Answering Islam - A Christian-Muslim dialog

Exposing Islam’s Unholy Alliance

More Groans for Greenhorn

Sam Shamoun

It is now time to give greenhorn a taste of his own medicine by showing him what happens when we take his very criticisms and twisted interpretations of the Holy Bible and apply them to his own religious sources.

The Quran states in many passages that Allah is the sovereign king or ruler of the universe and that the kingdom or dominion belongs entirely to him:

Knowest thou not that to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and that you have none, apart from God, neither protector nor helper? S. 2:107

To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and of the earth; and Allah is powerful over everything. S. 3:189; cf. 5:17-18; 9:116

Allah’s throne represents his power, authority, dominion, sovereignty etc., over all creation. The throne is the place or position from which Allah governs and sustains the entire created realm:

Allah! There is god but He, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His throne (kursiyyuhu) extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. S. 2:255

Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne, regulating and governing all things. There is no intercessor except after His leave. This is Allah your Lord; Him therefore serve ye: will ye not receive admonition? S. 10:3

The Quran and the Islamic traditions also make it quite clear that Allah is the possessor or lord of the throne and that he does not allow anyone to share in his dominion over the heavens and the earth since he is the sole ruler and sustainer of creation:

And say: 'Praise belongs to Allah, who has not taken to Him a son, and who has not any associate in the Kingdom, nor any protector out of humbleness.' And magnify Him with all the magnificence. S. 17:111

Blessed be He who has sent down the Salvation upon His servant, that he may be a warner to all beings; to whom belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth; and He has not taken to Him a son, and He has no associate in the Kingdom; and He created every thing, then He ordained it very exactly. S. 25:2

Exalter of ranks is He, Possessor of the Throne, casting the Spirit of His bidding upon whomever He will of His servants, that he may warn them of the Day of Encounter, the day they sally forth, and naught of theirs is hidden from Allah. Whose is the Kingdom today? ‘Allah's, the One, the Omnipotent. Today each soul shall be recompensed for that it has earned; no wrong today. Surely Allah is swift at the reckoning.’ S. 40:15-17

Possessor of the Glorious throne. S. 85:15

Narrated Ibn Abbas: Allah's Apostle used to say at the time of difficulty, "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Majestic, the Most Forbearing. None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Lord of the Tremendous throne. None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, the Lord of the Heavens and the Lord of the Honourable throne. (See Hadith No. 357, Vol. 8) (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 93, Number 526)

These are just some of the many passages and statements which led Muslim scholars to formulate the concept known as tauhid al-rububiyah, e.g. Allah is the only sovereign lord and sustainer of all creation. The way one ends up violating this teaching is by claiming that there is someone besides Allah who is a co-occupant of Allah’s throne, and therefore shares in Allah’s exclusive rulership and sovereignty. Such a belief would be classified as shirk, which is the unpardonable sin according to the Quran:

Shirk in Rububiyah

This category of shirk refers to either the belief that others share Allah’s Lordship over creation as His equal or NEAR equal, or to the belief that there exists no Lord over creation at all. Most religious systems fall into the first aspect of Shirk in Rububiyah while it is the philosophers and their man-made philosophies that tend to fill the second aspect…

Christian belief states that the one God reveals himself in three persons of Father, Son (Jesus Christ) and Holy Spirit. These three persons are nevertheless regarded as a unity, sharing one ‘substance’. Prophet Jesus is elevated to divinity, sits on the right hand of God and judges the world. The Holy Spirit, who in the Hebrew Bible is the means by which God exercises His creative power, in Christian thought becomes a part of the Godhead. Paul made the Holy Spirit the alter ego of Christ, the guide and help of Christians, first manifesting itself on the day of Pentecost. Consequently, Shirk in Rububiyah occurs in the Christian belief that Jesus and the Holy Spirit are God’s partners IN ALL OF HIS DOMINION, in their belief that Jesus alone pronounces judgment on the world, and in their belief that Christians are helped and guided by the Holy Spirit. (Philips, The Fundamentals of Tawheed, Chapter Two. The Categories of Shirk, Shirk in al-Asma’ was-Sifat, 1. Shirk by association, pp. 45, 46; capital and underline emphasis ours)

