Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

Jesus Christ – The Eternal Word Become Flesh

Sam Shamoun

John’s Gospel contains a prologue (1:1-18) which portrays Jesus as the eternal Word (Gr. Logos) who became a flesh and blood human being. Since there are many anti-Trinitarian groups who seek to deny that John intended to reveal Christ as the preexistent Logos, arguing that the Logos is God’s plan which became realized in the Person of Christ, we have decided to create a chart showing that everything which the Evangelist writes concerning the Word is later applied to the historical Jesus. This will show that Christ is in fact the personal Logos of the Father or, to put it another way, the eternal Logos is a divine Person who entered into creation in order to become Jesus of Nazareth.


“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God (pros ton theon)… He was in the beginning with God (pros ton theon).”




"No one has ascended into heaven, but He who descended from heaven: the Son of Man... He who comes from above is above all, he who is of the earth is from the earth and speaks of the earth. He who comes from heaven is above all." John 3:13, 31

“‘For I have come down from heaven, not to do My own will but the will of Him Who sent Me. And this is the will of Him Who sent Me, that I should lose nothing of all that He has given Me, but raise it up on the last day. For this is the will of My Father, that everyone who looks on the Son and believes in Him should have eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day.’ So the Jews grumbled about Him, because He said, ‘I am the bread that came down from heaven.’ They said, ‘Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, Whose father and mother we know? How does He now say, “I have come down from heaven”?’… ‘I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. And the bread that I will give for the life of the world is My flesh… Then what if you were to see the Son of Man ascending TO WHERE HE WAS BEFORE?’” John 6:38-42, 51, 62

“Then Jesus cried out in the temple, teaching and saying, ‘You both know Me and know where I am from; and I have not come of Myself, but He Who sent Me is true, Whom you do not know. I know Him, because I am from Him, and He sent Me.’” John 7:28-29

“So the Pharisees said to him, ‘You are bearing witness about Yourself; Your testimony is not true.’ Jesus answered, ‘Even if I do bear witness about Myself, My testimony is true, for I know where I came forth from and where I am going, but you do not know where I come forth from or where I am going.’… He said to them, ‘You are from below; I am from above. You are of this world; I am not of this world.’… Jesus said to them, ‘If God were your Father, you would love Me, for I proceeded forth from God and I am here. I came not of My own accord, but He sent Me.” John 8:13-14, 23, 42

“Now before the Feast of the Passover, Jesus knowing that His hour had come that He would depart out of this world to the Father (pros ton patera)... Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into His hands, and that He had come from God and was going back to God (pros ton theon),” John 13:1a, 3

“'But now I am going to Him Who sent Me (pros ton pempsanta me); and none of you asks Me, "Where are You going?"... and concerning righteousness, because I go to the Father (pros ton patera) and you no longer Me'... Some of His disciples then said to one another, 'What is this thing He is telling us, "A little while, and you will not see Me; a again a little while, and you will see Me"; and, "because I go to the Father (pros ton patera)"?'... 'I have said these things to you in figures of speech. The hour is coming when I will no longer speak to you in figures of speech but will tell you plainly about the Father. In that day you will ask in My name, and I do not say to you that I will ask the Father on your behalf; for the Father Himself loves you, because you have loved Me and have believed that I came forth from God. I came forth from the Father and have come INTO THE WORLD, and now I am leaving the world and going to the Father (pros ton patera).’ His disciples said, ‘Ah, now You are speaking plainly and not using figurative speech! Now we know that You know all things and do not need anyone to question You; this is why we believe that You came from God.’ Jesus answered them, ‘Do you now believe?’” John 16:5, 25-31

“And now, Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory that I had with you before the world existed… For I have given them the words that You gave Me, and they have received them and have come to know in truth that I came forth from You; and they have believed that You sent MeBut now I am coming to you, and these things I speak in the world, that they may have my joy fulfilled in themselves… that they may all be one, just as You, Father, are in me, and I in You, that they also may be in Us, so that the world may believe that You have sent Me. The glory that You have given Me I have given to them, that they may be one even as we are one, I in them and You in Me, that they may become perfectly one, so that the world may know that You sent Me and loved them even as You loved Me. Father, I desire that they also, whom You have given Me, may be with Me where I am, to see My glory that You have given Me because You loved Me before the foundation of the world. O righteous Father, even though the world does not know You, I know You, and these know that You have sent Me.” John 17:5, 8, 13, 21-25




“and the Word was God.”



