n., ix. 1—6, 28, 29 and 124 notes; various sects, xxiii. 55.
Religious leaders, the fate of false teachers, xli. 29.
Repentance, necessary to salvation, ii. 16 n., xxxix. 55, 56; its evidence, ix. i l. n.; repentance after the judgment of no avail, xlii. 46.
Reprobates, the doctrine of reprobation, P.D. 164; God reprobates whom he will, xvi. 9 n., 39 n., and 109 n.; the miserable condition of reprobates, vi. 125 n., xlii. 42—45.
Resurrection, the doctrine asserted, xvii. 52, &c., l. 19, &c.; denied by the ancient Arabians, P.D. 43; one of the five fundamental doctrines of Islam, P.D. 126; Muslim opinions concealing it, P.O. 130—141; the doctrine ridiculed by the Quraish, vi. 28; proof of the doctrine, l. 6—11, and lvi. 57—73; the object of the resurrection, P.D. 140; the state of those raised pending judgment, P.D. 140—142; the time known only to God, xxxii. 17; signs of its approach, P.D. 131—137, lxxv. 7, &c.; to be general, P.D. 138; manner of the rising of the dead, P.D. 138—140, xxiii. 102, &c., lxxx. 33—42.


Retaliation, the law relating to, P.D. 216, ii. 178 n.; mutual retaliation of the judgment-day, P.D. 145, 146.
Revelation, the character of Muslim, iv. 162, 163 notes; revelations in writing given to several prophets, ii. 4 n. See also Inspiration.
Revenge, allowed, xxii. 61 n.
Rewards, bestowed on the ground of God's mercy, P.D. 156; granted in accordance with justice, iii. 164 n. ; described, P.D. 157.
Riches, will not gain a man admission to Paradise, xxxiv. 36; they employ a man's whole life, cii. 1.
Right way, what the Muhammadans so call, i. 5—7 n.
Righteous, their reward. See Paradise.
Righteousness, wherein it consists, ii. 177, &c. ; that which is required in dealing, ii. 188 and 282.
Rites, appointed in every religion, xxii. 68.
Rock, whence Noses produced water, ii. 59 n.
Romans, decline of their empire, P.D. 65.
Ruh-ul-Amin, a name of Gabriel, xxvi. 193 n., liii. 6.

Saad Ibn Abi Waqqas, mentioned, viii. 1 n.
Saad Ibn Muádh, his severity, viii. 69 a.; dooms the Bani Quraidha to destruction, xxxiii. 26 n.
Saba, queen of. See Balqis.
Saba, the wickedness of his posterity, and their punishment, xxxiv. 15; the city of, and its destruction, P.D. 27.
Sabians, their religion described, P.D. 34; called the Christians of St. John the Baptist, P.D. 35, and ii. 61 n.
Sabbath, time transgression of, punished, vii. 1 64; the Sabbath of Islánm, Xvi. 125 fl., lxii. 9 n.
Sacred animals, described, v. 102.
Sacred territory, described, P.D. 181, v. 96—98.
Sacrifices, appointed for all nations, xxii. 36; at time Ashura, P.D. 178; at the pilgrimage, P.D. 188; not to be regarded as a mere form, xxii. 39; never offered by Muslims as a sin offering, ii. 82 n., iii. 194 n. ; Muhammad not ignorant of the Jewish practice, ii. 66—70, and iii. 194 n.
Sadaqa. See Almsgiving.
Safá and Marwá, mountains and monuments of, ii. 159 n.; description of rites at these places, P.D. 187.
Safia, one of Muhammad's wives, xlix. I I n.
Sáhira, one of the names of hell, lxxix. 14 n.
Saiba, a sacred animal, v. 102.
Saints, Muslim worship of, iii. 63 n.