Finally, the Muslim scripture asserts that Allah’s throne is located upon water:

And He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was upon the water - that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct… S. 11:7

The allegedly sound reports also testify that Allah’s throne is situated upon the water:

Narrated Imran bin Husain:
I went to the Prophet and tied my she-camel at the gate. The people of Bani Tamim came to the Prophet who said "O Bani Tamim! Accept the good tidings." They said twice, 'You have given us the good tidings, now give us something" Then some Yemenites came to him and he said, "Accept the good tidings, O people of Yemen, for Bani Tamim refused them." They said, "We accept it, O Allah's Apostle! We have come to ask you about this matter (i.e. the start of creations)." He said, "First of all, there was nothing but Allah, and (then He created His Throne). His throne was over the water, and He wrote everything in the Book (in the Heaven) and created the Heavens and the Earth." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 54, Number 414)


Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle said, "Allah said, 'Spend (O man), and I shall spend on you." He also said, "Allah's Hand is full, and (its fullness) is not affected by the continuous spending night and day." He also said, "Do you see what He has spent since He created the Heavens and the Earth? Nevertheless, what is in His Hand is not decreased, and His Throne was over the water; and in His Hand there is the balance (of justice) whereby He raises and lowers (people)." (Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 206)

The readers will see why this is significant a little later in the article.

Angels are beings created to serve, not to rule

Such statements indicate that Allah will never allow anyone, not even angels, to share his rule or sit on his throne ruling over his creatures.

In fact, the Quran emphatically teaches that angels do not sit on thrones, but actually stand and/or bow before Allah’s throne, praying for the believers and praising Allah:

the thunder proclaims. His praise, and the angels, in awe of Him. He looses the thunderbolts, and smites with them whomsoever He will; yet they dispute about Allah, who is mighty in power. S. 13:13

And to Allah prostate all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, of the live moving creatures and the angels, and they are not proud. S. 16:49 Hilali-Khan

And thou shalt see the angels encircling about the Throne proclaiming the praise of their Lord; and justly the issue shall be decided between them; and it shall be said, 'Praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of all Being.' S. 39:75

Nearly the heavens might rent asunder from above them, and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth, verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. S. 42:5

The Muslim sources also claim that at the last day angels will be standing in ranks besides Allah’s throne, with the exception of eight angels who shall actually be carrying it above them:

Then on that Day shall the Event befall, And the heaven will split asunder, for that Day it will be frail, and torn up, And the angels will be on its sides, and eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them. That Day shall you be brought to judgment; not a secret of yours will be hidden. S. 69:15-18

Upon the day when the Spirit and THE ANGELS STAND in ranks they shall speak not, save him to whom the All-merciful has given leave, and who speaks aright. S. 78:38

No indeed! When the earth is ground to powder, and thy Lord comes, and the angels rank on rank, and Gehenna is brought out, upon that day man will remember; and how shall the Reminder be for him? S. 89:21-23

‘Abdullah. Ibn 'Abbas reported: A person from the Ansar who was amongst the Companions of Allah's Messenger reported to me: As we were sitting during the night with Allah's Messenger, a meteor shot gave a dazzling light. Allah's Messenger said: What did you say in the pre-Islamic days when there was such a shot (of meteor)? They said: Allah and His Messenger know best (the actual position), but we, however, used to say that that very night a great man had been born and a great man had died, whereupon Allah's Messenger said: (These meteors) are shot neither at the death of anyone nor on the birth of anyone. Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, issues Command when He decides to do a thing. Then (the Angels) supporting the throne sing His glory, then sing the dwellers of heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in the heaven of this world. Then those who are near the supporters of the throne ask these supporters of the throne: What your Lord has said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. Then the dwellers of heaven seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. In this process of transmission (the jinn snatches) what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. And when the Angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. If they narrate only which they manage to snatch that is correct but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it. (Sahih Muslim, Book 026, Number 5538)

Narrated Anas ibn Malik: The Prophet said: If anyone says in the morning or in the evening: "O Allah! in the morning we call Thee, the bearers of Thy throne, Thy angels and all Thy creatures to witness that thou art Allah (God) than Whom alone there is no god, and that Muhammad is Thy Servant and Apostle," Allah will emancipate his fourth from Hell; if anyone says twice, Allah will emancipate his half; if anyone says it thrice, Allah will emancipate three-fourth; and if he says four times, Allah will emancipate him from Hell. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Book 41, Number 5051)

