Ar: Banu Ummayah. The dynasty of caliphate that ruled the Muslims from A.H. 41 (A.D. 661) to A.H. (132) (A.D. 750). The rulers are descended from Mu`awiyah, a grandson of Ummayah, from the Quraysh tribe. Mu`awiyah is a grandson of Abu Sufyan, who one the death of al-Hasan, took possession of the Caliphate. His capital is in Damascus. The caliphs of this dynasty are

  1. Mu`awiyah, A.H. 41.
  2. Yazid (son of Mu`awiyah), A.H. 60
  3. Mu`awiyah, (son of Yazid) A.H. 64
  4. Marwan I (son of al-Hakam), A.H. 64
  5. Abdul Malik (son of Marwan), A.H. 65
  6. Al-Walid (son of Abdul Malik), A.H. 86
  7. Sulaiman (son of Abudl Malik), A.H. 96
  8. `Umar II (son of Abdul Aziz, son of Marwan), A.H. 99
  9. Yazid II (son of Abdul Malik), A.H. 101
  10. Hisham (son of Abdul Malik), A.H. 105
  11. Al-Walid II (son of Yazid), A.H. 125
  12. Yazid III (son of al-Walid), A.H., 126
  13. Ibrahim (son of Walid), A.H. 126
  14. Marwan II (son of Muhammad, son of Marwan), A.H. 127-132.
The Abbasids conquered Khorasan under the brothers Ibrahim and `Abu Abbas, and refused to acknowledge Marwan as Caliph. The latter was later defeated on the banks of Zab and fled to Egypt, where he was defeated and slain in A.H. 132 (A.D. 750). The Abbasid dynasty followed.

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