“And this was why the Jews were persecuting Jesus, because he was doing these things on the Sabbath. But Jesus answered them, ‘My Father is working until now, and I am working.’ This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.” John 5:16-18

“‘I and the Father are one.’ The Jews picked up stones again to stone him. Jesus answered them, ‘I have shown you many good works from the Father; for which of them are you going to stone me?’ The Jews answered him, ‘It is not for a good work that we are going to stone you but for blasphemy, because you, being a man, make yourself God.’” John 10:30-33

“Thomas answered and said to Him, ‘My Lord and my God!’ Jesus said to him, ‘Have you believed because you have seen Me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.’” John 20:28-29



“In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men.”




“For as the Father raises the dead and gives them life, so also the Son gives life to whom He will… Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever hears My word and believes Him Who sent Me has eternal life. He does not come into judgment, but has passed from death to life. Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear THE VOICE OF THE SON OF GOD, and those who hear will live. For as the Father has life in Himself, so he has granted the Son also to have LIFE IN HIMSELF. And he has given Him authority to execute judgment, because He is the Son of Man. Do not marvel at this, for an hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear HIS [the Son’s] VOICE and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil to the resurrection of judgment.” John 5:21, 24-29

“Then Jesus again spoke to them, saying, ‘I am the Light of the world; he who follows Me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the Light of life.’” John 8:12

“My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me. I give them eternal life, and they will never perish, and no one will snatch them out of My hand. My Father, Who has given them to Me, is greater than all, and no one is able to snatch them out of the Father's hand. ” John 10:27-29

“Jesus said to her, ‘Your brother will rise again.’ Martha said to Him, ‘I know that he will rise again in the resurrection on the last day.’ Jesus said to her, ‘I am the Resurrection and the Life. Whoever believes in Me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?’ She said to Him, ‘Yes, Lord; I believe that You are the Christ, the Son of God, Who is COMING INTO THE WORLD.’” John 11:23-27

“When Jesus had spoken these words, He lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, ‘Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son that the Son may glorify You, since You have given Him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom You have given Him.’” John 17:1-2



The Light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it. There came a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, TO TESTIFY ABOUT THE LIGHT, so that all might believe through him. He was not the Light, but he came to testify about the Light. There was the true Light which, COMING INTO THE WORLD, enlightens every man. He was IN THE WORLD, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him… And the Word became flesh, and DWELT (eskenosen) among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten (monogenous) from the Father, full of grace and truth. John testified about Him and cried out, saying, ‘This was He of whom I said, “He who comes after me has a higher rank than I, for He existed before me.”’”

The verb eskenosen literally means “pitched his tent/tabernacled,” and highlights the fact that the physical flesh body which the Word took on became the tabernacle or temple of God to dwell in, much like the OT tent/tabernacle/temple was the dwelling place of God (cf. 1 Kings 8:12-13; 2 Chronicles 6:1-2).




“John answered them saying, ‘I baptize in water, but among you stands One whom you do not know. It is He who comes after me, the thong of whose sandal I am not worthy to untie.’ These things took place in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! This is He on behalf of whom I said, “After me comes a Man who has a higher rank than I, for He existed before me.” I did not recognize Him, but so that He might be manifested to Israel, I came baptizing in water.’ John TESTIFIED saying, ‘I have seen the Spirit descending as a dove out of heaven, and He remained upon Him. I did not recognize Him, but He who sent me to baptize in water said to me, “He upon whom you see the Spirit descending and remaining upon Him, this is the One who baptizes in the Holy Spirit.” I myself have seen, and have TESTIFIED that this is the Son of God.’” John 1:26-34

“Jesus answered them, ‘Destroy THIS TEMPLE, and in three days I will raise it up.’ The Jews then said, ‘It took forty-six years to build this temple, and will You raise it up in three days?’ But He was speaking of THE TEMPLE OF HIS BODY. So when He was raised from the dead, His disciples remembered that He said this; and they believed the Scripture and the word which Jesus had spoken.” John 2:19-22