This is to be expected since angels are supposed to be servants that are sent on assignments in order to accomplish specific tasks. This is why they are portrayed as descending from and ascending to Allah:

He sends down the angels with the Spirit of His command upon whomsoever He will among His servants, saying: Give you warning that there is no God hut I; so fear you Me! S. 16:2

And (remember) the Day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down, with a grand descending. S. 25:25

Those who have said, 'Our Lord is God.' then have gone straight, upon them the angels descend, saying, 'Fear not, neither sorrow; rejoice in Paradise that you were promised. S. 41:30

The angels and the spirit ascend unto him in a Day the measure whereof is (as) fifty thousand years: S. 70:4

The Night of Power is better than a thousand months; in it the angels and the Spirit descend, by the leave of their Lord, upon every command. S. 97:3-4

Gabriel on the throne

Here is where the problems begin for greenhorn. There are specific reports which indicate that there is at least one particular angel who shares in Allah’s unique and exclusive rule. According to certain traditions, Muhammad claimed to have seen an angel seated on a throne:

Ibn al-Muthanna – ‘Uthman b. ‘Umar b. Faris – ‘Ali b. al-Mubarak – Yahya, that is, Ibn Abi Kathir: I asked Abu Salamah which part of the Qur’an had been revealed first, and he replied:

“O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn!”

I said, “They say that it was

Recite in the name of your Lord”,

but Abu Salamah replied, “I asked Jabir b. ‘Abdallah which part of the Qur’an had been revealed first, and he said, ‘O you enveloped in your cloak.’” I said, “What about ‘Recite in the name of your Lord?’” but he answered, “What I am telling you is what the Prophet told me. He said, ‘I was in retreat on Hira’, and when I had completed my retreat I came down the mountain and went into the bottom of the wadi. Then I heard a voice calling me; I looked right and left, behind me and in front of me, but could not see anything. Then I looked up, and there he was SITTING ON A THRONE between heaven and earth, and I was afraid of him (fa-khashitu minhu).’” Ibn al-Muthanna: These were Uthman b. ‘Umar’s words, but the correct version is “I was terror-stricken by him” (fa-ju’ithu minhu). “‘Then I went to Khadijah and said, “Envelop me!” So they enveloped me in a cloak and poured water over me, and then “O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn!” was revealed to me.’” (The History of al-Tabari, Volume VI, pp. 73-74; bold and capital emphasis ours)


The Prophet used to relate this story as follows: “I was walking one day when I saw the angel who used to come to me on Hira’ on a throne between heaven and earth. I was terror-stricken by him, and I went to Khadijah and said, ‘Wrap me up! ’” So we wrapped him up (zammalnahu), that is, enveloped him in a cloak (daththarnahu), and God revealed: O you enveloped in your cloak, arise and warn! Your Lord magnify, your raiment purify! (Ibid., p. 76; bold emphasis ours)

This same report is found in Sahih Muslim, which is considered by Sunni Muslims to be the second most authentic ahadith collection after Sahih al-Bukhari:

Jabir b. 'Abdullah al-Ansari who was one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah reported: The Messenger of Allah told about the intermission of revelation and narrated: While I was walking I heard a voice from the sky, and raising my head I saw the angel who had come to me in Hira', sitting on a Throne between heaven and earth. I was terror-stricken on that account and came back (to my family) and said: Wrap me up, wrap me up! So they wrapped me up, and the Blessed and Most Exalted Allah sent down: "You who are shrouded, arise and deliver warning, your Lord magnify, your clothes cleanse, and defilement shun," and, "defilement" means idols; and then the revelation was followed continuously. (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0304)

Yahya reported: I asked Abu Salama what was revealed first from the Qur'an. He said: “O, the shrouded one.” I said: Or “Recite.” Jabir said: I am narrating to you what was narrated to us by the Messenger of Allah. He said: I stayed in Hira' for one month and when my stay was completed, I come down and went into the heart of the valley. Somebody called me aloud. I looked in front of me, behind me, on the right of my side and on my left, but I did not see any body. I was again called and I looked about but saw nothing. I was called again and raised my head, and there on the Throne in the open atmosphere he, i.e. Gabriel was sitting. I began to tremble on account of fear. I came to Khadija and said: Wrap me up. They wrapped me up and threw water on me and Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, sent down this: you who are shrouded! Arise and deliver warning, your Lord magnify, your clothes cleanse.” Book 001, Number 0307)