Sajáj, the prophetess, P.D. 273, v. 59.
Sákia, an idol of A'd, vii. 66 n.
Sakinat. See Shechinah.
Sakhar, - a devil, gets Solomon's signet and reigns in his stead, his punishment, xxxviii. 32 n.
Sálih, the prophet, his story, P.D. 22, vii. 74 n. See also Thamud.
Salima, an idol of A'd, vii. 66 n.
Salsabil, the fountain of, P.D. 154, lxxvi. 18.
Salutation, mutual, recommended, iv. 85 n.; form of, among Muslims, iv. 85 n., xxv. 18 n.
Salvation, who will be saved, ii. 61, v. 73, xi. 12, xxiv. 52; by faith, ii. 3—5, 37 and 38, iii. 194, iv. 55 and 174; by grace and works, ii. 81, 111, and 161 notes, iii. 196 n., vii. 44 n., xxxv. 48 n., xl. 17 n.; by repentance, faith, pilgrimage, and warring for the faith, ii. 217, iii. 196, &c.; salvation by atonement rejected by Muhammad, xvi. 34 a. (see also Atonement); by grace only, xxxvii. 39 and 55.
Samairi, makes a golden calf for Aaron, ii. 50 n., xx. 96 n.
Sarab, what, xxiv. 39, 40 n.
Saracens, the name, P.D. 13.
Sarah, wife of Abraham, her laughing, xi. 71 n.
Sarandib, the isle on which Adam fell when cast out of Paradise, his footprint shown there, ii. 35 n.
Satan, Muslim belief concerning him, P.D. 120, 121, ii. 34, &c., vii. 216; his wife and family, xviii. 48 n.; tempts Muslims to apostatise, ii. 207 n.; how he influenced Muhammad, iv. 116 n., liii. 9 n.; God the refuge of Muhammad and his people against his evil suggestions, xli. 36; deceives Adam and Eve, and is punished, vii. 18; he assisted the Quraish, viii. 50 n. See also Iblis.
Saul, his story, ii. 247, &c.
Science, what it owes to Muslim learning, P.D. 58—60; scholastic divinity, P.D. 233; Muslim jurisprudence, P.D. 234.
Scriptures, of the Old and New Testament; the teaching of the Qurán in re, P.D. 122—125; Muhammad commanded to believe them, iii. 119 n., xlii. 14 Muhammad's knowledge of them acquired from others, ii. 46 n., xxviii. 11 n., xxxvii. 146 n.; current in the days of Muhammad, ii. 40, 77, 90, 100, 112 notes, iii. 23, 64, 77 notes, iv. 45 n., v. 77, 86 notes, x.. 38 and 94 notes, xii. 111 n., xvi. 45, xxi. 7 n., xxviii. 49 n., xxii 45 n.; the text not corrupt in Muhammad's estimation, ii. 41, 78 and 121 notes, iii. 77 n., iv. 44 n., v. 47, 48 n., xviii. 26 a.; if those now current are corrupt, Muhammad and his followers are responsible, v. 86 n., xvi.


55 a., xl. 56 n. ; they are not abrogated in the Muslim sense, ii. 105 n.
Sects, time orthodox sects of Islam, P.D. 236—24 I ; the heretical sects, P.D. 241—290; sects of Jews and Christians alluded to, iii. 105 n.
Sennacherib, alluded, to, xvii. 5 n.
Sepulchre, the examination of, P.D. 127, iv. 96 n.; this doctrine borrowed from the Jews, P.D. 127.
Sergius, the monk, xvi. 105 n.
Serpent, his sentence for assisting in the seduction of man, vii. 18.
Service, of danger, described, iv. 100, 101 notes.
Seven sleepers, story of, xviii. 15 n.; the only story but, one from church history found in the Quxan, xxxvi. 12 n.
Seventy Israelites demand to see God, are killed by lightning, and restored to life at the prayer of Moses, ii. 54 n.
Sháffites, their founder and doctrines, P.D. 239, 240.
Shamhozai, a debauched angel, his penance, ii. 101 n.
Shas Ibn Qais, a Jew, promotes a quarrel between Aus and Khazraj, iii. 100 n.
Shechinah, allusion to it, ii. 248 n., ix. 26 n.
Sheddad, son of A'd, makes a garden in imitation of Paradise, and is destroyed in going to view it, lxxxix. 6 n.
Shedim, Jewish faith in them compared with Muslim faith in genii, P.D. 121.
Shiahs, their distinguishing doctrines, P.D. 264—270.
Shuaib, the prophet, his story, vii. 86—94 B., xii. 83, &c., 176—191.
Sifátians, their founder and sects, P.D. 250 and 253.
Sijil (Al), the angel who takes an account of men's actions, xxi. 104 n.
Sijjin, lxxxiii. 7—9.
Simon, the Cyrenian, supposed to be crucified instead of Jesus, iii. 53 n.
Sin, great and small, iv. 30 n.; the unpardonable sin, ii. 80 n., iv. 46 n., xiv. 39 n. ; defined to be a wilful violation of known law, ii. 284—286 a., ix. 116 n., lxxix. 35 n. lxxxvi. 9 n.; the sins of believers are expiated, xlvii. 2, 3.
Sinai, Mount, lifted up over the heads of the Israelites, ii. 62 and 92 ; time souls of all the prophets present there at the delivery of time law to Moses, iii. 80 n.
Sinners, the first was Adam, ii. 35; their portion is hell, xviii. 51, xix. 89, and, xx. 76.
Sirius, or the greater dog-star, worshipped by the old Arabs, liii..50 n.