“‘For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son (ton hyion ton monogene), that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son INTO THE WORLD to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him. He who believes in Him is not judged; he who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God (tou monogenous hyiou tou theou). This is the judgment, THAT LIGHT HAS COME INTO THE WORLD, and men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for their deeds were evil. For everyone who does evil hates the Light, and does not come to the Light for fear that his deeds will be exposed. But he who practices the truth comes to the Light, so that his deeds may be manifested as having been wrought in God.’ After these things Jesus and His disciples came into the land of Judea, and there He was spending time with them and baptizing. John also was baptizing in Aenon near Salim, because there was much water there; and people were coming and were being baptized—for John had not yet been thrown into prison. Therefore there arose a discussion on the part of John’s disciples with a Jew about purification. And they came to John and said to him, ‘Rabbi, He who was with you beyond the Jordan, to whom you have TESTIFIED, behold, He is baptizing and all are coming to Him.’ John answered and said, ‘A man can receive nothing unless it has been given him from heaven. You yourselves are my witnesses that I said, “I am not the Christ,’ but, ‘I have been sent ahead of Him.” He who has the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and hears him, rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom’s voice. So this joy of mine has been made full. He must increase, but I must decrease.’” John 3:16-30

"While I am IN THE WORLD, I am the Light of the world." John 9:5

"So Jesus said to them, 'For a little while longer the Light is among you. Walk while you have the Light, so that darkness will not overtake you; he who walks in the darkness does not know where he goes. While you have the Light, believe in the Light, so that you may become sons of the Light.' These things Jesus spoke, and He went away and hid Himself from them... I HAVE COME AS LIGHT IN THE WORLD, so that everyone who believes in Me will not remain in darkness." John 12:35-36, 46



“He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him. But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.”



“Truly, truly, I say to you, We speak of what We know, and bear witness to what We have seen, but you do not receive Our testimony. ” John 3:11

“He bears witness to what He has seen and heard, yet no one receives His testimony.” John 3:32

“I have come in My Father's name, and you do not receive Me. If another comes in his own name, you will receive him.” John 5:43

“Though He had done so many signs before them, they still did not believe in Him,” John 12:37

"... having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end." John 13:1b

“Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book; but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in His name.” John 20:30-31



“For of His fullness we have all received, and grace upon grace. For the Law was given through Moses; grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ.”




“Whoever receives His testimony sets his seal to this, that God is true.” John 3:33

“He who speaks from himself seeks his own glory; but He who is seeking the glory of the One who sent Him, He is true, and there is no unrighteousness in Him.” John 7:18

“Jesus said to him, ‘I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.’” John 14:6

Then Pilate said to him, ‘So you are a king?’ Jesus answered, ‘You say that I am a king. For this purpose I was born and for this purpose I have come into the world—to bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth listens to my voice.’” John 18:37




“No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God (monogenes theos) who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him.”

“In the bosom of the Father” is an idiom which John uses to highlight the intimate, personal fellowship the Son enjoys with the Father. Being the eternal object of the Father’s infinite and unconditional love, the Son knows the Father perfectly and is therefore the only One (along with the Holy Spirit) qualified to make him known to others.  


The Father loves the Son and has given all things into his hand.” John 3:35

For the Father loves the Son and shows him all that he himself is doing. And greater works than these will he show him, so that you may marvel. ” John 5:20

“No one can come to Me unless the Father Who sent Me draws him. And I will raise him up on the last day. It is written in the Prophets, “And they will all be taught by God.” Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to Me—not that anyone has seen the Father except He Who is from God; He has seen the Father.” John 6:44-46

“I am the good shepherd, and I know My own and My own know Me, even as the Father knows Me and I know the Father; and I lay down My life for the sheep.” John 10:14-15

"If I do not do the works of My Father, do not believe Me; but if I do them, though you do not believe Me, believe the works, so that you may know and understand that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father." John 10:37-38

“And Jesus cried out and said, ‘Whoever believes in Me, believes not in Me but in Him Who sent Me. And whoever sees Me sees Him Who sent Me.” John 12:44-45

“‘If you had known Me, you would have known my Father also. From now on you do know Him and have seen Him.’ Philip said to him, ‘Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.’ Jesus said to him, ‘Have I been with you so long, and you still do not know Me, Philip? Whoever has seen Me has seen the Father. How can you say, “Show us the Father”? Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on My own authority, but the Father who dwells in Me does his works. Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father is in Me, or else believe on account of the works themselves.’” John 14:7-11

As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you. Abide in My love. If you keep My commandments, you will abide in My love, just as have kept My Father's commandments and abide in His love.” John 15:9-10 – cf. 17:24

“No longer do I call you servants, for the servant does not know what his master is doing; but I have called you friends, for all that I have heard from My Father I have made known to you. ” John 15:15

I have manifested Your name to the people whom You gave Me out of the world. Yours they were, and You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word… I made known to them Your name, and I will continue to make it known, that the love with which You have loved Me may be in them, and I in them.” John 17:6, 26