Yahya b. Abi Kathir has reported this hadith with the same chain of transmitters and narrated: And there he was sitting on the Throne between the heaven and the earth. (Sahih Muslim, Book 001, Number 0308)

That’s not at all. Ibn Kathir reports that the sahih or sound hadiths state that Muhammad actually knelt down to this angel that he saw seated on a throne!

In both sahih collections there is a tradition from ‘Abd al-Razzaq, from Ma‘mar, from al-Zuhri, who said that he heard Abu Salama ‘Abd al-Rahman relate from Jabir b. ‘Abd Allah, who had heard the Messenger of God talking about the intermission in the revelation, say, ‘While I walked, I heard a voice from heaven. I raised my sight towards the sky and there I saw the angel who came to me in Hira’, seated upon a throne amidst the sky. I knelt down before him in fear, right down to the ground…’

“… The Messenger of God said, ‘I spent a month in seclusion in Hira‘ and when it was over I went down into the heart of the valley. I heard a voice calling out to me and I looked ahead, behind me and to left and right, but I saw nothing. Then I looked up at the sky and there he was, on a throne in the air…’

“According to a variant account he used the words, ‘And there was the angel who had come to me in Hira‘ seated on a throne between the heavens and the earth, AND I KNELT DOWN BEFORE HIM.’” (Ibn Kathir, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya), translated by professor Trevor Le Gassick, reviewed by Dr. Ahmed Fareed [Garnet Publishing Limited, 8 Southern Court, south Street Reading RG1 4QS, UK; The Center for Muslim Contribution to Civilization: First paperback edition, 2000], Volume I, pp. 299-300; bold and capital emphasis ours)

Greenhorn is now faced with a major problem. By claiming to have seen an angel seated on a throne in heaven, Muhammad attributed a partner with Allah in his unique rule and dominion over all creation, since the throne clearly represents power and dominion.

Even more problematic for greenhorn is the fact that, by kneeling down before the angel, Muhammad was guilty of committing shirk in tauhid al-uluhiyyah/ibadah. His false prophet sinned against his own god by bowing down to and worshiping someone other than Allah, and therefore stands condemned by his very own teachings.

Muhammad on the throne

There is still more to the story. Muhammad taught his followers that Allah would grant him the honor of standing at the right side of the throne:

Abu Huraira reported the Prophet as saying, “I shall be clothed with one of the robes of paradise and shall then stand at the right of the Throne, a place where no other creature than I shall stand.” Tirmidhi transmitted it. The version on his authority in Jami‘ al-usul has “I shall be the first from whom the earth will be cleft open and I shall be clothed…” (Mishkat Al Masabih, English Translation With Explanatory Notes By Dr. James Robson [Sh. Muhammad Ashraf Publishers, Booksellers & Exporters, Lahore, Pakistan, Reprinted 1994], Volume II, Book XXVI – Fitan, Chapter XVIII. The Excellent Qualities of him who is pre-eminent among the Messengers, pp. 1236; bold emphasis ours)

Muhammad didn’t stop there. According to some of the Muslim commentators, the following verse,

And as for the night, keep vigil a part of it, as a work of supererogation for thee; it MAY BE that thy Lord will raise thee up to a laudable station. S. 17:79

Actually refers to the last day when Allah will allow Muhammad to sit on his very own throne!

