Revealed at Madina.


THIS chapter .has been thought by some authors to be of Makkan origin, but this opinion has nothing in its favour beyond the fact that it is found among Makkan revelations. We find herein all three of the Madina parties, Idolaters, Jews, and Christians, mentioned; while the style, language, and contents all point to Madina.

This chapter tells of the divisions and disputes which arose among the different religious sects at Madina, owing to some individuals from each party having become Muslims.

Probable Date of the Revelations.

The mention of disputes having arisen among the Jews and Christians owing to the proclamation of Islam at Madina, points to an early period at Madina as the date of this chapter.. The same may be inferred from that kindly spirit in which allusion is made to the Jews, who were so soon separated from the Prophet by bitterest enmity. For reasons like these, Noëldeke places this chapter immediately after chap. ii. in his chronological list of Suras.

Principal Subjects.

The idolaters stagger at the reyelations of the Qurán ... 1, 2
Jews and Christians dispute among themselves since the advent of Muhammad and his new religion. . . 3, 4
Unbelievers of all classes threatened with divine judgments...5
Muslims are "the best of creatures;" their reward... 6—8



SULS. 1/24.

(1) The unbelievers among those to whom the Scriptures were given, and among the idolaters, did not stagger until the clear evidence had come unto them: (2) an apostle from GOD, rehearsing unto them pure books of revelations, wherein are contained right discourses. (3) Neither were they unto whom the Scriptures were given divided among themselves until after the clear evidence had come unto them. (4) And they were commanded no other in the Scriptures than to worship GOD, exhibiting unto him the pure religion, and being orthodox ; and to be Constant at prayer, and to give alms; and this is the right religion. (5) Verily those who believe not, among those who have received the Scriptures, and among the idolaters, shall be cast into the fire of bell, to remain therein for ever. These are the worst of creatures. (6) But they who believe and do good works, these are the best of creatures: (7) their

(1) Did not stagger, i.e., "did not waver in their religion, or in their promises to follow the truth, when an apostle should come unto them. For the commentators pretend that before the appearance of Muhammad, the Jews and Christians, as well as the worshippers of idols, unanimously believed and expected the coming of that Prophet; until which time they declared they would persevere in their respective religions, and then would follow him; but when he came they rejected him through envy"— Sale, Jaláluddin, &c.

Clear evidence, viz., "Muhammad or the Qurán."—Sale.

(3) Until after, &c. "But when the promised Apostle was sent, and the truth became manifest to them, they withstood the clearest conviction, differing from one another in their opinions, some believing and acknowledging Muhammad to be the prophet foretold in the Scriptures, and others denying it."— Sale, Baidháwi.

See notes on chaps. vi. 20, VII. 160.

(4) They were commanded, &c. "But these divine precepts in the law and the Gospel have they corrupted, changed, and violated."— Sale, Baidháwi, &c.

This is the right religion, i.e., Islam. We have here another proof of the identity of Islam with Judaism and Christianity in the mind of Muhammad. He has therefore pointed to the evidence of the falsity of his own claim to be a true prophet of God.


reward with their LORD shall be gardens of perpetual abode, through which rivers flow; they shall remain therein for ever. (8) GOD will be well pleased in them; and they shall be well pleased in him. This is prepared for him who shall fear his LORD.

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