Slander, forbidden, xlix. 12; the punishment of those who slander the prophets, ix. 66, civ. 1 n.
Slavery, freeing of slaves commended, xxiv. 33 n., xc. 8-16 n.; slaveholding not a sin, iv. 24 n., xxiv. 33 n. xc. 13 n.; its moral influence, iv. 3 n.; Muhammad's responsibility for slavery, iv. 24 n..
Smoke, of the judgement day, P.D. 133, xliv. 9 n.
Sodom, destroyed, vii. 85 n., xl. 89, & 80, &c., li. 31-37.
Sodomy, iv. 15 n.
Solomon, succeeds David, xxvii. 16; his power over the winds, xxi. 81, xxxviii. 35; his and David's judgment, xxi. 79 n.; his manner of traveling, xxvii. 20 n.; what passed between him and the Queen of Sabá, xxvii. 23, &c.; a trick of the devils to blast his character, ii. 101 n.; orders several of his horses to be killed because they had diverted. him from his prayers, xxxviii.30 n.; deprived of his signet and his kingdom for some days, xxxviii. 33 n.; his death concealed for a year, in what manner, xxxiv. 13 n.
Somnath, the idol of, P.D. 41.
Son of God, the Christian doctrine concerning him misunder stood by Muhammad, ii. 116 n.; Muhammad's declaration that if God had a son he would be the first to worship him, xliii. 81 and 82.
Sorcerers, those of Egypt believe in Moses, vii. 111, &c., xxvi. 33, &c.
Soul, its origin, xvii. 87; state of the soul after death, P.D. 127; examined in the sepulchre, P.D. 127.
Spirit (the Holy), the Angel Gabriel so called, ii. 86 and 253 notes, xvi. 2 and 104 notes, xviii. 87 n., xxxii. 8 n.
Spoils, laws relating to, P.D. 222—226, viii. 1, &c., notes; given as a reward of faithfulness, iii. 152 a., ix. 75 n., xlviii. 18 and 19 special ruling in regard to them, lix. 6—10; Muslims slain for the sake of spoil, iv. 93 n. ; spoils of Badr, viii. 48 n.; a quarrel over them, viii. 48 n., ix. 58, 59 n.
Stars, shooting stars thrown by the genii, lxxxvi. introd.
Star-worship See Idols and Idolatry.
Stoning, as a punishment, iii. 23 n.
Stones, worship of. See Idols and Idolatry. Strategy, justified, viii. 6o n.
Sufián (Abu), commands the army of the Quraish at Ohod, iii. 121 n.; and the convoy of the caravan at Badr, viii. 121 n.; challenges Muhammad to meet him at Badr a second time, iii. 173 n.; but fails to do so, iii. 173 n.; embraces Muham-


madanism on the taking of Makkah, lx. 7 n.; expostulates with Muhammad, xxiii. 76 n.
Sufis, their pantheism, P.D. 267, 268.
Suhaib, flies to Madina, ii. 206 n.
Suhail, Ibn Amru, treats with Muhammad on Quraish, xlviii. 26 n.
Sunnis, a sect of the Muslims, P.D. 237.
Supererogation, xvii. 81.
Superstitions, of the ancient Arabs, P.D. 43, 44 superstitions conserved in Islam, P.D. 178—190.
Sura, or chapter of the Quran, i. introd., ix. 65 n.; chronological order of the, see table at p. 302, vol. iv.
Suráqah Ibn Malik, time devil appears in his form, viii. 50 n.
Sun and moon, not to be worshipped, xlvii. 37.
Swines' flesh. See Things forbidden.