For instance, the renowned Muslim historian and commentator al-Tabari wrote that:

“Even though the traditions we have mentioned on the authority of the Prophet and his Companions and the Followers indicate the correct interpretation of maqaman mahmudan in Qur. 17:79 (as referring to Muhammad’s role as intercessor on the Day of Resurrection), Mujahid’s statement that God will seat Muhammad on His Throne remains one whose soundness CANNOT BE REJECTED either on the basis of traditions (khabar) or on the basis of speculation (nazar). This is so because there is no tradition from the Messenger of God or anyone of his Companions or the Followers that declares it to be impossible… From what we have said, it has become clear that, it is not impossible for an adherent of Islam to say what Mujahid had said, namely, that God will seat Muhammad on His Throne. If someone says: We do not disapprove of God’s seating Muhammad on His Throne (in view of the following tradition transmitted by) ‘Abbas b. ‘Abd al-‘Azim – Yahya b. Kathir – al-Jurayri – Sayf al-Sadusi – ‘Abdallah b. Salam: ‘On the Day of Resurrection, Muhammad will be on the Lord’s footstool (kursi),’ but we disapprove of God’s seating him together with Him, it should be said: Is it then permissible in your opinion that He seat him on it but not together with him? If he permits this, he is led to affirming that either he is together with Him, or God seats him (on the Throne) while being Himself either separate from it or neither contiguous with nor separate from it. Whatever alternative he chooses, he thereby enters into something that he disapproves. If he says that it is not permissible, he deviates from the statements of all the groups we have reported. This means diverging from the views of all adherents of Islam, since there is no other possible statement than those three, according to each of which Mujahid’s statement in this sense is not impossible.” (The History of Al-Tabari – General Introduction and From Creation to the Flood, translated by Franz Rosenthal [State University of New York Press (SUNY), Albany 1989], Volume I, Appendix A. A Partial Translation of Tafsir on Qur. 17:79 (Above, pp. 75 f.), pp. 149. 151; bold and capital emphasis ours)

See also al-Tabari’s explanation of Q. 17:79.

Al-Qurtubi, who is also viewed as an outstanding Muslim exegete, also commented on this same narration in his al-Jami‘ li Ahkam al-Qur’an:

The third explanation of this verse is what al-Tabari reported from a party of scholars – among them Mujahid – whereby “the Exalted Station is the seating by Allah of the Prophet with Him on His Throne (kursiyyih).” They narrated a hadith to that effect, and al-Tabari backed up the possibility (jawâz) of such a thing with some extravagant statements (shatatin min al-qawl). However, what he said cannot be inferred [from the verse] except with over-subtlety as to meaning (al-talattuf bi al-ma‘nâ), and it is far-fetched (fîhi bu‘d). This is not to say that there is no such narration; only that [one endowed with] knowledge interprets it figuratively (al-‘ilmu yata’awwaluhu)… On that basis it is the same, with respect to possibility, whether Allah seats the Prophet on the Throne or on the ground. For His elevation over the Throne is not in the sense of displacement (intiqâl), removal (zawâl), nor change of position from standing to sitting, nor any state or condition to which the Throne itself is subject. Rather, He is elevated over the Throne in the way He has stated concerning Himself, without saying how. Nor does His seating of the Prophet on the Throne impose upon the Prophet (s) the attribute of Lordship [sic] or move him out of that of servanthood [sic]. Rather, it consists in an elevation because of his status, and an honor bestowed upon him because of his sublime character. (Bold emphasis ours)

Another Muslim authority named Ibn Batta, in his book al-Sharh wa al-Ibana ‘ala Usul al-Sunna wa al-Diyana (“Elaboration of the Principles of Sunni Doctrine”), p. 61, stated that:

The Prophet shall be seated on the Throne with his Lord (yujlas ma‘a rabbihi ‘alâ al-‘arsh), and this privilege belongs to no one else. Thus did Nafi‘ narrate it from Ibn ‘Umar from the Prophet concerning the verse: “It may be that thy Lord will raise you to an Exalted Station” – he said that He shall seat him with Him on the Throne. Thus also did Mujahid explain it, as narrated by Muhammad ibn Fudayl, from al-Layth, from Mujahid. (Bold emphasis ours)

There are other traditions which teach that Muhammad will actually be given a throne right next to his god’s!

We are told in a long hadith, which is narrated by ‘Abd Allah ibn Salam, that on the Day of Judgment, “A seat (kursi) will be placed for the Prophet on the right of Allah.” Al-Hakim narrated it in his Mustadrak (4:568-569) and declared its chain sound (sahih), as confirmed by al-Dhahabi.

Muhammad’s blasphemies are far from over. Muhammad had the audacity to teach his followers that Allah inscribed Muhammad’s name on one of the throne’s legs or pillars!

