The Gospel called Q refers to a hypothetical sayings Gospel believed to have been used by both Matthew and Luke. The word Q is actually an abbreviation for Quelle, the German word for "source." A prevailing theory in the study of the Synoptic Gospels and origins is that out of the first three canonical Gospels, Matthew, Mark and Luke, Mark is believed to have been the first one written. The theory also holds that Matthew and Luke are rewritten versions of Mark. Furthermore, a careful study of Matthew and Luke shows that these two Gospels contain similar material, consisting primarily of the sayings of Jesus, that is not found in Mark. Because of this, many scholars believe that there was another written source besides Mark, which both Matthew and Luke adopted sayings from and included within their narratives. This source is what is referred to as the Gospel "Q".
The readers may be asking why do we even bother bringing this up in the context of Christian-Muslim discussions. The reason is rather simple. In their zeal to do everything they can to discredit the NT books, specifically the canonical Gospels, Muslim polemicists have appealed to the Q Gospel. For some strange reason, these Muslims erroneously assume that Q somehow discredits the veracity of the NT, especially the Synoptic Gospels. They assume that Matthews and Lukes dependency on a non-canonical source undermines their inspiration and authenticity.
The Muslim reasoning is seriously flawed for several reasons. To begin with, these Muslims fail to realize that Q is merely a hypothesis that is not based on any historical or manuscript evidence. Q is simply a theory postulated by NT scholars, especially by critical scholars who do not hold to the inspiration of the Bible, to account for the common material found in the Matthew and Luke. The fact is that there is no hard data indicating that such a Gospel ever existed, and not every NT scholar is convinced that Q was one of the sources used by Matthew and Luke. There are now a growing number of scholars who believe that Q is actually the material compiled by Matthew, which Luke included along with his use of Marks Gospel. An example of one such scholar is Mark Goodacre (*).
Furthermore, many conservative, evangelical NT scholars accept Q as a possibility without this affecting their beliefs in the inspiration and authenticity of the NT documents, which basically shows that the Muslim assumption is seriously flawed. There is nothing inconsistent with believing in Qs existence and in the inspiration of the Gospels, since these beliefs do not cancel out each other. This leads us to our next point.
The veracity of the Christian faith isnt undermined either by the existence or use of non-canonical writings. After all, Luke even mentioned that there were many who had undertaken the task of compiling information on Jesus, sources which he carefully scrutinized:
"Inasmuch as many have undertaken to compile an account of the things accomplished among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and servants of the word, it seemed fitting for me as well, having investigated everything carefully from the beginning, to write it out for you in consecutive order, most excellent Theophilus; so that you may know the exact truth about the things you have been taught." Luke 1:1-4
Fourth, Qs existence would only solidify that the Canonical Gospels (more specifically, the Synoptics) are based on early, authentic, eyewitness testimony. The late, renowned NT Scholar, F.F. Bruce summed up the evidence which points to Q possibly being the Aramaic sayings of Jesus compiled by Matthew, and how this actually strengthens the historical veracity of the Gospel material:
The gospel as preached in those early days emphasised what Jesus did rather than what He said. The proclamation which led to the conversion of Jews and Gentiles was the good news that by His death and triumph He had procured remission of sins and opened the kingdom of heaven to all believers But when they became Christians they had much more to learn, and in particular the teaching of Jesus. Now it is striking that the greater part of the non-Markan material common to Matthew and Luke consists of sayings of Jesus. This has led to the conjecture of another early document on which both Matthew and Luke drew for their common nonMarkan material, the document usually referred to as 'Q', and envisaged as a collection of sayings of Jesus.' Whatever may be the truth about such a document, it will be convenient to use 'Q' as a symbol denoting this non-Markan material common to Matthew and Luke. There is evidence in the Greek of this 'Q' material that it has been translated from Aramaic, and possibly from an Aramaic document, not merely from an Aramaic oral tradition. Aramaic is known to have been the common language of Palestine, and especially of Galilee, in the time of Christ, and was in all probability the language which He and His apostles habitually spoke. The New Testament writers usually call it 'Hebrew', thus not distinguishing in name between it and its sister language in which most of the Old Testament was written. Now, we have evidence of an early Aramaic document in another fragment of Papias: 'Matthew compiled the Logia in the "Hebrew" speech [i.e. Aramaic], and every one translated them as best he could.' Various suggestions have been made as to the meaning of this term 'Logia', which literally means 'oracles'; but the most probable explanation is that it refers to a collection of our Lord's sayings. It is used in the New Testament of the oracles communicated through the Old Testament prophets, and Jesus was regarded by His followers as 'a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people.' Now, when an attempt is made to isolate the document underlying the 'Q' material in Matthew and Luke, it appears to have been constructed very much on the lines of one of the prophetical books of the Old Testament. These books commonly contain an account of the prophet's call to his distinctive ministry, with a record of his oracles set in a narrative framework, but no mention of the prophet's death. So this document, when reconstructed on the evidence provided by Matthew and Luke's Gospels, is seen to begin with an account of Jesus' baptism by John and His temptation in the wilderness, which formed the prelude to His Galilean ministry, followed by groups of His sayings set in a minimum of narrative framework, but it evidently did not tell the story of His passion. His teaching is set forth in four main groupings, which may be entitled: (a) Jesus and John the Baptist; (b) Jesus and His disciples; (c) Jesus and His opponents; (d) Jesus and the future.'
