Honestly, I have never heard of him. I will take the author's word that Professor Siaveda exists, however, I have not been able to locate any books or papers written by him, which is rather odd considering the claim made on this site that he is "one of the most famous scientists in the world". I also find it odd that this site, which holds him in such high esteem, has two variant spellings of his name: Siaveda and Sieveda.
Wrong. There are many volcanic mountains that are on land, both extrusive and intrusive.
What is your definition of "light-low density material"? If the mountain and its "root" are composed of the same type of rock, the compressional forces would make the "root" rock denser than the rock at the top of the mountain. Think about it for a moment! In the case of mountains which are formed by block faults, as well as cinder cone volcanos, there is little , or no, portion of the mountain that extends deep below the surface of the earth.
Once again, this is not correct because compressional forces would make the "root" rock denser than the rock at the top of the mountain. In any event, is this what the Qur'an tells us?
That would be a logical deduction, however, where did Muhammad describe this? Is this in the Qur'an or the Hadith? In any case, the shape of a mountain is something that can be observed.
The depends on you definition of a mountain's "root". In the case of some igneous (volcanic) mountains, molten rock "intrudes" into the "throat" of a volcano's opening and cools, forming a relatively dense intrusion which extends below the surface of the earth. The material surrounding this intrusion is then eroded away leaving a volcanic "spine" or "neck". Ship Rock, in New Mexico, is an example. These features can have the appearance of "pegs" and, perhaps, the portion below the surface could be called a "root" - although the Qur'an does not say this! The term "root" is not in any of the passages in this section.
Incidentally, not all mountains have these "roots". For example, block faulted mountains and cinder cone volcanos have very different geological and geomorphological characteristics than the aforementioned intrusions.
Are you saying the Geography and Geology textbooks ARE NOT written by geologists and geographers? Who writes these texts, Economists?
Wow, that statement speaks volumes! Are you attempting to establish a statement as fact without any evidence? That is not the methodology of science.
Now we get to the "science" of the Qur'an:
Really? Why are earthquakes so very common in mountainous areas? Some Muslims say that this passage tells us that mountains do not change from day-to-day. Mountains are not exactly the same from day-to-day, even though we perceive them as static. Erosion, as well as mass wasting, glaciation, and vulcanism are processes which occur frequently, often on a daily basis, but we cannot perceive many of these changes without monitoring instruments. In this case, this ayah seems to be a mere human observation - that mountains are static.
"Pegs" for what? Also, Pickthall translates this term as "bulwarks" while Shakir translates it as "projections". In any case, what scientific fact can be derived from this passage?
This is the most incorrect and absurd statement in this chapter! If you do not believe me (I am a geologist), please check the University of Edinburgh's Global Earthquake Map. Notice that nearly ALL of the recent seismic activity is in mountainous areas. If the mountains are are "firmly fixed" and are supposed to prevent the earth from shaking, then I suggest that they are doing a very poor job!
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