Al-Bayhaqi cited the following hadith in his book "Dala'il an-Nubuwwah" (Signs of Prophethood): Narrated 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab: the Prophet said: "When Adam committed the sin, he said to Allah, 'O My Lord, I ask You with reference to Muhammad to forgive me'. Allah said: 'O Adam! How did you know about Muhammad, for I have not yet created him?' Adam replied, 'O My Lord, when You created me, I looked up and saw inscribed on the legs of the Throne the words: There is no God worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger. I knew that you do not attach to Your name but the name of the dearest of Your Creation.' Allah said to Adam, 'You have spoken rightly, Adam. Muhammad is the dearest of My Creation. I have forgiven you because you asked by Muhammad. AND HAD IT NOT BEEN FOR HIM, I WOULD NOT HAVE CREATED YOU.'" This hadith was narrated by al-Hakim who also classified it AS SAHIH (AUTHENTIC). Among the transmitters of this hadith is 'Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam. Al-Haythami said: "This hadith was reported by at-Dabarani and in its chain of transmitters are people I do not know. Al-Hakim was therefore mistaken in classifying this hadith as sahih because he himself criticised 'Abd ar-Rahman Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam in his book ad-Du'afa, so how can he state the authenticity of the hadith after he had criticised him?!!” (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Part 1, Surah Al-Fatiah Surah Al-Baqarah, ayat 1 to 141, Abridged by Sheikh Nasib Ar-Rafa'i [Al-Firdous Ltd., London: Second Edition 1998], p. 107, fn 10; bold and capital emphasis ours)


Abu Muhammad al-Makki, Abu'l-Layth as-Samarqandi and others related that when Adam rebelled, he said, “O Allah, forgive me my error BY THE RIGHT OF MUHAMMAD!” Allah said to him, “How do you know Muhammad?” He said, “I saw written in every place in the Garden, ‘There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ So I knew that he was the most honoured creation in Your eyes.” SO ALLAH TURNED TO HIM AND FORGAVE HIM. It is said that this is the interpretation of the words of Allah, “Adam learned some words from his Lord.” (2:37)

Another variant has that Adam said, “When you created me, I lifted my gaze to Your Throne AND WRITTEN ON IT WAS: ‘There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,’ so I knew there would be no one held in greater esteem by You THAN THE ONE WHOSE NAME YOU PLACED ALONGSIDE YOUR OWN NAME.” Allah then revealed to him, “By My might and majesty, he is the last of the prophets among your descendants. IF IT HAD NOT BEEN FOR HIM, I WOULD HAVE NOT CREATED YOU.” It is said that Adam was given the kunya, Abu Muhammad. Some people say that it was Abu'l-Bashar (the father of mankind). (Qadi 'Iyad Musa al-Yahsubi, Muhammad Messenger of Allah (Ash-Shifa of Qadi 'Iyad), translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley [Madinah Press, Inverness, Scotland, U.K. 1991; third reprint, paperback], Chapter Three: On the Sound And Well-Known Traditions Related About the Immense Value Placed On Him By His Lord, His Exalted Position And His Nobility In This World And The Next, Section 1: His place, p. 89; capital emphasis ours)

So not only is Muhammad a co-occupant of Allah’s throne, he even has his very own name written on the throne itself!

Satan on the throne

Just when you think that Muhammad’s blasphemies couldn’t get any worse, greenhorn’s prophet goes ahead and outdoes himself in insulting God.

Not only did Muhammad think that Allah’s throne was situated on water, he also believed that Satan himself has a throne which is located on the water as well!

Jabir reported: I heard Allah's Messenger as saying: The throne of Iblis is upon the ocean and he sends detachments (to different parts) in order to put people to trial and the most important figure in his eyes is one who is most notorious in sowing the seed of dissension. (Sahih Muslim, Book 039, Number 6754)


Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger said: Iblis places his throne upon water; he then sends detachments (for creating dissension); the nearer to him in tank are those who are most notorious in creating dissension. One of them comes and says: I did so and so. And he says: You have done nothing. Then one amongst them comes and says: I did not spare so and so until I sowed the seed of discord between a husband and a wife. The Satan goes near him and says: You have done well. A'mash said: He then embraces him. (Sahih Muslim, Book 039, Number 6755)