It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that Papias was referring to just such a work as this when he said that Matthew compiled the Logia. His further statement, that the Logia were compiled in the 'Hebrew speech', accords with the internal evidence that an Aramaic substratum underlies the 'Q' material in Matthew and Luke. And when he adds that every man translated these Logia as best he could, this suggests that several Greek versions of them were current, which partly explains some of the differences in the sayings of Jesus common to the first and third Gospels; for in many places where the Greek of these Gospels differs, it can be shown that one and the same Aramaic original underlies the variant Greek renderings.
Another interesting fact which comes to light when we try to reconstruct the original Aramaic in which our Lord's sayings in all the Gospels were spoken is that very many of these sayings exhibit poetical features. Even in a translation we can see how full they are of parallelism, which is so constant a mark of Old Testament poetry. When they are turned into Aramaic, however, they are seen to be marked by regular poetical rhythm, and even, at times, rhyme. This has been demonstrated in particular by the late Professor C. F. Burney in The Poetry of our Lord (1925). A discourse that follows a recognisable pattern is more easily memorised, and if Jesus wished His teaching to be memorised His use of poetry is easily explained. Besides, Jesus was recognised by His contemporaries as a prophet, and prophets in Old Testament days were accustomed to utter their oracles in poetical form. Where this form has been preserved, we have a further assurance that His teaching has been handed down to us as it was originally given.
So, just as we have found reason to see the authority of contemporary evidence behind the gospel narrative as preserved by Mark, the sayings of our Lord appear to be supported by similar trustworthy authority. But, in addition to the discourses in Matthew which have some parallel in Luke, there are others occurring in the first Gospel only, which may conveniently be denoted by the letter 'M'. These 'M' sayings have been envisaged as coming from another collection of the sayings of Jesus, largely parallel to the collection represented by 'Q', but compiled and preserved in the conservative Jewish Christian community of Jerusalem, whereas the 'Q' material more probably served the requirements of the Hellenistic Christians who left Jerusalem after Stephen's death to spread the gospel and plant churches in the provinces adjoining Palestine, and notably in Syrian Antioch.
If we are right in naming the Matthaean Logia as the source from which the 'Q' material was drawn, this compilation must have taken shape at an early point in primitive Christian history. Certainly it would be most helpful for new converts, and especially Gentile converts, to have such a compendium of the teaching of Jesus. It may well have been in existence by AD 50. Some scholars have suggested that even Mark shows some traces of it in his Gospel, but this is uncertain. (Bruce, The New Testament Documents Are They Reliable?; source)
Hence, Qs existence only solidifies the validity and historicity of the Gospel traditions, since these traditions originate very early, from authentic eyewitness material.
Finally, an examination of the Q material reconstructed by NT scholars leaves us with a Jesus who is every bit identical to the Christ of faith. Qs material shows that the Jesus whom we find in the very earliest Christian strata is not the Jesus of Islam or of liberal theology, but the Christ worshiped by historic, conservative Christians.
In order to demonstrate this point the focus of our study will be to present some of the alleged Q material which scholars have extracted from Matthew and Luke to see what kind of Jesus we discover.
"John answered them all, I baptize you with water; but he who is mightier than I is coming, the thong of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie; he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. His winnowing fork is in his hand, to clear his threshing floor, and to gather the wheat into his granary, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire." Luke 3:16-17; cf. Matthew 3:11-12
John introduces Jesus as the One who is more powerful than he and whose sandals he wasnt worthy to untie. John was essentially saying that he wasnt worthy enough to even be Christs slave!