Tabála and Jorash, inhabitants thereof embrace Islam, ix. 28 n.
Tables, of the law, vii. 145 n.
Tabuk, the expedition of, ix. 38 n.
Taghut, an Arab idol, ii. 256 n., iv. 58 n., xvi. 38 n.
Taháma, its boundaries, climate, &c., P.D. 19.
Tasm, the tribe, almost destroyed, P.D. 23.
Tasnim, a fountain in Paradise, P.D. 154—157, lxxxiii. 27 n.
Tayif, the inhabitants of, reject Muhamnmad, P.D. 79.
Tawáf, the march around the Kaabah, ii. 198, 199.
Temple, of Makkah, see Kaabah; of Jerusalem, built by genii, xxxiv. 13 n.; the idol temples of ancient Arabians, P.D. 38.
Testimony, law of, v. 105—107.
Thakif, the tribe of, demand terms of Muhammad, which are denied, xvii. 75 n.
Thálaba, grows suddenly rich on Muhammad's prayer for him, but ref using to pay alms, is again reduced to poverty, ix. 76 n.
Thamámians, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 248.
Thamád, the tribe of, their story, P.D. 22, vii. 74, &c., xi. 61, and xxvi. 141, &c.
Theft, laws relating to, P.D. 216, v. 42.
Things forbidden, laws for meats and drinks, P.D. 191 and 197, v. 2—5 n.; why wine was forbidden, P.D. 193; question of coffee and tobacco, P.D. 192 games forbidden, P.D. 193— 196; divining by arrows forbidden, P. D. 196, 197; blood and swine's flesh forbidden, P.D. 198; usury forbidden, P.D. 199, ii. 275 n.; infanticide forbidden, P.D. 202—204; sacrificing of children forbidden, P.D. 204 flesh of sacred animals for-


bidden, vi. 143, 144; silk clothing forbidden, xxii. 23 n.; meats offered to idols forbidden for food, P.D. 198.

Throne, of God, ii. 255; will be borne by eight angels on the day of judgment, lxix. 17.
Thur, a mountain, in a cave of which Muhammad concealed himself in the flight from Makkah, P.D. 86.
Tima Aba Ubairak, his theft, iv. 104 n.
Time, computed by the sun and moon, vi. 97.
Titian, the name of the person supposed to have been crucified instead of Jesus, iii. 53 n.
Tobacco. See Things forbidden.
Tradition, when relating to genealogies, copied from that of the Jews, P.D. 25 n.
Translations, of the Qurán, P.D. 115.
Tree, of knowledge of good and evil, confounded in Qurán with the tree of life, vii. 21 n.
Tribute, its imposition, ix. 29 n.
Trinity, the doctrine according to Islam, iii. 2 n., iv. 169 n.; doctrine rejected by Muhammad, iii. 2 n., iv. 169 n., and v. 116 n.
Trump, of the resurrection, P.D. 135, 136, xxvii. 89, xxxix. 68.
Tába, the tree of Paradise, P.D. -153, .154.
Tubba, descended from Qahlan, P.D. 26; they are destroyed, xliv. 33—37.
Tulaiha, a false prophet of Islam, P.O. 272, 273, V. 59 fl.~ Xxxiii. 9 n.
Turks, their rule in Arabia, P.D. 31—33 and notes.
Tuwa, the valley where Moses saw the burning bush, lxxix. 16.

Ummi, a title assumed by Muhammad, vii. 158, lxii. 2.
Ummat, what, iii. 64 a., 110 n., x. 20, xlv. 25 n.
Unbelievers, described, xxxiv. 42, &c.; they oppose the truth with blasphemous levity, xli. 25—28 n.; they shall not escape in the judgment, xli. 8—2 2, 49, 5 2—54, xlvii. 9—17, 1. 12, 13; their punishment, ii. 162, iv. 54.
Unity, of God, asserted, cxii. i, &c.
Usury. See Things forbidden.
Uzza (Al), an idol of the Quraish, P.D. 39, iv. 116, xxxix. 37 n.

Various readings, of the Quran, P.D. 110, iii. 115 n., and 165 n., vi. 62 n., xxx. I n.
Victory, of the Greeks over the Persians, foretold by Muhammad, xxx. 1 n.
Virgin Mary, was worshipped by Christians in the days of Muhammad, P.D. 64.