Abu Sa'id reported that Allah's Messenger met him (Ibn Sayyad) and so did Abu Bakr and 'Umar on some of the roads of Medina. Allah's Messenger said: Do you bear testimony to the fact that I am the Messenger of Allah? Thereupon he said: Do you bear testimony to the fact that I am the messenger of Allah? Thereupon Allah's Messenger said: I affirm my faith in Allah and in His Angels and in His Books, and what do you see? He said: I see the throne over water. Whereupon Allah's Messenger said: You see the throne of Iblis upon the water, and what else do you see? He said: I see two truthfuls and a liar or two liars and one truthful. Thereupon Allah's Messenger said: Leave him He has been confounded. (Sahih Muslim, Book 041, Number 6992)

With the foregoing in view, greenhorn has some explaining to do. Since Muhammad taught that both Allah and Satan have thrones which are located on water, does this mean that Satan is a co-occupant of Allah’s throne, e.g. Satan and Allah share the same throne? In fact, can greenhorn cite an allegedly sound narration stating that there are other individuals besides Allah and Satan that have a throne situated upon the water?

Or should we assume that Muhammad thought that Satan expelled Allah from his throne upon the water and took control over creation?

Or, even worse, should we view this as further confirmation that the Allah of Islam is actually the Devil masquerading as god?

This last option seems to be the case, especially when we consider the fact that the Quran boasts that Allah is the greatest deceiver/schemer/trickster/conniver/cheater of them all and claims that no one perverts/misguides/corrupts people better than Muhammad’s god. Such qualities do not fit the infinite majesty and holiness of God, but they do perfectly describe Satan.

Concluding Remarks

To summarize our discussion, we saw that according to some of the Islamic sources, Allah is not the sole occupant of the throne, and therefore is not the only sovereign lord of creation. Muhammad taught that the angel Gabriel sits on an exalted throne, and that he himself would be given the privilege of sitting alongside Allah on the Day of Judgment. Muhammad even had the audacity to proclaim that Allah inscribed his name and Muhammad’s on the throne itself. Even worse, Muhammad further taught that Satan’s throne, like Allah’s, is situated upon water.

Since the throne represents Allah’s power, authority, sovereignty, dominion etc., especially over the heavens and the earth, this means that greenhorn’s god is not the only lord in town. According to greenhorn’s own prophet, Allah actually has at least three partners who share in his dominion over all things. Thus, greenhorn’s god is actually a quadrinity, an unholy alliance or association consisting of Allah, Muhammad, Gabriel and Satan!

Or, if we assume that Allah and Satan are one and the same person, then this would leave greenhorn with a perverted and wicked threesome within the Islamic godhead, a sort of satanic counterfeit of the Holy Trinity.

Now greenhorn can continue to believe and embrace this unholy foursome (or triad) all he wants. In fact, we expect him to do everything he can to refute the clear evidence which we have presented in order to explain away Muhammad’s blasphemies and irrational teachings. We really won’t be surprised if greenhorn tries to attack the reliability of our sources so as to convince himself, as well as others, that it is perfectly okay to continue believing in a false prophet and deceptive god.

Yet as for those of us who have been given eyes to see and ears to hear by the sovereign grace of our risen Lord and majestic Savior Jesus Christ, we shall always love and worship the infinitely holy, just, pure, glorious, loving, and compassionate Triune God revealed in the Holy Bible.

There is a saying, “people who live in glass houses shouldn’t be throwing stones.” Greenhorn’s Islamic glasshouse has come crashing down upon his head, with no one capable of fixing it.

Further Reading

Quran Difficulty: Is Allah the only sovereign or isn’t he?
Muhammad on the Divine Throne: Bassam Zawadi’s other Lord and God
The Angel Gabriel – Allah’s Other Divine Partner
Satan: A Co-Occupier of Allah’s Throne or Allah in Disguise?
Allah – The Greatest Deceiver of them All
Allah as a Deceiver: Examining Satan’s Accusations Against the Integrity of Allah
Qur'an Contradiction: Does Allah Command Evil and Abomination or Doesn’t He?
Quran Inconsistency: Does Allah permit lust or not?
Does Yahweh Really Deceive?