John tells the people that Christ baptizes, or immerses, with or in the Holy Spirit. According to the OT, Yahweh is the One who immerses people in the Spirit:
"For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your offspring, and my blessing on your descendants. Isaiah 44:3
"I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols I will cleanse you. And I will give you a new heart, and a new spirit I will put within you. And I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes and be careful to obey my rules." Ezekiel 36:25-27
And I will put my Spirit within you, and you shall live, and I will place you in your own land. Then you shall know that I am the LORD; I have spoken, and I will do it, declares the LORD." Ezekiel 37:14
"And I will not hide my face anymore from them, when I pour out my Spirit upon the house of Israel, declares the Lord GOD." Ezekiel 39:29
"You shall know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the LORD your God and there is none else. And my people shall never again be put to shame. And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, and your young men shall see visions." Joel 2:27-28
The Baptizer further says that Christ will baptize in fire and has a winnowing fork in his hand, which is a metaphor depicting Jesus as the eschatological judge who will save believers and condemn the wicked to a fiery judgment. This, too, is a function which the OT says Yahweh carries out:
"‘Who will have pity on you, O Jerusalem? Who will mourn for you? Who will stop to ask how you are? You have rejected me,’ declares the LORD. ‘You keep on backsliding. So I will lay hands on you and destroy you; I can no longer show compassion. I will winnow them with a winnowing fork at the city gates of the land. I will bring bereavement and destruction on my people, for they have not changed their ways.’" Jeremiah 15:5-7
Thus, Christ performs certain Divines acts, Divine functions, which the Hebrew Scriptures identify as functions carried out by God.
"And Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led by the Spirit in the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by the devil. And he ate nothing during those days. And when they were ended, he was hungry. The devil said to him, If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread. And Jesus answered him, It is written, "Man shall not live by bread alone." And the devil took him up and showed him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, and said to him, To you I will give all this authority and their glory, for it has been delivered to me, and I give it to whom I will. If you, then, will worship me, it will all be yours. And Jesus answered him, It is written, "You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve." And he took him to Jerusalem and set him on the pinnacle of the temple and said to him, If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down from here, for it is written, "He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you," and "On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone." And Jesus answered him, It is said, "You shall not put the Lord your God to the test." And when the devil had ended every temptation, he departed from him until an opportune time." Luke 4:1-13; cf. Matthew 4:1-11
Jesus is Gods Son who is empowered by the Spirit to face Satan in order to overcome him. Christs temptations and triumph are deliberate echoes of Israels forty-year sojourn in the desert where they were tested to see if they would overcome by obeying Gods commandments (cf. Deuteronomy 8:1-5). Jesus succeeded whereas Israel failed.
"Not everyone who says to me, Lord, Lord, will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. On that day many will say to me, Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, and cast out demons in your name, and do many mighty works in your name? And then will I declare to them, I never knew you; depart from me, you workers of lawlessness. Everyone then who hears these words of mine and does them will be like a wise man who built his house on the rock. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat on that house, but it did not fall, because it had been founded on the rock. And everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell, and great was the fall of it." Matthew 7:21-27; cf. Luke 6:46-49
Jesus is the Sovereign Lord whose words, when put in practice, keeps the believer secure from all trials and tribulations. He is also the Lord in whose name people prophesy, e.g. both true or false prophets will come prophesying in the name of the Lord Jesus, something which the OT states is to be done in the name of Yahweh:
"The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. You must listen to him. For this is what you asked of the LORD your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly when you said, Let us not hear the voice of the LORD our God nor see this great fire anymore, or we will die. The LORD said to me: What they say is good. I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him. If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks IN MY NAME, I myself will call him to account. But a prophet who presumes to speak IN MY NAME anything I have not commanded him to say, or a prophet who speaks in the name of other gods, must be put to death. You may say to yourselves, How can we know when a message has not been spoken by the LORD? If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the LORD does not take place or come true, that is a message the LORD has not spoken. That prophet has spoken presumptuously. Do not be afraid of him." Deuteronomy 18:15-22
"Do not listen to the words of the prophets who are saying to you, You shall not serve the king of Babylon, for it is a lie that they are prophesying to you. I have not sent them, declares the LORD, but they are prophesying falsely IN MY NAME, with the result that I will drive you out and you will perish, you and the prophets who are prophesying to you." Jeremiah 27:14-15
"For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Do not let your prophets and your diviners who are among you deceive you, and do not listen to the dreams that they dream, for it is a lie that they are prophesying to you IN MY NAME; I did not send them, declares the LORD." Jeremiah 29:8-9