Wahábis, their founder and doctrine, P.D. 281—283 ; defeated by Ibrahim Pasha, P.D. 32 n.; they repeat the "Amen" in a loud voice, xx. 6 n.
Wahi. See Inspiration and Revelation.
Wáidians, their name and peculiarities, P.D. 264.
Walid, Ibn al Mughaira, a great enemy of Muhammad, was a bastard, invective against, lxviii. 9—16 n.; derides Muhammad for calling God al Rahman, vii. 181 n. ; his prosperity and decay, lxxiv. II, &c., notes; his death, xv. 95 n.; constituted a typical enemy of Islam, xc. introd.
Walid, Ibn Uqba, xlix. 6 n.
War, against infidels, commanded, P.D. 218, iv. 83, viii. 62—68, xlvii. 4 and 5; how war should be conducted against infidels, P.D. 220—222, xlvii. 4, 5 forbidden in the month of Ramadhán, ii. 16; Muslims bound to help in holy war (Jihad), ii. 190—193, 217, 244—246 notes, xlvii. 37—40, lvii. 7—11; who may be excused from fighting in holy warfare, ix. 92; rewards of those who fight, xlvii. 6—8; those slain in holy war counted martyrs, iii. 140 and 158.
Waraqa, confirms Khadjiah's faith in her husband, P.D. 75.
Wasila, described, v. 102.
Water, produced from the rock by Moses, ii. 59.
Weight, to he just, and false weights denounced, vii. 86, lxxxiii. 1—6.
Whoredom, laws concerning, iv. 14, xxiv. 4.
Wicked, their sentence, x. 71, xiv. 50, &c., lxxvii. 16, &c. See also Unbelievers.
Widows, to be provided for, ii. 240; laws relating to them, ii. 234.
Wills, laws concerning them, P.D. 213, iv. 6—32 ; not to be tampered with, ii. 181, 182, v. 105 n.
Winds, their use, xxx. 45, &c. ; subject to Solomon, xxi. 81 n., xxxviii. 35.
Wine, the drinking of, forbidden, P.D. 191, ii. 218 n., iv. 42 n., v. 92, 93 n. ; rivers of, in Paradise, xxxvii. 44, &c., xlvii. 16 n., lxxvi. 5 n.
Witchcraft, used against Muhammad, cxiii. i, &c.
Witnesses, laws relating to them, iv. 133, v. 9; necessary in bargains and to secure debts, ii. 283.
Wives, number allowed by the Qurán, iv. 3 n.; their duty to their husbands, ii. 228; their position in relation to their husbands, iv. 33 n. may be chastised, iv. 33 a. See also Adultery, Divorce, Marriage, and Women.
Women, to be respected, iv. I; requirements of Islam in regard to them, ii. 22 1—223 ; if converted to Islam, they are


ipso facto divorced from unbelieving husbands, lx. 10; how married if twice divorced, ii. 230; their apparel in time of prayer, P.D. 171; the wives of ancients an example to them, lxvi. 10—12; they ought to have part of their relations' inheritance, iv. 6; not to be inherited against their will, iv. 18; to be subject to the men, iv. 33; some directions for their conduct, xxiv. 31, &c.; punishment of - those who falsely accuse them of incontinence, xxiv. 4, &c. ; their rewards in Paradise, P.D. 163, iii. 196 n., iv. 123; their degradation under Islam, ii. 282 n., iv. 15, 33 and 127 notes, xxiv. introd. 13 n.
Works, of an infidel, will appear to him at the last day, vi. 30 n.
Writing, the art, in Arabia, P.D. 50, 51; known to Muhammad, x. 17 n., xxix. 47 n.

Yajuj and Majuj. See Gog and Magog.
Yamáma (Al), the province described, P.D. 193 the city of Musailama, the false prophet, P.D. 19, its people warlike, xlviii. 16 n.
Yaman, described, P.D. 14, 15 climate and productions, P.D. 15, 16; founder of the kingdom., P.D. 26; its Himyar and Qahlan princes, P.D. 26; conquered by the Ethiopians, P.D. 28; Persian supremacy established, P.D. 28; Muslim rulers of, P.D. 30, 31 n.; the inhabitants of it slay their prophet, xxi. 10.
Yathrib, the ancient name of Madina, xxxiii. 13.

Zabir (Al), Mount, vii. 143 n.
Zacharias, his story, iii. 38, &C., xix. 7, &c.; praying for a son, is promised John, iii. 38, 39; educates the Virgin Mary, iii. 44; 15 numbered among the prophets, vi. 86 n.
Zaid, Ibn A'mru, acknowledges one God before the mission of Muhammad, iv. 82 n.
Zaid, the husband of Zainab, his story, xxxiii. 36—40 notes; divorces his wife in favour of Muhammad, xxxiii. 37 n.; the only person of Muhammad's company named in the Quran, xxxiii. 37.
Zainab. See Zaid.
Zakat, described, P.D. 89, ii. 42 n.; rules concerning it, P.D. 172—174, ix. 60 and 104.
Zamharir, the cold of, vi. 128 n.
Zamzam, the well described, P.D. 185 ; taste of its water.
Zanjabil, a stream in Paradise, xxvi. 17.


Zaqqám, the tree of hell, xvii. 62 n., xxxvii. 60.
Zendicism, its influence in Arabia, P.D. 48; its professors in the resurrection, P.D. 139.
Zulaikha, Joseph's mistress, xii. 21, &c.
Zulkifl. See Ezekiel.
Zulqarnain. See Alexander the Great.


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