1, 2 Der Islam, Band IV, Animisme und Daemonenglaube. Der Islam, Band V, Heft I, "Die Entstehung der muslimischen Reinheitsgesetzgebung," von A. J. Wensinck.

3 Skeat's "Malay Magic," p. 278.

4, 5"Les Traditions de Bokhari," by O. Houdas p 126.

6 Bokhari: Chap. 33. Cf. Muslim, Vol.1, 207 - Arabic edition. "No one must enter or approach a mosque if he has eaten onion, or garlic, because the angels hate the smell as much as human beings do." Muslim : Vol.1: 210.

7 Bokhari: Kitab al Adhan: Section IV.

8 I am told by my sheikh from Al-Azhar that according to Moslem tradition it is bad luck (Makruh) to drink water or any liquid while one is standing. If however, one is compelled to drink standing one should move his big toe rapidly as this will ward off all harm. We find here the same superstitious custom of warding off evil spirits by moving the first toe up and down as that of the finger at the end of the ritual prayer.

9 Prayer is forbidden at three particular periods: at high noon because the devil is then in the ascendant; when the sun is rising because it rises between the horns of the devil, when the sun is at the setting because it sets between the horns of the devil. ." Ibn Maja": Vol. I, p.195.

10 Al-Bokhari, translated by Houdas (Paris, 1903), p. 190.

11 Skeat's "Malay Magic" p. 15.

12 Skeat's "Malay Magic," p. 545.

13 See "Muslim," Vol. 1, pp. 190, 193, 194, and Zarkani: "Com. on al-Muwatta," Vol. I, p. 283.

14 "Ibn Maja," Vol. I, p. 156, lines 10-12.

15 Ad-Damiri's "Hayat Al-Hayawan,3' Vol. I, p.708.

16 "Les Traductions de Bokhari," Houdas, p.179.

17 "Les Traductions de Bokhari," Houdas, p. 181.

18 "Muslim," Vol.1, p. 193.

19 Vol. 1, p. 158.

20 Vol. I, p. 158.

21 Vol. I, p. 134.

22 Takhlil is not only used of the fingers but of the toes as well, there also demons lurk. (See Sha'arani's "Lawa'ih al Anwar fi Tabakat al Ahjar, p. 26.)

23 In prayer there should be no gaps in the ranks of the worshipers lest Satan come between. Vol. I, p.131. One should blow the nostrils three times when awakening so as to drive away the devil. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 27. The Prophet forbade sleep in bathrooms because they are the abode of devils. Ibid., Vol. I, p 15. The Prophet forbade facing the Kibla when fulfilling a call of nature, for fear of Satan. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 15. The separation of the fingers (p. 30): the fingers of the right hand should be closed tight during prayer and of the left hand spread out, but the forefinger should reamin stright. Ibid., Vol I, p. 186. The forefinger should be bent when giving witness. Ibid., p. 187. The fingers should be moved. Ibid., p. 187. Turning the head around during prayer is caused by the devil. Ibid., Vol. I, p. 177.

24 Houdas' al Bukhari (French Trans.), p. 243; see also al Nasai, Vol. I, pp. 173 and 186-7.

25 Houdas' al Bukhari (French Trans.), p. 244.

26 See al Bukhari who gives certain chapters on magical formulas to be used on this occasion. Certain 6f the companions of the Prophet were celebrated as rain-makers.

27 Hurgronje's "The Achenese," pp. 285-6.

28 Skeat's "Malay Magic," p. 240.

29 Goldziher in the "Nöldeke Festschrift," Zauberelemente im Islamischen Gebet, p. 316.

30 "The Ban of the Bori," pp. 185, 189.

31 "A few days ago," writes Miss H. E. Levermore of Tsinchow, "the Moslems had a rain procession,- a thing rarely known with them. It is said once before they had one, and the informer significantly adds, 'and they revolted just after.' In this procession there was no noise, great order and devotion being observed. The Moslems walked the streets carrying incense and reading their incantations. Two chairs carrying Moslem sacred books were caned, whilst the priests had open Arabic Korans in their hands."

32, 33, 34 The Quran," Part II. Translated by E. H. Palmer. Suras 97, 100, 113, 114.