"And if anyone again prophesies, his father and mother who bore him will say to him, You shall not live, for you speak lies IN THE NAME OF THE LORD. And his father and mother who bore him shall pierce him through when he prophesies." Zechariah 13:3
"The disciples of John reported all these things to him. And John, calling two of his disciples to him, sent them to the Lord, saying, Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another? And when the men had come to him, they said, John the Baptist has sent us to you, saying, "Are you the one who is to come, or shall we look for another?" In that hour he healed many people of diseases and plagues and evil spirits, and on many who were blind he bestowed sight. And he answered them, Go and tell John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, the poor have good news preached to them. And blessed is the one who is not offended by me. When John's messengers had gone, Jesus began to speak to the crowds concerning John: What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? What then did you go out to see? A man dressed in soft clothing? Behold, those who are dressed in splendid clothing and live in luxury are in kings courts. What then did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written, "Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you." I tell you, among those born of women none is greater than John. Yet the one who is least in the kingdom of God is greater than he." Luke 7:18-28; cf. Matthew 11:2-11
In the first Q quote above, John is said to have been sent as a forerunner to Christ, the one who was to prepare the way for Christs advent. Jesus confirms that John was the messenger sent ahead of him by citing Malachi 3:1. What makes this interesting is that the Malachi passage refers to a messenger being sent to prepare for the appearance of the Lord of the temple, the One whom the people were seeking:
"Behold, I send my messenger and he will prepare the way before me. And the Lord (ha Adon) whom you seek will suddenly come to HIS temple; and the messenger of the covenant in whom you delight, behold, he is coming, says the LORD of hosts." Malachi 3:1
According to Jesus that messenger was John, which means that John was to prepare the way for the appearance of the Lord God. And yet John came to prepare the way for the Lord Jesus, indicating that Jesus is actually the very Lord God who was to come to his temple! In order to bring out this point more clearly we will break it down step by step:
This point is actually strengthened by what Jesus also said. Notice that Christ appeals to the miracles as the divine verification of his person and mission, and yet the miracles he lists are all signs which the OT states accompanies the appearance of God to the people:
"Strengthen the weak hands, and make firm the feeble knees. Say to those who have an anxious heart, Be strong; fear not! Behold, your God will come with vengeance, with the recompense of God. He will come and save you. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf unstopped; then shall the lame man leap like a deer, and the tongue of the mute sing for joy. For waters break forth in the wilderness, and streams in the desert;" Isaiah 35:3-6
"The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, because the LORD has anointed me to bring good news to the poor; he has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound; to proclaim the year of the LORD's favor, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mourn;" Isaiah 61:1-2
Jesus is the Spirit-anointed preacher who ushers in the all-powerful presence of God!
"In that same hour he rejoiced in the Holy Spirit and said, I thank you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding and revealed them to little children; yes, Father, for such was your gracious will. All things have been handed over to me by my Father, and no one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the Son and anyone to whom the Son chooses to reveal him. Then turning to the disciples he said privately, Blessed are the eyes that see what you see! For I tell you that many prophets and kings desired to see what you see, and did not see it, and to hear what you hear, and did not hear it." Luke 10:21-24; cf. Matthew 11:25-27, 13:16-17
Jesus is Gods Son to whom all things have been committed, the One who knows God in the same intimate way that God knows him, having the sovereign freedom and right to reveal God to whom he wishes.
"Then a demon-oppressed man who was blind and mute was brought to him, and he healed him, so that the man spoke and saw. And all the people were amazed, and said, Can this be the Son of David? But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, It is only by Beelzebul, the prince of demons, that this man casts out demons. Knowing their thoughts, he said to them, Every kingdom divided against itself is laid waste, and no city or house divided against itself will stand. And if Satan casts out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then will his kingdom stand? And if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges. But if it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you. Or how can someone enter a strong man's house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man? Then indeed he may plunder his house. Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gather with me scatters." Matthew 12:22-30- cf. Luke 11:14-23
Christ is the Spirit-empowered King who ushers in the kingdom of God by destroying the kingdom and works of Satan.
"Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me, and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. And whoever does not take his cross and follow me is not worthy of me. Whoever finds his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find it." Matthew 10:37-39- cf. Luke 14:26-27, 17:33
The Lord Jesus demands unconditional love, commanding all who choose to follow him to love him more than anything and anyone, even more than their own lives. Jesus expressly informs his disciples that they must be willing to suffer and die for him.
Christ is basically demanding the same kind of love which God commands for himself:
"Teacher, which is the great commandment in the Law? And he said to him, You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind. This is the great and first commandment. And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself. On these two commandments depend all the Law and the Prophets." Matthew 23:36-40
"And they will say to you, "Look, there!" or "Look, here!" Do not go out or follow them. For as the lightning flashes and lights up the sky from one side to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day. But first he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation. Just as it was in the days of Noah, so will it be in the days of the Son of Man. They were eating and drinking and marrying and being given in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all. Likewise, just as it was in the days of Lot--they were eating and drinking, buying and selling, planting and building, but on the day when Lot went out from Sodom, fire and sulfur rained from heaven and destroyed them all-- so will it be on the day when the Son of Man is revealed. On that day, let the one who is on the housetop, with his goods in the house, not come down to take them away, and likewise let the one who is in the field not turn back. Remember Lot's wife. Whoever seeks to preserve his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life will keep it. I tell you, in that night there will be two in one bed. One will be taken and the other left. There will be two women grinding together. One will be taken and the other left. And they said to him, Where, Lord? He said to them, Where the corpse is, there the vultures will gather." Luke 17:23-37; cf. Matthew 24:26, 37-41
"But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what part of the night the thief was coming, he would have stayed awake and would not have let his house be broken into. Therefore you also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect. Who then is the faithful and wise servant, whom his master has set over his household, to give them their food at the proper time? Blessed is that servant whom his master will find so doing when he comes. Truly, I say to you, he will set him over all his possessions. But if that wicked servant says to himself, My master is delayed, and begins to beat his fellow servants and eats and drinks with drunkards, the master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he does not know and will cut him in pieces and put him with the hypocrites. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth." Matthew 24:43-51; cf. Luke 12:39-40, 42-46
Christ is the Son of Man, the One who holds sovereign authority over all creation, the very One whom the prophet Daniel saw being worshiped by all nations:
"I kept looking in the night visions, And behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming, And He came up to the Ancient of Days And was presented before Him. And to Him was given dominion, Glory and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations and men of every language Might serve Him His dominion is an everlasting dominion Which will not pass away; And His kingdom is one Which will not be destroyed." Daniel 7:13-14
By identifying himself as the Son of Man Jesus was essentially claiming to be the Sovereign Lord and universal Judge of all mankind, the One whom all must serve and worship!
"Therefore I send you prophets and wise men and scribes, some of whom you will kill and crucify, and some you will flog in your synagogues and persecute from town to town, Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the city that kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to it! How often would I have gathered your children together as a hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not! See, your house is left to you desolate. For I tell you, you will not see me again, until you say, Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord." Matthew 23:34, 37-39; cf. Luke 11:49, 13:34-35
Jesus does what God alone can do, namely send prophets to gather his people Israel:
"The LORD, the God of their fathers, sent word to them again and again by His messengers, because He had compassion on His people and on His dwelling place; but they continually mocked the messengers of God, despised His words and scoffed at His prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, until there was no remedy." 2 Chronicles 36:15-16
"How precious is Your lovingkindness, O God! And the children of men take refuge in the shadow of Your wings." Psalm 36:7
"He will cover you with His pinions, And under His wings you may seek refuge; His faithfulness is a shield and bulwark." Psalm 91:4
"Since the day that your fathers came out of the land of Egypt until this day, I have sent you all My servants the prophets, daily rising early and sending them." Jeremiah 7:25
"From the thirteenth year of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah, even to this day, these twenty-three years the word of the LORD has come to me, and I have spoken to you again and again, but you have not listened. And the LORD has sent to you all His servants the prophets again and again, but you have not listened nor inclined your ear to hear," Jeremiah 25:3-4
Our brief look at some of the so-called Q material found in Matthew and Luke conclusively shows that even the earliest strata of Christian tradition does not leave us with a mere human Jesus. The earliest data does not allow for a human Jesus to emerge, One who was merely a prophet of God. The oldest Christian tradition presents a Jesus who is the divine, unique Son of God, the Sovereign Lord of all creation, the Son of Man whom all must and shall serve, the universal Judge of all.
Thus, Muslims who think that Q will somehow prove their point regarding who Jesus was, or that the NT accounts are undermined because of the Q source, need to seriously reconsider their approach. The Muslims must contend with the fact that no matter what strand they look to, no matter what sources they consult, they will not find the Jesus of Islam. All the evidence conclusively shows that the Jesus of history is the very Christ worshiped by all true Christians, the divine and risen Son of God and the eternal Lord of glory.
Articles by Sam Shamoun
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